Home / BCRC Content / 10940 / 

Return

  Research Article

The information shown in this page was generated using the cross-referenced linkage within public domain database between their strains and BCRC related strains. Usually the information provided from public domain databases varies with diffent confidences and errors, BCRC provides the related information here at best effort, but BCRC doesn't take the responsibility about the correctness of the information provided here.

1. Pastar  I, Tonic  I, Golic  N, Kojic  M, van Kranenburg  R, Kleerebezem  M, Topisirovic  L, Jovanovic  G,     ( 2003 )

Identification and genetic characterization of a novel proteinase, PrtR, from the human isolate Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10.

Applied and environmental microbiology 69 (10)
PMID : 14532028  :   DOI  :   10.1128/aem.69.10.5802-5811.2003     PMC  :   PMC201213    
Abstract >>
A novel proteinase, PrtR, produced by the human vaginal isolate Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain BGT10 was identified and genetically characterized. The prtR gene and flanking regions were cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of PrtR shares characteristics that are common for other cell envelope proteinases (CEPs) characterized to date, but in contrast to the other cell surface subtilisin-like serine proteinases, it has a smaller and somewhat different B domain and lacks the helix domain, and the anchor domain has a rare sorting signal sequence. Furthermore, PrtR lacks the insert domain, which otherwise is situated inside the catalytic serine protease domain of all CEPs, and has a different cell wall spacer (W) domain similar to that of the cell surface antigen I and II polypeptides expressed by oral and vaginal streptococci. Moreover, the PrtR W domain exhibits significant sequence homology to the consensus sequence that has been shown to be the hallmark of human intestinal mucin protein. According to its alpha(S1)- and beta-casein cleavage efficacy, PrtR is an efficient proteinase at pH 6.5 and is distributed throughout all L. rhamnosus strains tested. Proteinase extracts of the BGT10 strain obtained with Ca(2+)-free buffer at pH 6.5 were proteolytically active. The prtR promoter-like sequence was determined, and the minimal promoter region was defined by use of prtR-gusA operon fusions. The prtR expression is Casitone dependent, emphasizing that nitrogen depletion elevates its transcription. This is in correlation with the catalytic activity of the PrtR proteinase.
KeywordMeSH Terms
2. Provencher  C, LaPointe  G, Sirois  S, Van Calsteren  MR, Roy  D,     ( 2003 )

Consensus-degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primers for amplification of priming glycosyltransferase genes of the exopolysaccharide locus in strains of the Lactobacillus casei group.

Applied and environmental microbiology 69 (6)
PMID : 12788729  :   DOI  :   10.1128/aem.69.6.3299-3307.2003     PMC  :   PMC161484    
Abstract >>
A primer design strategy named CODEHOP (consensus-degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primer) for amplification of distantly related sequences was used to detect the priming glycosyltransferase (GT) gene in strains of the Lactobacillus casei group. Each hybrid primer consisted of a short 3' degenerate core based on four highly conserved amino acids and a longer 5' consensus clamp region based on six sequences of the priming GT gene products from exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing bacteria. The hybrid primers were used to detect the priming GT gene of 44 commercial isolates and reference strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. casei, Lactobacillus zeae, and Streptococcus thermophilus. The priming GT gene was detected in the genome of both non-EPS-producing (EPS(-)) and EPS-producing (EPS(+)) strains of L. rhamnosus. The sequences of the cloned PCR products were similar to those of the priming GT gene of various gram-negative and gram-positive EPS(+) bacteria. Specific primers designed from the L. rhamnosus RW-9595M GT gene were used to sequence the end of the priming GT gene in selected EPS(+) strains of L. rhamnosus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Lactobacillus spp. form a distinctive group apart from other lactic acid bacteria for which GT genes have been characterized to date. Moreover, the sequences show a divergence existing among strains of L. rhamnosus with respect to the terminal region of the priming GT gene. Thus, the PCR approach with consensus-degenerate hybrid primers designed with CODEHOP is a practical approach for the detection of similar genes containing conserved motifs in different bacterial genomes.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Amino Acid Sequence
Consensus Sequence
3. Heaton  MP, Neuhaus  FC,     ( 1992 )

Biosynthesis of D-alanyl-lipoteichoic acid: cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the Lactobacillus casei gene for the D-alanine-activating enzyme.

Journal of bacteriology 174 (14)
PMID : 1385594  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.174.14.4707-4717.1992     PMC  :   PMC206267    
Abstract >>
The D-alanine-activating enzyme (Dae; EC 6.3.2.4) encoded by the dae gene from Lactobacillus casei ATCC 7469 is a cytosolic protein essential for the formation of the D-alanyl esters of membrane-bound lipoteichoic acid. The gene has been cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli, an organism which does not possess Dae activity. The open reading frame is 1,518 nucleotides and codes for a protein of 55.867 kDa, a value in agreement with the 56 kDa obtained by electrophoresis. A putative promoter and ribosome-binding site immediately precede the dae gene. A second open reading frame contiguous with the dae gene has also been partially sequenced. The organization of these genetic elements suggests that more than one enzyme necessary for the biosynthesis of D-alanyl-lipoteichoic acid may be present in this operon. Analysis of the amino acid sequence deduced from the dae gene identified three regions with significant homology to proteins in the following groups of ATP-utilizing enzymes: (i) the acid-thiol ligases, (ii) the activating enzymes for the biosynthesis of enterobactin, and (iii) the synthetases for tyrocidine, gramicidin S, and penicillin. From these comparisons, a common motif (GXXGXPK) has been identified that is conserved in the 19 protein domains analyzed. This motif may represent the phosphate-binding loop of an ATP-binding site for this class of enzymes. A DNA fragment (1,568 nucleotides) containing the dae gene and its putative ribosome-binding site has been subcloned and expressed in E. coli. Approximately 0.5% of the total cell protein is active Dae, whereas 21% is in the form of inclusion bodies. The isolation of this minimal fragment without a native promoter sequence provides the basis for designing a genetic system for modulating the D-alanine ester content of lipoteichoic acid.
KeywordMeSH Terms
4. Nakayama  J, Akkermans  AD, De Vos  WM,     ( 2003 )

High-throughput PCR screening of genes for three-component regulatory system putatively involved in quorum sensing from low-G + C gram-positive bacteria.

Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry 67 (3)
PMID : 12723594  :   DOI  :   10.1271/bbb.67.480    
Abstract >>
Quorum sensing of gram-positive bacteria is often regulated by three-component regulatory system composed of autoinducing peptide, sensor kinase and response regulator. We used PCR to study a gene cassette encoding this three-component regulatory system. Degenerate primers were designed from consensus amino acid sequences in the HPK10 subfamily, mostly involved in quorum sensing. Products amplified from genomic DNA of Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, and Clostridium species were cloned and sequenced; their deduced amino acid sequences were similar to those of members of the HPK10 subfamily. Complete genes for the putative gene cassette were cloned by inverse PCR from L. paracasei E93490 and L. plantarum WCFS6. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the cloned putative HPKs into the HPK10 subfamily. These results indicated the usefulness of this high-throughput gene screening and suggested that the three-component regulatory gene cassette are widely present.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
5. Chavagnat  F, Haueter  M, Jimeno  J, Casey  MG,     ( 2002 )

Comparison of partial tuf gene sequences for the identification of lactobacilli.

FEMS microbiology letters 217 (2)
PMID : 12480101  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1574-6968.2002.tb11472.x    
Abstract >>
Comparative analysis of partial tuf sequences was evaluated for the identification and differentiation of lactobacilli. Comparison of the amino acid sequences allowed differentiation between species and also between the subspecies of Lactobacillus delbrueckii. The nucleotide sequence comparison allowed differentiation between other subspecies and between some strains. Lactobacilli from several collections and isolates from dairy samples were clearly identified by comparison of short tuf sequences with those of the type strains. In evaluating the taxonomy of the Lactobacillus casei-related taxa, different tuf amino acid signatures are in favour of a classification into three distinct species. The type strain designation for the L. casei species is discussed.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
Genes, Bacterial
6. Felis  GE, Dellaglio  F, Mizzi  L, Torriani  S,     ( 2001 )

Comparative sequence analysis of a recA gene fragment brings new evidence for a change in the taxonomy of the Lactobacillus casei group.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 51 (Pt 6)
PMID : 11760954  :   DOI  :   10.1099/00207713-51-6-2113    
Abstract >>
The taxonomic positions of species of the Lactobacillus casei group have been evaluated by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of a 277 bp recA gene fragment. High sequence similarity between strain ATCC 393T, currently designated as the type strain of L. casei, and the type strain of Lactobacillus zeae, LMG 17315T, has been established, while L. casei ATCC 334 and Lactobacillus paracasei NCDO 151T form a single phylogenetic group. The taxonomic status of species and strains at issue is discussed.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Sequence Analysis, DNA
7. Volkman  BF, Zhang  Q, Debabov  DV, Rivera  E, Kresheck  GC, Neuhaus  FC,     ( 2001 )

Biosynthesis of D-alanyl-lipoteichoic acid: the tertiary structure of apo-D-alanyl carrier protein.

Biochemistry 40 (27)
PMID : 11434765  :  
Abstract >>
The D-alanylation of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) allows the Gram-positive organism to modulate its surface charge, regulate ligand binding, and control the electromechanical properties of the cell wall. The incorporation of D-alanine into LTA requires the D-alanine:D-alanyl carrier protein ligase (AMP-forming) (Dcl) and the carrier protein (Dcp). The high-resolution solution structure of the 81-residue (8.9 kDa) Dcp has been determined by multidimensional heteronuclear NMR. An ensemble of 30 structures was calculated using the torsion angle dynamics approach of DYANA. These calculations utilized 3288 NOEs containing 1582 unique nontrivial NOE distance constraints. Superposition of residues 4-81 on the mean structure yields average atomic rmsd values of 0.43 +/- 0.08 and 0.86 +/- 0.09 A for backbone and non-hydrogen atoms, respectively. The solution structure is composed of three alpha-helices in a bundle with additional short 3(10)- and alpha-helices in intervening loops. Comparisons of the three-dimensional structure with the acyl carrier proteins involved in fatty acid, polyketide, and nonribosomal peptide syntheses support the conclusion that Dcp is a homologue in this family. While there is conservation of the three-helix bundle fold, Dcp has a higher enthalpy of unfolding and no apparent divalent metal binding site(s), features that distinguish it from the fatty acid synthase acyl carrier protein of Escherichia coli. This three-dimensional structure also provides insights into the D-alanine ligation site recognized by Dcl, as well as the site which may bind the poly(glycerophosphate) acceptor moiety of membrane-associated LTA.
KeywordMeSH Terms
8. Kiriukhin  MY, Neuhaus  FC,     ( 2001 )

D-alanylation of lipoteichoic acid: role of the D-alanyl carrier protein in acylation.

Journal of bacteriology 183 (6)
PMID : 11222605  :   DOI  :   10.1128/JB.183.6.2051-2058.2001     PMC  :   PMC95102    
Abstract >>
The D-alanylation of membrane-associated lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in gram-positive organisms requires the D-alanine-D-alanyl carrier protein ligase (AMP) (Dcl) and the D-alanyl carrier protein (Dcp). The dlt operon encoding these proteins (dltA and dltC) also includes dltB and dltD. dltB encodes a putative transport system, while dltD encodes a protein which facilitates the binding of Dcp and Dcl for ligation with D-alanine and has thioesterase activity for mischarged D-alanyl-acyl carrier proteins (ACPs). In previous results it was shown that D-alanyl-Dcp donates its ester residue to membrane-associated LTA (M. P. Heaton and F. C. Neuhaus, J. Bacteriol. 176: 681-690, 1994). However, all efforts to identify an enzyme which catalyzes this D-alanylation process were unsuccessful. It was discovered that incubation of D-alanyl-Dcp in the presence of LTA resulted in the time-dependent hydrolysis of this D-alanyl thioester. D-Alanyl-ACP in the presence of LTA was not hydrolyzed. When Dcp was incubated with membrane-associated D-alanyl LTA, a time and concentration-dependent formation of D-alanyl-Dcp was found. The addition of NaCl to this reaction inhibited the formation of D-alanyl-Dcp and stimulated the hydrolysis of D-alanyl-Dcp. Since these reactions are specific for the carrier protein (Dcp), it is suggested that Dcp has a unique binding site which interacts with the poly(Gro-P) moiety of LTA. It is this specific interaction that provides the functional specificity for the D-alanylation process. The reversibility of this process provides a mechanism for the transacylation of the D-alanyl ester residues between LTA and wall teichoic acid.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
9. Kiriukhin  MY, Debabov  DV,     ( 2000 )

Biosynthesis of lipoteichoic acid in Lactobacillus rhamnosus: role of DltD in D-alanylation.

Journal of bacteriology 182 (10)
PMID : 10781555  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.182.10.2855-2864.2000     PMC  :   PMC101995    
Abstract >>
The dlt operon (dltA to dltD) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus 7469 encodes four proteins responsible for the esterification of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) by D-alanine. These esters play an important role in controlling the net anionic charge of the poly (GroP) moiety of LTA. dltA and dltC encode the D-alanine-D-alanyl carrier protein ligase (Dcl) and D-alanyl carrier protein (Dcp), respectively. Whereas the functions of DltA and DltC are defined, the functions of DltB and DltD are unknown. To define the role of DltD, the gene was cloned and sequenced and a mutant was constructed by insertional mutagenesis of dltD from Lactobacillus casei 102S. Permeabilized cells of a dltD::erm mutant lacked the ability to incorporate D-alanine into LTA. This defect was complemented by the expression of DltD from pNZ123/dlt. In in vitro assays, DltD bound Dcp for ligation with D-alanine by Dcl in the presence of ATP. In contrast, the homologue of Dcp, the Escherichia coli acyl carrier protein (ACP), involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, was not bound to DltD and thus was not ligated with D-alanine. DltD also catalyzed the hydrolysis of the mischarged D-alanyl-ACP. The hydrophobic N-terminal sequence of DltD was required for anchoring the protein in the membrane. It is hypothesized that this membrane-associated DltD facilitates the binding of Dcp and Dcl for ligation of Dcp with D-alanine and that the resulting D-alanyl-Dcp is translocated to the primary site of D-alanylation.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
10. Dutertre  M, Grimaldi  C,     ( 2000 )

Genetic organization and polymorphism of the guaA gene encoding the GMP synthetase in Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

Current microbiology 40 (4)
PMID : 10688693  :  
Abstract >>
The guaA gene encoding GMP synthetase was cloned from a potential probiotic strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus. DNA sequence and Northern blot analysis indicated that (i) guaA did not belong to an guaAB operonic structure, conversely to enteric bacteria, (ii) L. rhamnosus guaA seemed to be highly expressed, and (iii) genetic regulation might differ from Bacillus subtilis. Moreover, differences in the genetic organization of guaA allowed discrimination of some closely related L. rhamnosus strains, with a rapid screening by PCR.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
11. Savijoki  K, Avall  S, Varmanen  P,     ( 2000 )

X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase gene (pepX) is part of the glnRA operon in Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

Journal of bacteriology 182 (1)
PMID : 10613874  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.182.1.146-154.2000     PMC  :   PMC94251    
Abstract >>
A peptidase gene expressing X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (PepX) activity was cloned from Lactobacillus rhamnosus 1/6 by using the chromogenic substrate L-glycyl-L-prolyl-beta-naphthylamide for screening of a genomic library in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequence of a 3.5-kb HindIII fragment expressing the peptidase activity revealed one complete open reading frame (ORF) of 2,391 nucleotides. The 797-amino-acid protein encoded by this ORF was shown to be 40, 39, and 36% identical with PepXs from Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Lactococcus lactis, respectively. By Northern analysis with a pepX-specific probe, transcripts of 4.5 and 7.0 kb were detected, indicating that pepX is part of a polycistronic operon in L. rhamnosus. Cloning and sequencing of the upstream region of pepX revealed the presence of two ORFs of 360 and 1,338 bp that were shown to be able to encode proteins with high homology to GlnR and GlnA proteins, respectively. By multiple primer extension analyses, the only functional promoter in the pepX region was located 25 nucleotides upstream of glnR. Northern analysis with glnA- and pepX-specific probes indicated that transcription from glnR promoter results in a 2.0-kb dicistronic glnR-glnA transcript and also in a longer read-through polycistronic transcript of 7.0 kb that was detected with both probes in samples from cells in exponential growth phase. The glnA gene was disrupted by a single-crossover recombinant event using a nonreplicative plasmid carrying an internal part of glnA. In the disruption mutant, glnRA-specific transcription was derepressed 10-fold compared to the wild type, but the 7.0-kb transcript was no longer detectable with either the glnA- or pepX-specific probe, demonstrating that pepX is indeed part of glnRA operon in L. rhamnosus. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis further supported this operon structure. An extended stem-loop structure was identified immediately upstream of pepX in the glnA-pepX intergenic region, a sequence that showed homology to a 23S-5S intergenic spacer and to several other L. rhamnosus-related entries in data banks.
KeywordMeSH Terms
DNA-Binding Proteins
12. Lebeer  S, Verhoeven  TL, Perea Vélez  M, Vanderleyden  J, De Keersmaecker  SC,     ( 2007 )

Impact of environmental and genetic factors on biofilm formation by the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

Applied and environmental microbiology 73 (21)
PMID : 17827316  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.01393-07     PMC  :   PMC2074970    
Abstract >>
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) is one of the clinically best-studied probiotic organisms. Moreover, L. rhamnosus GG displays very good in vitro adherence to epithelial cells and mucus. Here, we report that L. rhamnosus GG is able to form biofilms on abiotic surfaces, in contrast to other strains of the Lactobacillus casei group tested under the same conditions. Microtiter plate biofilm assays indicated that in vitro biofilm formation by L. rhamnosus GG is strongly modulated by culture medium factors and conditions related to the gastrointestinal environment, including low pH; high osmolarity; and the presence of bile, mucins, and nondigestible polysaccharides. Additionally, phenotypic analysis of mutants affected in exopolysaccharides (wzb), lipoteichoic acid (dltD), and central metabolism (luxS) showed their relative importance in biofilm formation by L. rhamnosus GG.
KeywordMeSH Terms
13. Ruas-Madiedo  P, Moreno  JA, Salazar  N, Delgado  S, Mayo  B, Margolles  A, de Los Reyes-Gavilán  CG,     ( 2007 )

Screening of exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains isolated from the human intestinal microbiota.

Applied and environmental microbiology 73 (13)
PMID : 17483284  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.02470-06     PMC  :   PMC1932768    
Abstract >>
Using phenotypic approaches, we have detected that 17% of human intestinal Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains could be exopolysaccharide (EPS) producers. However, PCR techniques showed that only 7% harbored genes related to the synthesis of heteropolysaccharides. This is the first work to screen the human intestinal ecosystem for the detection of EPS-producing strains.
KeywordMeSH Terms
14. Diancourt  L, Passet  V, Chervaux  C, Garault  P, Smokvina  T, Brisse  S,     ( 2007 )

Multilocus sequence typing of Lactobacillus casei reveals a clonal population structure with low levels of homologous recombination.

Applied and environmental microbiology 73 (20)
PMID : 17704267  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.01095-07     PMC  :   PMC2075077    
Abstract >>
Robust genotyping methods for Lactobacillus casei are needed for strain tracking and collection management, as well as for population biology research. A collection of 52 strains initially labeled L. casei or Lactobacillus paracasei was first subjected to rplB gene sequencing together with reference strains of Lactobacillus zeae, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and other species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all 52 strains belonged to a single compact L. casei-L. paracasei sequence cluster, together with strain CIP107868 (= ATCC 334) but clearly distinct from L. rhamnosus and from a cluster with L. zeae and CIP103137(T) (= ATCC 393(T)). The strains were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism, multilocus sequence typing based on internal portions of the seven housekeeping genes fusA, ileS, lepA, leuS, pyrG, recA, and recG, and tandem repeat variation (multilocus variable-number tandem repeats analysis [MLVA] using nine loci). Very high concordance was found between the three methods. Although amounts of nucleotide variation were low for the seven genes (pi ranging from 0.0038 to 0.0109), 3 to 12 alleles were distinguished, resulting in 31 sequence types. One sequence type (ST1) was frequent (17 strains), but most others were represented by a single strain. Attempts to subtype ST1 strains by MLVA, ribotyping, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat characterization, and single nucleotide repeat variation were unsuccessful. We found clear evidence for homologous recombination during the diversification of L. casei clones, including a putative intragenic import of DNA into one strain. Nucleotides were estimated to change four times more frequently by recombination than by mutation. However, statistical congruence between individual gene trees was retained, indicating that recombination is not frequent enough to disrupt the phylogenetic signal. The developed multilocus sequence typing scheme should be useful for future studies of L. casei strain diversity and evolution.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Recombination, Genetic
Sequence Analysis, DNA
15. Perea Vélez  M, Verhoeven  TL, Draing  C, Von Aulock  S, Pfitzenmaier  M, Geyer  A, Lambrichts  I, Grangette  C, Pot  B, Vanderleyden  J, De Keersmaecker  SC,     ( 2007 )

Functional analysis of D-alanylation of lipoteichoic acid in the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

Applied and environmental microbiology 73 (11)
PMID : 17434999  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.02083-06     PMC  :   PMC1932685    
Abstract >>
Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a macroamphiphile molecule which performs several functions in gram-positive bacteria, such as maintenance of cell wall homeostasis. D-alanylation of LTA requires the proteins encoded by the dlt operon, and this process is directly related to the charge properties of this polymer strongly contributing to its function. The insertional inactivation of dltD of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) resulted in the complete absence of D-alanyl esters in the LTA as confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. This was reflected in modifications of the bacterial cell surface properties. The dltD strain showed 2.4-fold-increased cell length, a low survival capacity in response to gastric juice challenge, an increased sensitivity to human beta-defensin-2, an increased rate of autolysis, an increased capacity to initiate growth in the presence of an anionic detergent, and a decreased capacity to initiate growth in the presence of cationic peptides compared to wild-type results. However, in vitro experiments revealed no major differences for adhesion to human intestinal epithelial cells, biofilm formation, and immunomodulation. These properties are considered to be important for probiotics. The role of the dlt operon in lactobacilli is discussed in view of these results.
KeywordMeSH Terms
16. Povelainen  M, Miasnikov  AN,     ( 2007 )

Production of xylitol by metabolically engineered strains of Bacillus subtilis.

Journal of biotechnology 128 (1)
PMID : 17079043  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.jbiotec.2006.09.008    
Abstract >>
Xylitol-phosphate dehydrogenase (XPDH) genes from several Gram-positive bacteria were isolated and expressed in Bacillus subtilis. The substrate specificities of the recombinant XPDH enzymes were compared and it was found that the XPDH enzymes of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Clostridium difficile had the highest selectivity towards D-xylulose 5-phosphate. Expression of these two XPDH enzymes in D-ribulose and D-xylulose producing B. subtilis strain resulted in strains of B. subtilis capable of converting D-glucose into xylitol at around 23% yield.
KeywordMeSH Terms
17. Lebeer  S, De Keersmaecker  SC, Verhoeven  TL, Fadda  AA, Marchal  K, Vanderleyden  J,     ( 2007 )

Functional analysis of luxS in the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reveals a central metabolic role important for growth and biofilm formation.

Journal of bacteriology 189 (3)
PMID : 17098890  :   DOI  :   10.1128/JB.01394-06     PMC  :   PMC1797292    
Abstract >>
Quorum sensing is involved in the regulation of multicellular behavior through communication via small molecules. Given the high number and diversity of the gastrointestinal microbiota, it is postulated that members of this community communicate to coordinate a variety of adaptive processes. AI-2 is suggested to be a universal bacterial signaling molecule synthesized by the LuxS enzyme, which forms an integral part of the activated methyl cycle. We have previously reported that the well-documented probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, a human isolate, produces AI-2-like molecules. In this study, we identified the luxS homologue of L. rhamnosus GG. luxS seems to be located in an operon with a yxjH gene encoding a putative cobalamin-independent methionine synthase. In silico analysis revealed a methionine-specific T box in the leader sequence of the putative yxjH-luxS operon. However, transcriptional analysis showed that luxS is expressed mainly as a monocistronic transcript. Construction of a luxS knockout mutant confirmed that the luxS gene is responsible for AI-2 production in L. rhamnosus GG. However, this mutation also resulted in pleiotropic effects on the growth of this fastidious strain. Cysteine, pantothenate, folic acid, and biotin could partially complement growth, suggesting a central metabolic role for luxS in L. rhamnosus GG. Interestingly, the luxS mutant also showed a defect in monospecies biofilm formation. Experiments with chemically synthesized (S)-4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione, coculture with the wild type, and nutritional complementation suggested that the main cause of this defect has a metabolic nature. Moreover, our data indicate that suppressor mutations are likely to occur in luxS mutants of L. rhamnosus GG. Therefore, results of luxS-related studies should be carefully interpreted.
KeywordMeSH Terms
18. Péant  B, LaPointe  G, Gilbert  C, Atlan  D, Ward  P, Roy  D,     ( 2005 )

Comparative analysis of the exopolysaccharide biosynthesis gene clusters from four strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

Microbiology (Reading, England) 151 (Pt 6)
PMID : 15941992  :   DOI  :   10.1099/mic.0.27852-0    
Abstract >>
The exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis gene clusters of four Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains consist of chromosomal DNA regions of 18.5 kb encoding 17 ORFs that are highly similar among the strains. However, under identical conditions, EPS production varies considerably among these strains, from 61 to 1611 mg l(-1). Fifteen genes are co-transcribed starting from the first promoter upstream of wzd. Nevertheless, five transcription start sites were identified by 5'-RACE PCR analysis, and these were associated with promoter sequences upstream of wzd, rmlA, welE, wzr and wzb. Six potential glycosyltransferase genes were identified that account for the assembly of the heptasaccharide repeat unit containing an unusually high proportion of rhamnose. Four genes involved in the biosynthesis of the sugar nucleotide precursor dTDP-L-rhamnose were identified in the EPS biosynthesis locus, which is unusual for lactic acid bacteria. These four genes are expressed from their own promoter (P2), as well as co-transcribed with the upstream EPS genes, resulting in coordinated production of the rhamnose precursor with the enzymes involved in EPS biosynthesis. This is believed to be the first report demonstrating that the sequence, original organization and transcription of genes encoding EPS production are highly similar among four strains of Lb. rhamnosus, and do not vary with the amount of EPS produced.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
19. Tsai  YK, Lin  TH,     ( 2006 )

Sequence, organization, transcription and regulation of lactose and galactose operons in Lactobacillus rhamnosus TCELL-1.

Journal of applied microbiology 100 (3)
PMID : 16478484  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1365-2672.2005.02790.x    
Abstract >>
Understanding the metabolism of lactose and galactose and their regulation in Lactobacillus rhamnosus. A gene cluster containing nine open reading frames (ORFs) involved in the metabolism of lactose and galactose in Lact. rhamnosus TCELL-1 was sequenced and characterized. The order of the ORFs was lacTEGF and galKETRM. Northern blotting experiments revealed that the gene cluster could be transcribed as one lacTEGF-galKETRM mRNA though three major transcripts (lacTEGF, galKETRM and galETRM) were detected for the gene cluster. The transcription of the lac or gal operon was independently induced in the presence of lactose or galactose. Northern blotting and primer extension experiments found the presence of four putative promoters upstream from the ORFs lacT (lacTp), galK (galKp1 and galKp2) and galE (galEp). The measurements of enzymatic activities of GalK, GalE and GalT suggested that the expression of the gal operon was subjected to a galactose activation and glucose repression mechanism. In Lact. rhamnosus TCELL-1, the galactose moiety of lactose could be metabolized by two alternative pathways (the Leloir and the tagatose 6-phosphate pathways) whereas galactose metabolism could be mediated by the Leloir pathway. This work provides important information about sugar metabolism in Lact. rhamnosus.
KeywordMeSH Terms
20. Suokko  A, Savijoki  K, Malinen  E, Palva  A, Varmanen  P,     ( 2005 )

Characterization of a mobile clpL gene from Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

Applied and environmental microbiology 71 (4)
PMID : 15812039  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.71.4.2061-2069.2005     PMC  :   PMC1082546    
Abstract >>
Two genes encoding ClpL ATPase proteins were identified in a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain, E-97800. Sequence analyses revealed that the genes, designated clpL1 and clpL2, share 80% identity. The clpL2 gene showed the highest degree of identity (98.5%) to a clpL gene from Lactobacillus plantarum WCFSI, while it was not detected in three other L. rhamnosus strains studied. According to Northern analyses, the expression of clpL1 and the clpL2 were induced during heat shock by > 20- and 3-fold, respectively. The functional promoter regions were determined by primer extension analyses, and the clpL1 promoter was found to be overlapped by an inverted repeat structure identical to the conserved CIRCE element, indicating that clpL1 belongs to the HrcA regulon in L. rhamnosus. No consensus binding sites for HrcA or CtsR could be identified in the clpL2 promoter region. Interestingly, the clpL2 gene was found to be surrounded by truncated transposase genes and flanked by inverted repeat structures nearly identical to the terminal repeats of the ISLpl1 from L. plantarum HN38. Furthermore, clpL2 was shown to be mobilized during prolonged cultivation at elevated temperature. The presence of a gene almost identical to clpL2 in L. plantarum and its absence in other L. rhamnosus strains suggest that the L. rhamnosus E-97800 has acquired the clpL2 gene via horizontal transfer. No change in the stress tolerance of the ClpL2-deficient derivative of E-97800 compared to the parental strain was observed.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Heat-Shock Response
21. Roy  D, Ward  P,     ( 2004 )

Comparison of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase gene (fbp) sequences for the identification of Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

Current microbiology 49 (5)
PMID : 15486704  :   DOI  :   10.1007/s00284-004-4355-y    
Abstract >>
Comparative analysis of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase gene (fbp) sequences was evaluated for the differentiation of reference and clinical strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The sequences of 1,971 nucleotides of the fbp gene were determined on both DNA strands for 21 L. rhamnosus strains, representing reference, probiotic, and clinical strains. No PCR amplification of the fbp gene was observed for other species of the Lactobacillus casei complex (L. casei and L. zeae) or strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Escherichia coli. Phylogenetic analysis of the fbp putative amino acid sequences of L. rhamnosus strains by the neighbor-joining method showed clear distinct positions of this species. The phylogenetic tree, derived from fbp nucleotide sequences, showed four clear divisions between strains of L. rhamnosus. From a taxonomic point of view, our results confirm for the first time that fbp gene sequences have high discriminating power for strains of L. rhamnosus that are difficult to differentiate.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
22. Dobson  CM, Chaban  B, Deneer  H, Ziola  B,     ( 2004 )

Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus zeae isolates identified by sequence signature and immunoblot phenotype.

Canadian journal of microbiology 50 (7)
PMID : 15381972  :   DOI  :   10.1139/w04-044    
Abstract >>
Species taxonomy within the Lactobacillus casei group of bacteria has been unsettled. With the goal of helping clarify the taxonomy of these bacteria, we investigated the first 3 variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene, the 16S-23S rRNA interspacer region, and one third of the chaperonin 60 gene for Lactobacillus isolates originally designated as L. casei, L. paracasei, L. rhamnosus, and L. zeae. For each genetic region, a phylogenetic tree was created and signature sequence analysis was done. As well, phenotypic analysis of the various strains was performed by immunoblotting. Both sequence signature analysis and immunoblotting gave immediate identification of L. casei, L. rhamnosus, and L. zeae isolates. These results corroborate and extend previous findings concerning these lactobacilli; therefore, we strongly endorse recent proposals for revised nomenclature. Specifically, isolate ATCC 393 is appropriately rejected as the L. casei type strain because of grouping with isolates identified as L. zeae. As well, because all other L. casei isolates, including the proposed neotype isolate ATCC 334, grouped together with isolates designated L. paracasei, we support the use of the single species L. casei and rejection of the name L. paracasei.
KeywordMeSH Terms
23. Alvarez  Mde F, Medina  R, Pasteris  SE, Strasser de Saad  AM, Sesma  F,     ( 2004 )

Glycerol metabolism of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469: cloning and expression of two glycerol kinase genes.

Journal of molecular microbiology and biotechnology 7 (4)
PMID : 15383715  :   DOI  :   10.1159/000079826    
Abstract >>
Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 was able to grow in glycerol as the sole source of energy in aerobic conditions, producing lactate, acetate, and diacetyl. A biphasic growth was observed in the presence of glucose. In this condition, glycerol consumption began after glucose was exhausted from the culture medium. Glycerol kinase activity was detected in L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469, a characteristic of microorganisms which catabolize glycerol in aerobic conditions. Genetic analysis revealed that this strain possesses two glycerol kinase genes: gykA and glpK, that encode for two different glycerol kinases GykA and GlpK, respectively. The glpK geneis associated in an operon with alpha-glycerophosphate oxidase (glpO) and glycerol facilitator (glpF) genes. Transcriptional analysis revealed that only glpK is expressed when L. rhamnosus was grown on glycerol.
KeywordMeSH Terms
24. Ventura  M, Canchaya  C, van Sinderen  D, Fitzgerald  GF, Zink  R,     ( 2004 )

Bifidobacterium lactis DSM 10140: identification of the atp (atpBEFHAGDC) operon and analysis of its genetic structure, characteristics, and phylogeny.

Applied and environmental microbiology 70 (5)
PMID : 15128574  :   DOI  :   10.1128/aem.70.5.3110-3121.2004     PMC  :   PMC404453    
Abstract >>
The atp operon is highly conserved among eubacteria, and it has been considered a molecular marker as an alternative to the 16S rRNA gene. PCR primers were designed from the consensus sequences of the atpD gene to amplify partial atpD sequences from 12 Bifidobacterium species and nine Lactobacillus species. All PCR products were sequenced and aligned with other atpD sequences retrieved from public databases. Genes encoding the subunits of the F(1)F(0)-ATPase of Bifidobacterium lactis DSM 10140 (atpBEFHAGDC) were cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequences of these subunits showed significant homology with the sequences of other organisms. We identified specific sequence signatures for the genus Bifidobacterium and for the closely related taxa Bifidobacterium lactis and Bifidobacterium animalis and Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus johnsonii, which could provide an alternative to current methods for identification of lactic acid bacterial species. Northern blot analysis showed that there was a transcript at approximately 7.3 kb, which corresponded to the size of the atp operon, and a transcript at 4.5 kb, which corresponded to the atpC, atpD, atpG, and atpA genes. The transcription initiation sites of these two mRNAs were mapped by primer extension, and the results revealed no consensus promoter sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the atpD genes demonstrated that the Lactobacillus atpD gene clustered with the genera Listeria, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus and that the higher G+C content and highly biased codon usage with respect to the genome average support the hypothesis that there was probably horizontal gene transfer. The acid inducibility of the atp operon of B. lactis DSM 10140 was verified by slot blot hybridization by using RNA isolated from acid-treated cultures of B. lactis DSM 10140. The rapid increase in the level of atp operon transcripts upon exposure to low pH suggested that the ATPase complex of B. lactis DSM 10140 was regulated at the level of transcription and not at the enzyme assembly step.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Operon
25. Ventura  M, Canchaya  C, Meylan  V, Klaenhammer  TR, Zink  R,     ( 2003 )

Analysis, characterization, and loci of the tuf genes in lactobacillus and bifidobacterium species and their direct application for species identification.

Applied and environmental microbiology 69 (11)
PMID : 14602655  :   DOI  :   10.1128/aem.69.11.6908-6922.2003     PMC  :   PMC262312    
Abstract >>
We analyzed the tuf gene, encoding elongation factor Tu, from 33 strains representing 17 Lactobacillus species and 8 Bifidobacterium species. The tuf sequences were aligned and used to infer phylogenesis among species of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. We demonstrated that the synonymous substitution affecting this gene renders elongation factor Tu a reliable molecular clock for investigating evolutionary distances of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. In fact, the phylogeny generated by these tuf sequences is consistent with that derived from 16S rRNA analysis. The investigation of a multiple alignment of tuf sequences revealed regions conserved among strains belonging to the same species but distinct from those of other species. PCR primers complementary to these regions allowed species-specific identification of closely related species, such as Lactobacillus casei group members. These tuf gene-based assays developed in this study provide an alternative to present methods for the identification for lactic acid bacterial species. Since a variable number of tuf genes have been described for bacteria, the presence of multiple genes was examined. Southern analysis revealed one tuf gene in the genomes of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, but the tuf gene was arranged differently in the genomes of these two taxa. Our results revealed that the tuf gene in bifidobacteria is flanked by the same gene constellation as the str operon, as originally reported for Escherichia coli. In contrast, bioinformatic and transcriptional analyses of the DNA region flanking the tuf gene in four Lactobacillus species indicated the same four-gene unit and suggested a novel tuf operon specific for the genus Lactobacillus.
KeywordMeSH Terms
26. Madoroba  E, Steenkamp  ET, Theron  J, Scheirlinck  I, Cloete  TE, Huys  G,     ( 2011 )

Diversity and dynamics of bacterial populations during spontaneous sorghum fermentations used to produce ting, a South African food.

Systematic and applied microbiology 34 (3)
PMID : 21300507  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.syapm.2010.11.016    
Abstract >>
Ting is a spontaneously fermented sorghum food that is popular for its sour taste and unique flavour. Insight of the microbial diversity and population dynamics during sorghum fermentations is an essential component of the development of starter cultures for commercial production of ting. In this study, bacterial populations associated with spontaneous sorghum fermentations were examined using a culture-independent strategy based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequence analysis of V3-16S rRNA gene amplicons, and a culture-dependent strategy using conventional isolation based on culturing followed by 16S rRNA and/or pheS gene sequence analysis. The entire fermentation process was monitored over a 54 h period and two phases were observed with respect to pH evolution and microbial succession. The first phase of the process (0-6h) was characterized by relatively high pH conditions and the presence of Enterococcus mundtii, albeit that this species was only detected with the culture-dependent approach. The second phase of the fermentation process (12-54 h) was characterized by increased acidity and the predominance of a broader range of lactic acid bacteria, including Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Weissella cibaria, Enterococcus faecalis, and a close relative of Lactobacillus curvatus, as well as some members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The Lb. curvatus-like species was only detected with PCR-DGGE, while the majority of the other species was only detected using the culture-dependent approach. These findings highlighted the fact that a combination of both approaches was essential in revealing the microbial diversity and dynamics during spontaneous sorghum fermentations.
KeywordMeSH Terms
27. Avraham  Y, Grossowicz  N, Yashphe  J,     ( 1990 )

Purification and characterization of uridine and thymidine phosphorylase from Lactobacillus casei.

Biochimica et biophysica acta 1040 (2)
PMID : 2119230  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0167-4838(90)90089-x    
Abstract >>
Uridine and thymidine phosphorylases have been purified to homogeneity from crude extracts of Lactobacillus casei. Both enzymes had an apparent molecular mass of about 80 kDa. Uridine phosphorylase consisted of four identical subunits while thymidine phosphorylase was composed of two identical ones. The sequence of 23 amino-acid residues from its N-terminal end was analyzed. Uridine phosphorylase had a Km of 5.0 x 10(-3) M for uridine and 1.24 x 10(-1) M for phosphate, while thymidine phosphorylase had a Km of 1.32 x 10(-1) M for thymidine and 1.0 x 10(-1) M for phosphate. Uridine phosphorylase was equally active with uridine and 5-methyluridine, but had a low activity towards thymidine. Its activity was inhibited competitively by 3-O-methyl-alpha D-glucopyranoside, on the other hand thymidine phosphorylase activity was not affected by this compound. Thymidine phosphorylase showed specificity towards the deoxyribosyl moiety of the substrate. In addition, it required a nonsubstituted pyrimidine moiety or one which was substituted in position 5. The pattern of the double-reciprocal plots of the initial velocities vs. the concentrations of either one of the substrates, and the product inhibition kinetics, indicated that the catalytic mechanism of both enzymatic reactions is sequential rather than Ping-Pong and that the sequence of the addition of the substrates is random (rapid equilibrium). In the case of the uridine phosphorylase-catalyzed reaction, the products are also released randomly, while in the thymidine phosphorylase-catalyzed reaction deoxyribose 1-phosphate is released after thymine.
KeywordMeSH Terms
28. Yang  Z, Li  S, Zhang  X, Zeng  X, Li  D, Zhao  Y, Zhang  J,     ( 2010 )

Capsular and slime-polysaccharide production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus JAAS8 isolated from Chinese sauerkraut: potential application in fermented milk products.

Journal of bioscience and bioengineering 110 (1)
PMID : 20541116  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.jbiosc.2009.12.010    
Abstract >>
Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play an important role in the improvement of the physical properties of fermented dairy products. To find EPS-producing LAB strains with potential industrial applications, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain, L. rhamnosus JAAS8, that is capable of producing two forms of EPS when grown in MRS broth or semi-defined medium with glucose as a carbon source was isolated and identified from Chinese sauerkraut. The capsular-polysaccharide (CPS) present surrounding the bacterial surface of L. rhamnosus JAAS8 was observed by both optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The slime-polysaccharide (SPS) present in the growth medium was produced mainly during the exponential growth phase, while the CPS was produced only in fermentation. Monosaccharide analysis of the purified polysaccharide samples showed that the CPS was composed of galactose and N-acetylglucosamine in a molar ratio of 5:1, and the SPS was composed of galactose, glucose and N-acetylglucosamine in a molar ratio of 4:1:1. The use of L. rhamnosus JAAS8 could be considered for potential applications in the dairy industry to improve the rheological properties of fermented milk products by increasing their water-holding capacity and viscosity.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Food Microbiology
29. Huang  CH, Lee  FL,     ( 2011 )

The dnaK gene as a molecular marker for the classification and discrimination of the Lactobacillus casei group.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 99 (2)
PMID : 20700765  :   DOI  :   10.1007/s10482-010-9493-6    
Abstract >>
It is hard to accurately identify specific species of the Lactobacillus casei group using phenotypic techniques alone. Some strains of this species group are considered to be probiotic and are widely applied in the food industry. In this study, we compared the use of two phylogenetic markers, the 16S rRNA and dnaK genes, for species discrimination of the members of the L. casei group using sequencing and RFLP. The results showed that L. casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus zeae and Lactobacillus rhamnosus could be clearly distinguished based on the dnaK gene. The average sequence similarity for the dnaK gene (87.8%) among type strains was significantly less than that of the 16S rRNA sequence (99.1%). Therefore, the dnaK gene can be proposed as an additional molecular phylogenetic marker for L. casei that provides higher resolution than 16S rRNA. Species-specific RFLP profiles of the Lactobacillus strains were obtained with the enzyme ApoI. Our data indicate that the phylogenetic relationships between these strains are easily resolved using sequencing of the dnaK gene or RFLP assays.
KeywordMeSH Terms
30. Dimitrijevi?  R, Stojanovi?  M, Zivkovi?  I, Petersen  A, Jankov  RM, Dimitrijevi?  L, Gavrovi?-Jankulovi?  M,     ( 2009 )

The identification of a low molecular mass bacteriocin, rhamnosin A, produced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain 68.

Journal of applied microbiology 107 (6)
PMID : 19796123  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1365-2672.2009.04539.x    
Abstract >>
This study focuses on the isolation and characterization of a peptide with bacteriocin-like properties isolated from Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain 68, previously identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and originating from human gastrointestinal flora. The peptide was isolated from a supernatant of bacteria maintained under restrictive conditions by a combination of ethanol precipitation and reversed-phase chromatography. The molecular mass of the peptide as assessed by mass spectrometry was 6433.8 Da. An isoelectric point of 9.8 was determined by 2D-PAGE. The peptide designated rhamnosin A inhibited Micrococcus lysodeikticus ATCC 4698 but did not inhibit Lactobacillus plantarum 8014 or Lact. plantarum 39268. Inhibitory activity against M. lysodeikticus at concentrations used in this study was shown to be bacteriostatic rather than bacteriolytic or bactericidal. Rhamnosin A retained biological activity after heat treatment (95 degrees C, 30 min) but was sensitive to proteolytic activity of pepsin and trypsin. The N-terminal sequence of rhamnosin A, as determined by Edman degradation and in more detail by blast analysis, did not show identity with any currently available Lact. rhamnosus HN001-translated protein sequences, nor any significant similarity with other sequences in the nonredundant protein sequence database. Being a small, heat-stable, nonlanthionine-containing peptide, rhamnosin A should be categorized as a class II bacteriocin. This study describes a partial bacteriocin sequence isolated from Lact. rhamnosus 68 and broadens our understanding of bacteriocins.
KeywordMeSH Terms
31. Lebeer  S, Verhoeven  TL, Francius  G, Schoofs  G, Lambrichts  I, Dufrêne  Y, Vanderleyden  J, De Keersmaecker  SC,     ( 2009 )

Identification of a Gene Cluster for the Biosynthesis of a Long, Galactose-Rich Exopolysaccharide in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Functional Analysis of the Priming Glycosyltransferase.

Applied and environmental microbiology 75 (11)
PMID : 19346339  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.02919-08     PMC  :   PMC2687306    
Abstract >>
Cell surface polysaccharides have an established role as virulence factors in human bacterial pathogens. Less documented are the biosynthesis and biological functions of surface polysaccharides in beneficial bacteria. We identified a gene cluster that encodes the enzymes and regulatory and transporter proteins for the different steps in the biosynthesis of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) of the well-documented probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Subsequent mutation of the welE gene, encoding the priming glycosyltransferase within this cluster, and comparative phenotypic analyses of wild-type versus mutant strains confirmed the specific function of this gene cluster in the biosynthesis of high-molecular-weight, galactose-rich heteropolymeric EPS molecules. The phenotypic analyses included monomer composition determination, estimation of the polymer length of the isolated EPS molecules, and single-molecule force spectroscopy of the surface polysaccharides. Further characterization of the welE mutant also showed that deprivation of these long, galactose-rich EPS molecules results in an increased adherence and biofilm formation capacity of L. rhamnosus GG, possibly because of less shielding of adhesins such as fimbria-like structures.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Multigene Family
32. Naser  SM, Dawyndt  P, Hoste  B, Gevers  D, Vandemeulebroecke  K, Cleenwerck  I, Vancanneyt  M, Swings  J,     ( 2007 )

Identification of lactobacilli by pheS and rpoA gene sequence analyses.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 57 (Pt 12)
PMID : 18048724  :   DOI  :   10.1099/ijs.0.64711-0    
Abstract >>
The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase alpha subunit (pheS) and the RNA polymerase alpha subunit (rpoA) partial gene sequences for species identification of members of the genus Lactobacillus. Two hundred and one strains representing the 98 species and 17 subspecies were examined. The pheS gene sequence analysis provided an interspecies gap, which in most cases exceeded 10 % divergence, and an intraspecies variation of up to 3 %. The rpoA gene sequences revealed a somewhat lower resolution, with an interspecies gap normally exceeding 5 % and an intraspecies variation of up to 2 %. The combined use of pheS and rpoA gene sequences offers a reliable identification system for nearly all species of the genus Lactobacillus. The pheS and rpoA gene sequences provide a powerful tool for the detection of potential novel Lactobacillus species and synonymous taxa. In conclusion, the pheS and rpoA gene sequences can be used as alternative genomic markers to 16S rRNA gene sequences and have a higher discriminatory power for reliable identification of species of the genus Lactobacillus.
KeywordMeSH Terms
33. Blaiotta  G, Fusco  V, Ercolini  D, Aponte  M, Pepe  O, Villani  F,     ( 2008 )

Lactobacillus strain diversity based on partial hsp60 gene sequences and design of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assays for species identification and differentiation.

Applied and environmental microbiology 74 (1)
PMID : 17993558  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.01711-07     PMC  :   PMC2223197    
Abstract >>
A phylogenetic tree showing diversities among 116 partial (499-bp) Lactobacillus hsp60 (groEL, encoding a 60-kDa heat shock protein) nucleotide sequences was obtained and compared to those previously described for 16S rRNA and tuf gene sequences. The topology of the tree produced in this study showed a Lactobacillus species distribution similar, but not identical, to those previously reported. However, according to the most recent systematic studies, a clear differentiation of 43 single-species clusters was detected/identified among the sequences analyzed. The slightly higher variability of the hsp60 nucleotide sequences than of the 16S rRNA sequences offers better opportunities to design or develop molecular assays allowing identification and differentiation of either distant or very closely related Lactobacillus species. Therefore, our results suggest that hsp60 can be considered an excellent molecular marker for inferring the taxonomy and phylogeny of members of the genus Lactobacillus and that the chosen primers can be used in a simple PCR procedure allowing the direct sequencing of the hsp60 fragments. Moreover, in this study we performed a computer-aided restriction endonuclease analysis of all 499-bp hsp60 partial sequences and we showed that the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns obtainable by using both endonucleases AluI and TacI (in separate reactions) can allow identification and differentiation of all 43 Lactobacillus species considered, with the exception of the pair L. plantarum/L. pentosus. However, the latter species can be differentiated by further analysis with Sau3AI or MseI. The hsp60 PCR-RFLP approach was efficiently applied to identify and to differentiate a total of 110 wild Lactobacillus strains (including closely related species, such as L. casei and L. rhamnosus or L. plantarum and L. pentosus) isolated from cheese and dry-fermented sausages.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
34. Folli  C, Levante  A, Percudani  R, Amidani  D, Bottazzi  S, Ferrari  A, Rivetti  C, Neviani  E, Lazzi  C,     ( 2017 )

Toward the identification of a type I toxin-antitoxin system in the plasmid DNA of dairy Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

Scientific reports 7 (1)
PMID : 28935987  :   DOI  :   10.1038/s41598-017-12218-5     PMC  :   PMC5608710    
Abstract >>
Plasmids carry genes that give bacteria beneficial traits and allow them to survive in competitive environments. In many cases, they also harbor toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems necessary for plasmid maintenance. TA systems are generally characterized by a stable "toxin", a protein or peptide capable of killing the cell upon plasmid loss and by an unstable "antitoxin", a protein or a non-coding RNA that inhibits toxin activity. Here we report data toward the identification of a RNA-regulated TA system in the plasmid DNA of L. rhamnosus isolated from cheese. The proposed TA system comprises two convergently transcribed RNAs: a toxin RNA encoding a 29 amino acid peptide named Lpt and an antitoxin non-coding RNA. Both toxin and antitoxin RNAs resulted upregulated under conditions mimicking cheese ripening. The toxicity of the Lpt peptide was demonstrated in E. coli by cloning the Lpt ORF under the control of an inducible promoter. Bioinformatics screening of the bacterial nucleotide database, shows that regions homologous to the Lpt TA locus are widely distributed in the Lactobacillus genus, particularly within the L. casei group, suggesting a relevant role of TA systems in plasmid maintenance of cheese microbiota.
KeywordMeSH Terms
35. Huang  CH, Chang  MT, Huang  L, Chu  WS,     ( 2015 )

The dnaJ gene as a molecular discriminator to differentiate among species and strain within the Lactobacillus casei group.

Molecular and cellular probes 29 (6)
PMID : 26050941  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.mcp.2015.05.016    
Abstract >>
Identifying Lactobacillus casei and its closely related taxa at the species and strain level using only phenotypic and genotypic (16S rDNA sequence homology analysis) techniques often yields inaccurate results. In this study, the dnaJ chaperone gene was investigated as a molecular target for inter- and intraspecies discrimination within the Lb. casei group as well as for the development of specific primers for species identification. The results showed that most of the examined strains could be clearly distinguished from closely related species based on the sequenced fragments. At the interspecies level, the dnaJ sequence similarities were 81.7%-85.5%. However, at the intraspecies level, the dnaJ sequence similarities were 96.2-100% and could be assigned to different haplotypes in Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, respectively. Compared to the 16S rRNA gene, the dnaJ sequence showed greater variation at both the species and strain level. Thus, the dnaJ gene can be proposed as an alternative marker for the Lb. casei group that provides higher discriminatory power than the 16S rRNA gene. In addition, species-specific primers were developed and subsequently employed in two-plex minisequencing analysis and shown to be specific for Lb. paracasei and Lb. rhamnosus. Our data indicate that phylogenetic relationships in the Lb. casei group can be resolved using comparative sequence analysis of the dnaJ gene and that the Lb. paracasei and Lb. rhamnosus species can be simultaneously identified using a novel species-specific minisequencing assay.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Inter- and intraspecies discrimination
Lactobacillus casei group
Species-specific minisequencing
dnaJ gene
Inter- and intraspecies discrimination
Lactobacillus casei group
Species-specific minisequencing
dnaJ gene
Inter- and intraspecies discrimination
Lactobacillus casei group
Species-specific minisequencing
dnaJ gene
Inter- and intraspecies discrimination
Lactobacillus casei group
Species-specific minisequencing
dnaJ gene
Inter- and intraspecies discrimination
Lactobacillus casei group
Species-specific minisequencing
dnaJ gene
Inter- and intraspecies discrimination
Lactobacillus casei group
Species-specific minisequencing
dnaJ gene
36.     ( 1996 )

The dlt operon in the biosynthesis of D-alanyl-lipoteichoic acid in Lactobacillus casei.

Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.) 2 (1)
PMID : 9158726  :   DOI  :   10.1089/mdr.1996.2.77    
Abstract >>
The D-alanine incorporation system allows Lactobacillus casei to modulate the chemical properties of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and hence control its proposed functions, i.e., regulation of autolysin action, metal ion binding, and the electromechanical properties of the cell wall. The system requires the D-alanine-D-alanyl carrier protein ligase (Dcl) and the D-alanyl carrier protein (Dcp). Our results indicate that the genes for these proteins are encoded in the dlt operon and that this operon contains at least 2 other genes, dltB and dltD. The aim of this paper is to describe the genetic organization of the operon, the role of the D-alanyl carrier protein, and the function of the putative protein encoded by dltB in the intramembranal translocation of the activated D-alanine.
KeywordMeSH Terms
37.     ( 1996 )

The D-Alanyl carrier protein in Lactobacillus casei: cloning, sequencing, and expression of dltC.

Journal of bacteriology 178 (13)
PMID : 8682792  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.178.13.3869-3876.1996     PMC  :   PMC232648    
Abstract >>
The incorporation of D-alanine into membrane-associated D-alanyl-lipoteichoic acid in Lactobacillus casei requires the 56-kDa D-alanine-D-alanyl carrier protein ligase (Dcl) and the 8.9-kDa D-alanyl carrier protein (Dcp). To identify and isolate the gene encoding Dcp, we have cloned and sequenced a 4.3-kb chromosomal fragment that contains dcl (dltA). In addition to this gene, the fragment contains three other genes, dltB, d1tC, and a partial dltD gene. dltC (246 nucleotides) was subcloned from this region and expressed in Escherichia coli. The product was identified as apo-Dcp lacking the N-terminal methionine (8,787.9 Da). The in vitro conversion of the recombinant apo-Dcp to holo-Dcp by recombinant E. coli holo-ACP synthase provided Dcp which accepts activated D-alanine in the reaction catalyzed by Bcl. The recombinant D-alanyl-Dcp was functionally identical to native D-alanyl-Dcp in the incorporation of D-alanine into lipoteichoic acid. L. casei Dcp is 46% identical to the putative product of dltC in the Bacillus subtilis dlt operon (M. Perego, P. Glaser, A. Minutello, M. A. Strauch, K. Leopold, and W. Fischer, J. Biol. Chem. 270:15598-15606, 1995), and therefore, this gene also encodes Dcp. Comparisons of the primary sequences and predicted secondary structures of the L. casei and B. subtilis Dcps with that of the E. coli acyl carrier protein (ACP) were undertaken together with homology modeling to identify the functional determinants of the donor and acceptor specificities of Dcp. In the region of the phospho-pantetheine attachment site, significant similarity between Dcps and ACPs was observed. This similarity may account for the relaxed acceptor specificity of the Dcps and ACPs in the ligation Of D-alanine catalyzed by Dcl. In contrast, two Dcp consensus sequences, KXXVLDXLA and DXVKXNXD, share little identity with the rest of the ACP family and, thus, may determine the donor specificity of D-alanyl-Dcp in the D-alanylation of membrane-associated D-alanyl-lipoteichoic acid.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
38. Biernat  KA, Pellock  SJ, Bhatt  AP, Bivins  MM, Walton  WG, Tran  BNT, Wei  L, Snider  MC, Cesmat  AP, Tripathy  A, Erie  DA, Redinbo  MR,     ( 2019 )

Structure, function, and inhibition of drug reactivating human gut microbial �]-glucuronidases.

Scientific reports 9 (1)
PMID : 30696850  :   DOI  :   10.1038/s41598-018-36069-w     PMC  :   PMC6351562    
Abstract >>
Bacterial �]-glucuronidase (GUS) enzymes cause drug toxicity by reversing Phase II glucuronidation in the gastrointestinal tract. While many human gut microbial GUS enzymes have been examined with model glucuronide substrates like p-nitrophenol-�]-D-glucuronide (pNPG), the GUS orthologs that are most efficient at processing drug-glucuronides remain unclear. Here we present the crystal structures of GUS enzymes from human gut commensals Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Ruminococcus gnavus, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii that possess an active site loop (Loop 1; L1) analogous to that found in E. coli GUS, which processes drug substrates. We also resolve the structure of the No Loop GUS from Bacteroides dorei. We then compare the pNPG and diclofenac glucuronide processing abilities of a panel of twelve structurally diverse GUS proteins, and find that the new L1 GUS enzymes presented here process small glucuronide substrates inefficiently compared to previously characterized L1 GUS enzymes like E. coli GUS. We further demonstrate that our GUS inhibitors, which are effective against some L1 enzymes, are not potent towards all. Our findings pinpoint active site structural features necessary for the processing of drug-glucuronide substrates and the inhibition of such processing.
KeywordMeSH Terms
39. Chaurasia  P, Pratap  S, Palva  A, von Ossowski  I, Krishnan  V,     ( 2018 )

Bent conformation of a backbone pilin N-terminal domain supports a three-stage pilus assembly mechanism.

Communications biology 1 (N/A)
PMID : 30271975  :   DOI  :   10.1038/s42003-018-0100-0     PMC  :   PMC6123636    
Abstract >>
Effective colonization of host cells by some Gram-positive bacteria often involves using lengthy, adhesive macromolecular structures called sortase-dependent pili. Among commensals, the gut-adapted Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain encodes the operons for two varieties of these pili (SpaCBA and SpaFED), with each structure consisting of backbone, tip, and basal pilin subunits. Although the tertiary structure was recently solved for the backbone subunit (SpaA) of the SpaCBA pilus, no structural information exists for its counterpart in the SpaFED pilus. Here, we report several crystal structures for the SpaD backbone pilin, two of which capture the N-terminal domain in either the closed (linear) or open (bent) conformation. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of the bent conformation in Gram-positive pilin structures. Based on this bent conformation, we suggest a three-stage model, which we call the expose-ligate-seal mechanism, for the docking and assembly of backbone pilins into the sortase-dependent pilus.
KeywordMeSH Terms
40.     ( 2013 )

Spontaneous release of bacteriophage particles by Lactobacillus rhamnosus pen.

Journal of microbiology and biotechnology 23 (3)
PMID : 23462009  :  
Abstract >>
The identification of bacteriophage proteins on the surface of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Pen was performed by LC-MS/MS analysis. Among the identified proteins, we found a phage-derived major tail protein, two major head proteins, a portal protein, and a host specificity protein. Electron microscopy of a cell surface extract revealed the presence of phage particles in the analyzed samples. The partial sequence of genes encoding the major tail protein for all tested L. rhamnosus strains was determined with specific primers designed in this study. Next, RT-PCR analysis allowed detection of the expression of the major tail protein gene in L. rhamnosus strain Pen at all stages of bacterial growth. The transcription of genes encoding the major tail protein was also proved for other L. rhamnosus strains used in this study. The present work demonstrates the spontanous release of prophage-encoded particles by a commercial probiotic L. rhamnosus strain, which did not significantly affect the bacterial growth of the analyzed strain.
KeywordMeSH Terms
41. Lo  R, Ho  VTT, Bansal  N, Turner  MS,     ( 2018 )

The genetic basis underlying variation in production of the flavour compound diacetyl by Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains in milk.

International journal of food microbiology 265 (N/A)
PMID : 29121515  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2017.10.029    
Abstract >>
Diacetyl and the closely related compound acetoin impart desirable buttery flavour and odour to many foods including cheese and are generated through the metabolism of citrate by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). To increase the levels of these compounds, adjunct cultures capable of producing them can be added to cheese fermentations. In this study, we compared the diacetyl and acetoin producing abilities of 13 Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains from cheese sources. Diacetyl and acetoin production was found to be a common feature of Lb. rhamnosus grown in milk, with 12 strains producing these compounds. Whole genome sequencing of four strains revealed that genes encoding the citrate metabolising pathway present in other LAB are conserved in Lb. rhamnosus. One strain was, however, totally defective in diacetyl and acetoin production. This was likely due to an inability to produce the diacetyl/acetoin precursor compound acetolactate resulting from a frameshift mutation in the acetolactate synthase (als) gene. Complementation of this defective strain with a complete als gene from a diacetyl producing strain restored production of diacetyl and acetoin to levels equivalent to naturally high producing strains. Introduction of the same als-containing plasmid into the probiotic Lb. rhamnosus strain GG also increased diacetyl and acetoin levels. In model cheesemaking experiments, the als-complemented strain produced very high levels of diacetyl and acetoin over 35days of ripening. These findings identify the genetic basis for natural variation in production of a key cheese flavour compound in Lb. rhamnosus strains.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Acetoin
Acetolactate synthase
Buttery flavour
Cheese
Diacetyl
Lactobacillus rhamnosus
42. Oliveira  LC, Silveira  AMM, Monteiro  AS, Dos Santos  VL, Nicoli  JR, Azevedo  VAC, Soares  SC, Dias-Souza  MV, Nardi  RMD,     ( 2017 )

In silico Prediction, in vitro Antibacterial Spectrum, and Physicochemical Properties of a Putative Bacteriocin Produced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain L156.4.

Frontiers in microbiology 8 (N/A)
PMID : 28579977  :   DOI  :   10.3389/fmicb.2017.00876     PMC  :   PMC5437165    
Abstract >>
A bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus rhamnosus L156.4 strain isolated from the feces of NIH mice was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The entire genome was sequenced using Illumina, annotated in the PGAAP, and RAST servers, and deposited. Conserved genes associated with bacteriocin synthesis were predicted using BAGEL3, leading to the identification of an open reading frame (ORF) that shows homology with the L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) prebacteriocin gene. The encoded protein contains a conserved protein motif associated a structural gene of the Enterocin A superfamily. We found ORFs related to the prebacteriocin, immunity protein, ABC transporter proteins, and regulatory genes with 100% identity to those of L. rhamnosus HN001. In this study, we provide evidence of a putative bacteriocin produced by L. rhamnosus L156.4 that was further confirmed by in vitro assays. The antibacterial activity of the substances produced by this strain was evaluated using the deferred agar-spot and spot-on-the lawn assays, and a wide antimicrobial activity spectrum against human and foodborne pathogens was observed. The physicochemical characterization of the putative bacteriocin indicated that it was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, heat stable and maintained its antibacterial activity in a pH ranging from 3 to 9. The activity against Lactobacillus fermentum, which was used as an indicator strain, was detected during bacterial logarithmic growth phase, and a positive correlation was confirmed between bacterial growth and production of the putative bacteriocin. After a partial purification from cell-free supernatant by salt precipitation, the putative bacteriocin migrated as a diffuse band of approximately 1.0-3.0 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Additional studies are being conducted to explore its use in the food industry for controlling bacterial growth and for probiotic applications.
KeywordMeSH Terms
BAGEL
Lactobacillus rhamnosus
bacteriocin
genomic and physicochemical characterization
in silico prediction
43.     ( 2012 )

Isolation of potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains from traditional fermented mare milk produced in Sumbawa Island of Indonesia.

Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry 76 (10)
PMID : 23047104  :   DOI  :   10.1271/bbb.120385    
Abstract >>
To explore potential probiotics in the traditional foods of Indonesia, fermented mare milk produced in Sumbawa Island was investigated in this study. Gram stain, catalase activity, gas production, cell morphology, carbohydrate utilization pattern, and 16S rDNA sequencing were performed to identify isolated lactic acid bacteria. To assess their probiotic ability, tolerance of low pH, bile salts, artificial gastrointestinal fluids, and adhesion properties to extracellular matrices, were examined. In total 27 strains, 25 Lactobacillus rhamnosus and two Lactobacillus fermentum, were obtained. Among the isolated lactobacilli, three Lb. rhamnosus strains, FSMM15, FSMM22, and FSMM26, were selected as candidates for probiotics, using Lb. rhamnosus GG as index. In vitro binding assay of the three strains against several extracellular matrix proteins revealed that FSMM15 and FSMM26 gave greater binding ratios of mucin/bovine serum albumin (BSA) and significantly higher adhesive abilities to fibronectin than Lb. rhamnosus GG. FSMM22 showed significantly higher adhesion to laminin than Lb. rhamnosus GG.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Fermentation
Islands
44.     ( 2012 )

Evaluation of strain-specific primers for identification of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

FEMS microbiology letters 337 (2)
PMID : 23003331  :   DOI  :   10.1111/1574-6968.12015    
Abstract >>
Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (ATCC 53103) is one of the most widely studied and commercialized probiotic strains, and thus strain-specific identification for the strain is highly valuable. In this study, two published PCR-based identification methods for strain GG, a transposase gene-targeting system and a phage-related gene-targeting system, were evaluated. The former produced amplicons from eight of the 41 strains tested and the phage-related system from five of the tested strains, including the strain GG. Fingerprinting analysis indicated that the strains LMG 18025, LMG 18030, and LMG 18038, which had an amplicon by the former system but none by the latter, were genetically distinguishable from L. rhamnosus GG at strain level. Strains LMG 23320, LMG 23325, LMG 23534, and LMG 25859 showed profiles very similar to that of the strain GG, suggesting that these strains might be identical to GG or derivative strains of it. The results here indicated that the phage-related gene-targeting system is a good tool for accurate identification of L. rhamnosus GG. This system would be able to detect both the original L. rhamnosus GG and its derivative strains.
KeywordMeSH Terms
45.     ( 1998 )

Strain-specific identification of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus with randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-derived PCR primers.

Applied and environmental microbiology 64 (12)
PMID : 9835567  :   PMC  :   PMC90927    
Abstract >>
In the present work, strain-specific PCR primers for Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lc 1/3 are described. The randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to produce potential strain-specific markers. They were screened for specificity by hybridization with DNA from 11 L. rhamnosus strains. A 613-bp RAPD marker found to be strain-specific was sequenced, and a primer pair specific to L. rhamnosus Lc 1/3 was constructed based on the sequence. The primer pair was tested with 11 Lactobacillus species and 11 L. rhamnosus strains and was found to be strain specific. The nucleotide sequence of the specific RAPD marker was found to contain part of a protein encoding region which showed significant similarity to several transposases for insertion sequence elements of various bacteria, including other lactic acid bacterium species.
KeywordMeSH Terms
46.     ( 1998 )

Cloning and characterization of a prolinase gene (pepR) from Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

Applied and environmental microbiology 64 (5)
PMID : 9572959  :   PMC  :   PMC106238    
Abstract >>
A peptidase gene expressing L-proline-beta-naphthylamide-hydrolyzing activity was cloned from a gene library of Lactobacillus rhamnosus 1/6 isolated from cheese. Peptidase-expressing activity was localized in a 1.5-kb SacI fragment. A sequence analysis of the SacI fragment revealed the presence of one complete open reading frame (ORF1) that was 903 nucleotides long. The ORF1-encoded 34.2-kDa protein exhibited 68% identity with the PepR protein from Lactobacillus helveticus. Additional sequencing revealed the presence of another open reading frame (ORF2) following pepR; this open reading frame was 459 bp long. Northern (RNA) and primer extension analyses indicated that pepR is expressed both as a monocistronic transcriptional unit and as a dicistronic transcriptional unit with ORF2. Gene replacement was used to construct a PepR-negative strain of L. rhamnosus. PepR was shown to be the primary enzyme capable of hydrolyzing Pro-Leu in L. rhamnosus. However, the PepR-negative mutant did not differ from the wild type in its ability to grow and produce acid in milk. The cloned pepR expressed activity against dipeptides with N-terminal proline residues. Also, Met-Ala, Leu-Leu, and Leu-Gly-Gly and the chromogenic substrates L-leucine-beta-naphthylamide and L-phenylalanine-beta-naphthylamide were hydrolyzed by the PepR of L. rhamnosus.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial

331, Shih-Pin Rd., Hsinchu 30062, Taiwan

Phone: +886-3-5223191

E-mail: bcrcweb@firdi.org.tw

web maintainance: +886-3-5223191 ext 593

Copyright © 2018.BCRC All rights reserved.The duplication or use of information and data such as texts or images or any linkage the website at the "bcrc.firdi.org.tw" is only permitted with the indication of the source or with prior approval by the BCRC(Bioresource Collection and Research Center).