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1. Murshudov  GN, Melik-Adamyan  WR, Grebenko  AI, Barynin  VV, Vagin  AA, Vainshtein  BK, Dauter  Z, Wilson  KS,     ( 1992 )

Three-dimensional structure of catalase from Micrococcus lysodeikticus at 1.5 A resolution.

FEBS letters 312 (2��3��)
PMID : 1426241  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0014-5793(92)80919-8     DOI  :   10.1016/0014-5793(92)80919-8    
Abstract >>
The three-dimensional crystal structure of catalase from Micrococcus lysodeikticus has been solved by multiple isomorphous replacement and refined at 1.5 A resolution. The subunit of the tetrameric molecule of 222 symmetry consists of a single polypeptide chain of about 500 amino acid residues and one haem group. The crystals belong to space group P4(2)2(1)2 with unit cell parameters a = b = 106.7 A, c = 106.3 A, and there is one subunit of the tetramer per asymmetric unit. The amino acid sequence has been tentatively determined by computer graphics model building and comparison with the known three-dimensional structure of beef liver catalase and sequences of several other catalases. The atomic model has been refined by Hendrickson and Konnert's least-squares minimisation against 94,315 reflections between 8 A and 1.5 A. The final model consists of 3,977 non-hydrogen atoms of the protein and haem group, 426 water molecules and one sulphate ion. The secondary and tertiary structures of the bacterial catalase have been analyzed and a comparison with the structure of beef liver catalase has been made.
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2. Fujikura  K, Zhang  YW, Fujihashi  M, Miki  K, Koyama  T,     ( 2003 )

Mutational analysis of allylic substrate binding site of Micrococcus luteus B-P 26 undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase.

Biochemistry 42 (14)
PMID : 12680756  :   DOI  :   10.1021/bi027236v    
Abstract >>
Undecaprenyl diphosphate (UPP) synthase catalyzes the sequential cis-condensation of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) onto (E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate (FPP). In our previous reports on the Micrococcus luteus B-P 26 UPP synthase, we have shown that the conserved residues in the disordered region from Ser-74 to Val-85 is crucial for the binding of FPP and the catalytic function [Fujikura, K., et al. (2000) J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 128, 917-922] and the existence of a structural P-loop motif for the FPP binding site [Fujihashi, M., et al. (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 98, 4337-4342]. To elucidate the allylic substrate binding site in more detail, we prepared eight mutant enzymes and examined their kinetic behavior. The mutant with respect to the two complementarily conserved Arg residues among the structural P-loop motif, G32R-R42G, retained the activity and showed product distribution pattern exactly similar to that of the wild-type, indicating that the complementarily conserved Arg is important for maintaining the catalytic function. Substitutions of Asp-29, Arg-33, or Arg-80 with Ala resulted in a large loss of enzyme activity, suggesting that these residues are essential for catalytic function. However, the K(m) values of these mutant enzymes for Z-GGPP, which is the first intermediate during the enzymatic cis-condensations of IPP onto FPP, were only moderately different or little changed from those of the wild type. These results suggest that the binding site for the intermediate Z-GGPP having a cis double bond is different to that for the intrinsic allylic substrate, FPP, whose diphosphate moiety is recognized by the structural P-loop.
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3. Murshudov  GN, Grebenko  AI, Brannigan  JA, Antson  AA, Barynin  VV, Dodson  GG, Dauter  Z, Wilson  KS, Melik-Adamyan  WR,     ( 2002 )

The structures of Micrococcus lysodeikticus catalase, its ferryl intermediate (compound II) and NADPH complex.

Acta crystallographica. Section D, Biological crystallography 58 (Pt 12)
PMID : 12454454  :   DOI  :   10.1107/s0907444902016566    
Abstract >>
The crystal structure of the bacterial catalase from Micrococcus lysodeikticus has been refined using the gene-derived sequence both at 0.88 A resolution using data recorded at 110 K and at 1.5 A resolution with room-temperature data. The atomic resolution structure has been refined with individual anisotropic atomic thermal parameters. This has revealed the geometry of the haem and surrounding protein, including many of the H atoms, with unprecedented accuracy and has characterized functionally important hydrogen-bond interactions in the active site. The positions of the H atoms are consistent with the enzymatic mechanism previously suggested for beef liver catalase. The structure reveals that a 25 A long channel leading to the haem is filled by partially occupied water molecules, suggesting an inherent facile access to the active site. In addition, the structures of the ferryl intermediate of the catalase, the so-called compound II, at 1.96 A resolution and the catalase complex with NADPH at 1.83 A resolution have been determined. Comparison of compound II and the resting state of the enzyme shows that the binding of the O atom to the iron (bond length 1.87 A) is associated with increased haem bending and is accompanied by a distal movement of the iron and the side chain of the proximal tyrosine. Finally, the structure of the NADPH complex shows that the cofactor is bound to the molecule in an equivalent position to that found in beef liver catalase, but that only the adenine part of NADPH is visible in the present structure.
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4. Mukamolova  GV, Turapov  OA, Kazarian  K, Telkov  M, Kaprelyants  AS, Kell  DB, Young  M,     ( 2002 )

The rpf gene of Micrococcus luteus encodes an essential secreted growth factor.

Molecular microbiology 46 (3)
PMID : 12410820  :   DOI  :   10.1046/j.1365-2958.2002.03183.x    
Abstract >>
Micrococcus luteus secretes a small protein called Rpf, which has autocrine and paracrine signalling functions and is required for the resuscitation of dormant cells. Originally isolated from the supernatant of actively growing cultures, Rpf was also detected on the surface of actively growing bacteria. Most molecules may be sequestered non-productively at the cell surface, as a truncated form of the protein, encompassing only the 'Rpf domain' is fully active. The C-terminal LysM module, which probably mediates binding to the cell envelope, is not required for biological activity. Rpf was essential for growth of M. luteus. Washed cells, inoculated at low density into a minimal medium, could not grow in its absence. Moreover, the incorporation of anti-Rpf antibodies into the culture medium at the time of inoculation also prevented bacterial growth. We were unable to inactivate rpf using a disrupted form of the gene, in which most of the coding sequence was replaced with a selectable thiostrepton resistance marker. Gene disruption was possible in the presence of a second, functional, plasmid-located copy of rpf, but not in the presence of a rpf derivative whose protein product lacked the secretory signal sequence. As far as we are aware, Rpf is the first example of a truly secreted protein that is essential for bacterial growth. If the Rpf-like proteins elaborated by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteria prove similarly essential, interference with their proper functioning may offer novel opportunities for protecting against, and treating, tuberculosis and other mycobacterial disease.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
5. Liebl  W, Kloos  WE, Ludwig  W,     ( 2002 )

Plasmid-borne macrolide resistance in Micrococcus luteus.

Microbiology (Reading, England) 148 (Pt 8)
PMID : 12177341  :   DOI  :   10.1099/00221287-148-8-2479    
Abstract >>
A plasmid designated pMEC2 which confers resistance to erythromycin, other macrolides, and lincomycin was detected in Micrococcus luteus strain MAW843 isolated from human skin. Curing of this approximately 4.2 kb plasmid from the host organism resulted in erythromycin sensitivity of the strain. Introduction of pMEC2 into a different M. luteus strain conferred erythromycin resistance upon this strain. Macrolide resistance in M. luteus MAW843 was an inducible trait. Induction occurred at subinhibitory erythromycin concentrations of about 0.02-0.05 micro g ml(-1). Erythromycin and oleandomycin were inducers, while spiramycin and tylosin exerted no significant inducer properties. With heterologous expression experiments in Corynebacterium glutamicum, using hybrid plasmid constructs and deletion derivatives thereof, it was possible to narrow down the location of the plasmid-borne erythromycin-resistance determinant to a region of about 1.8 kb of pMEC2. Sequence analysis of the genetic determinant, designated erm(36), identified an ORF putatively encoding a 281-residue protein with similarity to 23S rRNA adenine N(6)-methyltransferases. erm(36) was most related (about 52-54% identity) to erythromycin-resistance proteins found in high-G+C Gram-positive bacteria, including the (opportunistic) pathogenic corynebacteria Corynebacterium jeikeium, C. striatum, C. diphtheriae and Propionibacterium acnes. This is believed to be the first report of a plasmid-borne, inducible antibiotic resistance in micrococci. The possible role of non-pathogenic, saprophytic micrococci bearing antibiotic-resistance genes in the spreading of these determinants is discussed.
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6. Nagaki  M, Kimura  K, Kimura  H, Maki  Y, Goto  E, Nishino  T, Koyama  T,     ( 2001 )

Artificial substrates of medium-chain elongating enzymes, hexaprenyl- and heptaprenyl diphosphate synthases.

Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 11 (16)
PMID : 11514159  :   DOI  :   10.1016/s0960-894x(01)00391-2    
Abstract >>
We examined the reactivity of 3-alkyl group homologues of farnesyl diphosphate or isopentenyl diphosphate for medium-chain prenyl diphosphate synthases, hexaprenyl diphosphate- or heptaprenyl diphosphate synthase. But-3-enyl diphosphate, which lacks the methyl group at the 3-position of isopentenyl diphosphate, condensed only once with farnesyl diphosphate to give E-norgeranylgeranyl diphosphate by the action of either enzyme. However, norfarnesyl diphosphate was never accepted as an allylic substrate at all. 3-Ethylbut-3-enyl diphosphate also reacted with farnesyl diphosphate giving a mixture of (all-E)-3-ethyl-7,11,15-trimethylhexadeca-2,6,10,14-tetraenyl- and (all-E)-3,7-diethyl-11,15,19-trimethylicosa-2,6,10,14,18-pentaenyl diphosphates by hexaprenyl diphosphate synthase. On the other hand, heptaprenyl diphosphate synthase reaction of 3-ethylbut-3-enyl diphosphate with farnesyl diphosphate gave only (all-E)-3-ethyl-7,11,15-trimethylhexadeca-2,6,10,14-tetraenyl diphosphate.
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7. Kharel  Y, Zhang  YW, Fujihashi  M, Miki  K, Koyama  T,     ( 2001 )

Identification of Significant residues for homoallylic substrate binding of Micrococcus luteus B-P 26 undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase.

The Journal of biological chemistry 276 (30)
PMID : 11346651  :   DOI  :   10.1074/jbc.M102057200    
Abstract >>
The primary structure of cis-prenyltransferase is totally different from those of trans-prenyltransferases (Shimizu, N., Koyama, T., and Ogura, K. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 19476-19481). To better understand the molecular mechanism of enzymatic cis-prenyl chain elongation, we selected seven charged residues in the conserved Region V and two of Phe-Ser motif in Region III of undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase of Micrococcus luteus B-P 26 for substitutions by site-directed mutagenesis and examined their effects on substrate binding and catalysis. Kinetic studies indicated that replacements of Arg-197 or Arg-203 with Ser, and Glu-216 with Gln resulted in 7-11-fold increases of Km values for isopentenyl diphosphate and 18-1200-fold decreases of kcat values compared with those of the wild-type enzyme. In addition, two mutants with respect to the Phe-Ser motif in Region III, F73A and S74A, showed 16-32-fold larger Km values for isopentenyl diphosphate and 12-16-fold lower kcat values than those of the wild-type. Furthermore, product analysis indicated that three mutants, F73A, S74A, and E216Q, yielded shorter chain prenyl diphosphates as their main products. These facts together with the protein structural analysis recently carried out (Fujihashi, M., Zhang, Y.-W., Higuchi, Y., Li, X.-Y., Koyama, T., and Miki, K. (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 98, 4337-4342) indicated that the diphosphate moiety of homoallylic substrate is electrostatically recognized by the three charged amino acids, Arg-197, Arg-203, and Glu-216, in Region V and the Phe-Ser motif in Region III, also indispensable for homoallylic substrate binding as well as catalytic function. It was suggested that the undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase takes a different mode for the binding of isopentenyl diphosphate from that of trans-prenyl chain elongating enzymes.
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8. Fujihashi  M, Zhang  YW, Higuchi  Y, Li  XY, Koyama  T, Miki  K,     ( 2001 )

Crystal structure of cis-prenyl chain elongating enzyme, undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98 (8)
PMID : 11287651  :   DOI  :   10.1073/pnas.071514398     PMC  :   PMC31836    
Abstract >>
Undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase (UPS) catalyzes the cis-prenyl chain elongation onto trans, trans-farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) to produce undecaprenyl diphosphate (UPP), which is indispensable for the biosynthesis of bacterial cell walls. We report here the crystal structure of UPS as the only three-dimensional structure among cis-prenyl chain elongating enzymes. The structure is classified into a protein fold family and is completely different from the so-called "isoprenoid synthase fold" that is believed to be a common structure for the enzymes relating to isoprenoid biosynthesis. Conserved amino acid residues among cis-prenyl chain elongating enzymes are located around a large hydrophobic cleft in the UPS structure. A structural P-loop motif, which frequently appears in the various kinds of phosphate binding site, is found at the entrance of this cleft. The catalytic site is determined on the basis of these structural features, from which a possible reaction mechanism is proposed.
KeywordMeSH Terms
9. Fujikura  K, Zhang  YW, Yoshizaki  H, Nishino  T, Koyama  T,     ( 2000 )

Significance of Asn-77 and Trp-78 in the catalytic function of undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase of Micrococcus luteus B-P 26.

Journal of biochemistry 128 (6)
PMID : 11098133  :   DOI  :   10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a022842    
Abstract >>
The primary structures of cis-prenyltransferases are completely different from those of trans-prenyltransferases. To obtain information about amino acid residues relating to catalytic function, random mutation of the undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase gene of Micrococcus luteus B-P 26 was carried out to construct a mutated gene library using an error-prone polymerase chain reaction. From the library, the mutants showing poor enzymatic activity were selected by the colony autoradiography method. Among 31 negative clones selected from 3,000 mutants, two clones were found to contain only one amino acid substitution at either Asn-77 or Trp-78. To determine the functional roles of these interesting residues, we prepared six mutated enzymes with substitutions at residues Asn-77 or Trp-78 by site-directed mutagenesis. Substitution of Asn-77 with Ala, Asp, or Gln resulted in a dramatic decrease in catalytic activity, but the K(m) values for both allylic and homoallylic substrates of these mutant enzymes were comparable to those of the wild-type. On the other hand, three Trp-78 mutants, W78I, W78R, and W78D, showed 5-20-fold increased K(m) values for farnesyl diphosphate but not for Z-geranylgeranyl diphosphate. However, these mutants showed moderate levels of enzymatic activity and comparable K(m) values for isopentenyl diphosphate to that of the wild-type. These results suggest that the Asn-Trp motif is involved in the binding of farnesyl diphosphate and enzymatic catalysis.
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10. Shimizu  N, Zhang  YW, Fujihashi  M,     ( 1999 )

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase from Micrococcus luteus B-P 26.

Acta crystallographica. Section D, Biological crystallography 55 (Pt 9)
PMID : 10489461  :   DOI  :   10.1107/s0907444999008768    
Abstract >>
Undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase from Micrococcus luteus B-P 26, one of the Z-prenyl chain-elongating enzymes, was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with ammonium sulfate and lithium sulfate as precipitants. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 127.2, b = 60.2, c = 75.7 A, beta = 105.6 degrees. The crystals diffract X-rays to at least 2.2 A resolution using synchrotron radiation and are suitable for high-resolution crystal structure analysis.
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11. Sakai  K, Nagano  Y, Kawamura  T,     ( 1999 )

Overexpression of salt-tolerant glutaminase from Micrococcus luteus K-3 in Escherichia coli and its purification.

Protein expression and purification 15 (2)
PMID : 10049670  :   DOI  :   10.1006/prep.1998.1005    
Abstract >>
A high-expression plasmid, pKSGHE3-1, containing the salt-tolerant glutaminase (EC 3.5.1.2) from marine bacterium Micrococcus luteus K-3 was constructed. pKSGHE3-1 was made by inserting the DNA fragment (1.43 kb) containing the structural gene synthesized by polymerase chain reaction into the downstream region of the tac promoter of expression vector pKK223-3. The translational start codon was located 10 bases downstream of the Shine-Dalgarno sequence (AGGA) of pKK223-3. Escherichia coli JM109 transformed with pKSGHE3-1 exhibited more than 190-fold higher glutaminase activity than M. luteus K-3 under optimal culture conditions. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity through three column chromatography steps with a final yield of 17.1%. The recombinant enzyme showed the same enzymatic properties, including salt tolerance, as those of M. luteus K-3. This glutaminase expression system allows the production of sufficient quantities of glutaminase for basic structure-function studies including chemical modification and future X-ray crystallization analysis.
KeywordMeSH Terms
12. Achour  AR, Bauda  P, Billard  P,     ( 2007 )

Diversity of arsenite transporter genes from arsenic-resistant soil bacteria.

Research in microbiology 158 (1��2��)
PMID : 17258434  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.resmic.2006.11.006    
Abstract >>
A PCR approach was developed to assess the occurrence and diversity of arsenite transporters in arsenic-resistant bacteria. For this purpose, three sets of degenerate primers were designed for the specific amplification of approximately 750bp fragments from arsB and two subsets of ACR3 (designated ACR3(1) and ACR3(2)) arsenite carrier gene families. These primers were used to screen a collection of 41 arsenic-resistant strains isolated from two soil samples with contrasting amounts of arsenic. PCR results showed that 70.7% of the isolates contained a gene related to arsB or ACR3, with three of them carrying both arsB and ACR3-like genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the protein sequences deduced from the amplicons indicated a prevalence of arsB in Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria, while ACR3(1) and ACR3(2) were mostly present in Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria, respectively. In addition to validating the use of degenerate primers for the identification of arsenite transporter genes in a taxonomically wide range of bacteria, the study describes a novel collection of strains displaying interesting features of resistance to arsenate, arsenite and antimonite, and the ability to oxidize arsenite.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Soil Microbiology
13. Mukamolova  GV, Murzin  AG, Salina  EG, Demina  GR, Kell  DB, Kaprelyants  AS, Young  M,     ( 2006 )

Muralytic activity of Micrococcus luteus Rpf and its relationship to physiological activity in promoting bacterial growth and resuscitation.

Molecular microbiology 59 (1)
PMID : 16359320  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1365-2958.2005.04930.x    
Abstract >>
The culturability of several actinobacteria is controlled by resuscitation-promoting factors (Rpfs). These are proteins containing a c. 70-residue domain that adopts a lysozyme-like fold. The invariant catalytic glutamate residue found in lysozyme and various bacterial lytic transglycosylases is also conserved in the Rpf proteins. Rpf from Micrococcus luteus, the founder member of this protein family, is indeed a muralytic enzyme, as revealed by its activity in zymograms containing M. luteus cell walls and its ability to (i) cause lysis of Escherichia coli when expressed and secreted into the periplasm; (ii) release fluorescent material from fluorescamine-labelled cell walls of M. luteus; and (iii) hydrolyse the artificial lysozyme substrate, 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-N,N',N''-triacetylchitotrioside. Rpf activity was reduced but not completely abolished when the invariant glutamate residue was altered. Moreover, none of the other acidic residues in the Rpf domain was absolutely required for muralytic activity. Replacement of one or both of the cysteine residues that probably form a disulphide bridge within Rpf impaired but did not completely abolish muralytic activity. The muralytic activities of the Rpf mutants were correlated with their abilities to stimulate bacterial culturability and resuscitation, consistent with the view that the biological activity of Rpf results directly or indirectly from its ability to cleave bonds in bacterial peptidoglycan.
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14. Fujita  MQ, Yoshikawa  H, Ogasawara  N,     ( 1990 )

Structure of the dnaA region of Micrococcus luteus: conservation and variations among eubacteria.

Gene 93 (1)
PMID : 2172090  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0378-1119(90)90138-h    
Abstract >>
A phylogenetic tree constructed by 5S rRNA analysis is composed of three major branches in eubacteria: high G + C Gram+, low G + C Gram+ and Gram- [Hori and Osawa, Mol. Biol. Evol. 4 (1987) 445-472]. We have shown that the characteristic dnaA region is common among Escherichia coli (Gram-), Pseudomonas putida (Gram-), and Bacillus subtilis (low G + C Gram+). We have now determined the structure of the dnaA region of Micrococcus luteus, as a representative of the last branch, high G + C Gram+. The dnaA gene and at least three other genes, rnpA, rpmH and dnaN were found to be conserved in M. luteus. Large nontranslatable regions were found flanking the dnaA gene. The upstream region is conserved in the four bacteria so far examined. On the other hand, the downstream region is conserved only in Gram+ bacteria, M. luteus and B. subtilis. The consensus sequence of the DnaA box in M. luteus seems to be TTGTCCACA, in contrast to TTATCCACA of other bacteria. These results confirm our hypothesis that the dnaA region is the replication origin of the ancestral bacteria and that the essential feature of the DnaA protein and DnaA-box combination is conserved in eubacteria.
KeywordMeSH Terms
DNA Replication
15. Sasaki  D, Fujihashi  M, Okuyama  N, Kobayashi  Y, Noike  M, Koyama  T, Miki  K,     ( 2011 )

Crystal structure of heterodimeric hexaprenyl diphosphate synthase from Micrococcus luteus B-P 26 reveals that the small subunit is directly involved in the product chain length regulation.

The Journal of biological chemistry 286 (5)
PMID : 21068379  :   DOI  :   10.1074/jbc.M110.147991     PMC  :   PMC3030375    
Abstract >>
Hexaprenyl diphosphate synthase from Micrococcus luteus B-P 26 (Ml-HexPPs) is a heterooligomeric type trans-prenyltransferase catalyzing consecutive head-to-tail condensations of three molecules of isopentenyl diphosphates (C(5)) on a farnesyl diphosphate (FPP; C(15)) to form an (all-E) hexaprenyl diphosphate (HexPP; C(30)). Ml-HexPPs is known to function as a heterodimer of two different subunits, small and large subunits called HexA and HexB, respectively. Compared with homooligomeric trans-prenyltransferases, the molecular mechanism of heterooligomeric trans-prenyltransferases is not yet clearly understood, particularly with respect to the role of the small subunits lacking the catalytic motifs conserved in most known trans-prenyltransferases. We have determined the crystal structure of Ml-HexPPs both in the substrate-free form and in complex with 7,11-dimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrien-1-yl diphosphate ammonium salt (3-DesMe-FPP), an analog of FPP. The structure of HexB is composed of mostly antiparallel �\-helices joined by connecting loops. Two aspartate-rich motifs (designated the first and second aspartate-rich motifs) and the other characteristic motifs in HexB are located around the diphosphate part of 3-DesMe-FPP. Despite the very low amino acid sequence identity and the distinct polypeptide chain lengths between HexA and HexB, the structure of HexA is quite similar to that of HexB. The aliphatic tail of 3-DesMe-FPP is accommodated in a large hydrophobic cleft starting from HexB and penetrating to the inside of HexA. These structural features suggest that HexB catalyzes the condensation reactions and that HexA is directly involved in the product chain length control in cooperation with HexB.
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16. Yoshimune  K, Shirakihara  Y, Wakayama  M, Yumoto  I,     ( 2010 )

Crystal structure of salt-tolerant glutaminase from Micrococcus luteus K-3 in the presence and absence of its product L-glutamate and its activator Tris.

The FEBS journal 277 (3)
PMID : 20050917  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1742-4658.2009.07523.x    
Abstract >>
Glutaminase from Micrococcus luteus K-3 [Micrococcus glutaminase (Mglu); 456 amino acid residues (aa); 48 kDa] is a salt-tolerant enzyme. Our previous study determined the structure of its major 42-kDa fragment. Here, using new crystallization conditions, we determined the structures of the intact enzyme in the presence and absence of its product L-glutamate and its activator Tris, which activates the enzyme by sixfold. With the exception of a 'lid' part (26-29 aa) and a few other short stretches, the structures were all very similar over the entire polypeptide chain. However, the presence of the ligands significantly reduced the length of the disordered regions: 41 aa in the unliganded structure (N), 21 aa for L-glutamate (G), 8 aa for Tris (T) and 6 aa for both L-glutamate and Tris (TG). L-glutamate was identified in both the G and TG structures, whereas Tris was only identified in the TG structure. Comparison of the glutamate-binding site between Mglu and salt-labile glutaminase (YbgJ) from Bacillus subtilis showed significantly smaller structural changes of the protein part in Mglu. A comparison of the substrate-binding pocket of Mglu, which is highly specific for L-glutamine, with that of Erwinia carotovora asparaginase, which has substrates other than L-glutamine, shows that Mglu has a larger substrate-binding pocket that prevents the binding of L-asparagine with proper interactions.
KeywordMeSH Terms
17. Demina  GR, Makarov  VA, Nikitushkin  VD, Ryabova  OB, Vostroknutova  GN, Salina  EG, Shleeva  MO, Goncharenko  AV, Kaprelyants  AS,     ( PloS one )


Finding of the low molecular weight inhibitors of resuscitation promoting factor enzymatic and resuscitation activity. 2009 (4)
PMID : 20016836  :   DOI  :   10.1371/journal.pone.0008174     PMC  :   PMC2790607    
Abstract >>
Resuscitation promoting factors (RPF) are secreted proteins involved in reactivation of dormant actinobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They have been considered as prospective targets for the development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs preventing reactivation of dormant tubercle bacilli, generally associated with latent tuberculosis. However, no inhibitors of Rpf activity have been reported so far. The goal of this study was to find low molecular weight compounds inhibiting the enzymatic and biological activities of Rpfs. Here we describe a novel class of 2-nitrophenylthiocyanates (NPT) compounds that inhibit muralytic activity of Rpfs with IC(50) 1-7 microg/ml. Fluorescence studies revealed interaction of active NPTs with the internal regions of the Rpf molecule. Candidate inhibitors of Rpf enzymatic activity showed a bacteriostatic effect on growth of Micrococcus luteus (in which Rpf is essential for growth protein) at concentrations close to IC(50). The candidate compounds suppressed resuscitation of dormant (non-culturable") cells of M. smegmatis at 1 microg/ml or delayed resuscitation of dormant M. tuberculosis obtained in laboratory conditions at 10 microg/ml. However, they did not inhibit growth of active mycobacteria under these concentrations.
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18. Su  P, Wang  DX, Ding  SX, Zhao  J,     ( 2014 )

Isolation and diversity of natural product biosynthetic genes of cultivable bacteria associated with marine sponge Mycale sp. from the coast of Fujian, China.

Canadian journal of microbiology 60 (4)
PMID : 24693980  :   DOI  :   10.1139/cjm-2013-0785    
Abstract >>
The marine sponge Mycale sp., a potential source of natural bioactive products, is widely distributed along the coast of Fujian, China. The cultivable bacterial community associated with Mycale sp., the antibacterial activities, and the PKS (polyketide synthase) and NRPS (nonribosomal peptide synthetase) gene diversity of these bacteria were investigated. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that the 51 isolates from Mycale sp. belonged to Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Among them, some bacteria were first isolated from marine sponge. The 20 isolates with antimicrobial activities were primarily clustered within the groups Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacillus. Strain HNS054, which showed 99% similarity to Streptomyces labedae, exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 1430, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441) and Vibrio species. The screening of natural product biosynthetic genes revealed that 8 Actinobacteria species with antimicrobial activities possessed PKS-KS (ketosynthase) or NRPS-A domains, and the Nocardiopsis species contained a hybrid or mixed PKS-NRPS system. The phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences indicated that the identified KS domains clustered with those from diverse bacterial groups, including Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Firmicutes. Most KS domain sequences had high homology (>80%) to type I KSs, but the KS domain of Nocardiopsis sp. strain HNS048 had 77% similarity to the type II KS domain of Burkholderia gladioli. The NRPS-A domains of the 8 isolates were grouped into the Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes groups. The NRPS-A gene of strain HNS052, identified as Nocardiopsis cyriacigeorgica, showed only 54% similarity to Rhodococcus opacus. All results suggested that Mycale sp. harboured diverse bacteria that could contribute to the production of novel bioactive substances in the future.
KeywordMeSH Terms
19. Ohama  T, Muto  A, Osawa  S,     ( 1989 )

Spectinomycin operon of Micrococcus luteus: evolutionary implications of organization and novel codon usage.

Journal of molecular evolution 29 (5)
PMID : 2533272  :   DOI  :   10.1007/bf02602908    
Abstract >>
The complete DNA sequence of the Micrococcus luteus spectinomycin (spc) operon and its adjacent regions has been determined. The sequence has revealed the presence of genes that are homologous to those of the Escherichia coli ribosomal and related proteins, L14, L24, L5, S8, L6, L18, S5, L30, L15, and secretion protein Y (sec Y), and the gene for adenylate kinase (adk). The gene arrangement in the spc operon is essentially the same as that of E. coli except for the absence in the M. luteus spc operon of the genes for S14 and X protein that exist in the E. coli spc operon. SecY and adk seem to be composed of another operon (adk operon) with at least an open reading frame. The deduced amino acid sequences for these ribosomal proteins are well conserved among the two species (40-65% identity). Reflecting the high genomic guanine and cytosine (GC) content of M. luteus (74%), the codon usage of the genes is extremely biased toward use of G and C, about 94% of the codon third positions being G or C. Seven codons, AUA, AAA, AGA, UUA, GUA, CUA, and CAA, all of which have A at the codon third positions, are completely absent in the M. luteus genes examined. Out of 11 genes in the M. luteus spc and adk operons, 5 (10) use GUG (UGA) and 6 (1) use AUG (UAA) as an initiation (termination) codon.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Operon
Spectinomycin
20. Shiota  S, Nakayama  H,     ( 1989 )

Micrococcus luteus homolog of the Escherichia coli uvrA gene: identification of a mutation in the UV-sensitive mutant DB7.

Molecular & general genetics : MGG 217 (2��3��)
PMID : 2549377  :   DOI  :   10.1007/bf02464901    
Abstract >>
Restriction fragments of Micrococcus luteus DNA containing the gene affected by a mutation in the UV-sensitive mutant DB7 were cloned both from the wild type and from the mutant in an Escherichia coli host-vector system. The wild-type fragment was able to reverse the multiple sensitivity of the mutant to UV, mitomycin C, and 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide by a one-step transformation. Determination of the nucleotide sequences revealed a potential open reading frame coding for a protein of 992 (tentative) amino acid residues, within which the DB7 mutation was identified as a CG-to-TA transition causing a translation termination. The putative product of the open reading frame shares an extensive amino acid sequence homology with the E. coli UvrA protein comprising 940 residues. The homology extends over the greater part of both polypeptides except for two extra sequences of 31 and 24 amino acid residues located at the amino-terminal and in the interior, respectively, of the M. luteus protein. In the homologous region, 56.7% and 16.7% of the 933 pairs of the aligned amino acids were accounted for by conserved residues and conservative substitutions, respectively. These results indicate that the gene defined by the mutation in DB7 represents a homolog of the E. coli uvrA gene. Hence, it has to be concluded that DB7, known for its deficiency in UV endonuclease (pyrimidine dimer DNA glycosylase/apurinicapyrimidinic endonuclease) activity, is a double mutant which is also defective in an enzyme complex similar to the E. coli UvrABC excinuclease.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
21. Sowada  J, Schmalenberger  A, Ebner  I, Luch  A, Tralau  T,     ( 2014 )

Degradation of benzo[a]pyrene by bacterial isolates from human skin.

FEMS microbiology ecology 88 (1)
PMID : 24372170  :   DOI  :   10.1111/1574-6941.12276    
Abstract >>
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are some of the most widespread xenobiotic pollutants, with the potentially carcinogenic high-molecular-weight representatives being of particular interest. However, while in eukaryotes, the cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated activation of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) has become a model for metabolism-mediated carcinogenesis, the oxidative degradation of B[a]P by microorganisms is less well studied. This should be reason for concern as the human organ most exposed to environmental PAHs is the skin, which at the same time is habitat to a most diverse population of microbial commensals. Yet, nothing is known about the skin's microbiome potential to metabolise B[a]P. This study now reports on the isolation of 21 B[a]P-degrading microorganisms from human skin, 10 of which were characterised further. All isolates were able to degrade B[a]P as sole source of carbon and energy, and degradation was found to be complete in at least four isolates. Substrate metabolism involved two transcripts that encode a putative DszA/NtaA-like monooxygenase and a NifH-like reductase, respectively. Analysis of the 16S-rRNA genes showed that the B[a]P-degrading isolates comprise Gram(+) as well as Gram(-) skin commensals, with Micrococci being predominant. Moreover, microbial B[a]P-degradation was detected on all volunteers probed, indicating it to be a universal feature of the skin's microbiome.
KeywordMeSH Terms
bacterial degradation
benzo[a]pyrene
carbon limit
human skin
microbiome
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
bacterial degradation
benzo[a]pyrene
carbon limit
human skin
microbiome
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
22.     ( 1997 )

UV endonuclease of Micrococcus luteus, a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase/abasic lyase: cloning and characterization of the gene.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 94 (2)
PMID : 9012829  :   DOI  :   10.1073/pnas.94.2.593     PMC  :   PMC19558    
Abstract >>
The gene of Micrococcus luteus UV endonuclease (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase/ abasic lyase) was cloned and characterized. The cloned gene, whose product had a predicted molecular mass of 17,120 Da, was found to be capable of complementing the Escherichia coli uvrA6 mutation in vivo with respect to resistance to acetonemediated molecular photosensitization, a treatment producing exclusively cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in DNA. It also generated a nicking activity specific for photosensitization-treated DNA by in vitro transcription/translation. When expressed in E. coli cells, the gene produced a protein structurally identical with UV endonuclease and possessing an activity consistent with cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase/abasic lyase with respect to the effect of inhibitors and the site of the DNA backbone scission. Furthermore, the UV endonuclease-deficient mutant DB7 was shown to regain the enzyme through transformation with the cloned gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of the gene product was at best 27% identical with that of endonuclease V of phage T4, an enzyme strikingly similar to UV endonuclease in molecular and catalytic properties. Despite this marginal overall similarity in amino acid sequence, four of the seven amino acid residues reported to be functionally important in the T4 enzyme were found to be conserved in the M. luteus enzyme. We propose that the gene be called uveA.
KeywordMeSH Terms
DNA Repair
Escherichia coli Proteins
Genes, Bacterial
23.     ( 1996 )

Characterization of an unusual Rho factor from the high G + C gram-positive bacterium Micrococcus luteus.

The Journal of biological chemistry 271 (2)
PMID : 8557681  :   DOI  :   10.1074/jbc.271.2.742    
Abstract >>
A transcription termination factor (Rho) was purified from the Gram-positive bacterium Micrococcus luteus, and the complete gene sequence was determined. The M. luteus Rho polypeptide has 690 residues, which is 271 residues more than its homolog from Escherichia coli. Most of the additional residues compose a highly charged, hydrophilic segment that is inserted in a non-conserved region between two conserved regions of the RNA-binding domain of the known Rho homolog proteins. This segment extends from residues 49 to 311 and includes a stretch of 238 residues that contain no hydrophobic side chains. Biochemical studies indicate that the M. luteus protein is very similar to E. coli Rho in terms of its RNA-dependent NTPase activity and its sensitivity to the Rho-specific inhibitor bicyclomycin. However, the M. luteus protein has a less stringent RNA cofactor specificity. It also acts to terminate RNA transcription with E. coli RNA polymerase on the lambda cro DNA template, but at much earlier termination stop points than those recognized by E. coli Rho. Thus, the M. luteus protein functions as a true Rho factor, but with a different specificity than that of E. coli Rho. We propose that this altered specificity is consistent with its need to function on transcripts that have a high content of G + C residues.
KeywordMeSH Terms
24.     ( 1993 )

Structural similarities between M. luteus and E. coli DNA topoisomerase I.

Biochemical and biophysical research communications 192 (2)
PMID : 8387285  :   DOI  :   10.1006/bbrc.1993.1465    
Abstract >>
Type I DNA topoisomerase has been isolated from Micrococcus luteus following a procedure that takes advantage of the binding of the enzyme to heparin and single stranded DNA. Almost pure enzyme was obtained using two successive affinity chromatography steps: on heparin Sepharose and ssDNA cellulose. The method was rapid and allowed the isolation of DNA topoisomerase I from M. luteus in mg quantities. Polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbit were shown to cross-react with type I DNA topoisomerase of Escherichia coli. Partial protein sequencing of the M. luteus enzyme identified a peptide with high similarity to the putative protein sequence of E. coli DNA topoisomerase I, aligning with 73% identity to amino acids 491-505.
KeywordMeSH Terms
25.     ( 1994 )

Phylogenetic analysis of sequences from diverse bacteria with homology to the Escherichia coli rho gene.

Journal of bacteriology 176 (16)
PMID : 8051015  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.176.16.5033-5043.1994     PMC  :   PMC196342    
Abstract >>
Genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens, Chromatium vinosum, Micrococcus luteus, Deinococcus radiodurans, and Thermotoga maritima with homology to the Escherichia coli rho gene were cloned and sequenced, and their sequences were compared with other available sequences. The species for all of the compared sequences are members of five bacterial phyla, including Thermotogales, the most deeply diverged phylum. This suggests that a rho-like gene is ubiquitous in the Bacteria and was present in their common ancestor. The comparative analysis revealed that the Rho homologs are highly conserved, exhibiting a minimum identity of 50% of their amino acid residues in pairwise comparisons. The ATP-binding domain had a particularly high degree of conservation, consisting of some blocks with sequences of residues that are very similar to segments of the alpha and beta subunits of F1-ATPase and of other blocks with sequences that are unique to Rho. The RNA-binding domain is more diverged than the ATP-binding domain. However, one of its most highly conserved segments includes a RNP1-like sequence, which is known to be involved in RNA binding. Overall, the degree of similarity is lowest in the first 50 residues (the first half of the RNA-binding domain), in the putative connector region between the RNA-binding and the ATP-binding domains, and in the last 50 residues of the polypeptide. Since functionally defective mutants for E. coli Rho exist in all three of these segments, they represent important parts of Rho that have undergone adaptive evolution.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
26.     ( 1995 )

Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of ribosomal proteins as a novel approach to bacterial taxonomy: application to the genus Arthrobacter.

Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry 59 (9)
PMID : 8520111  :   DOI  :   10.1271/bbb.59.1679    
Abstract >>
Ribosomal proteins from 22 strains of 15 different species belong to the genus Arthrobacter were analyzed by an improved two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Electrophoretograms of ribosomal proteins from 15 type strains had species-specific patterns. Similarity coefficients (SAB values) of ribosomal proteins with mol. wt. of greater than about 20,000, among strains of the same species (DNA relatedness values of more than 61%) were greater than 0.85, but the SAB values among strains of different species were less than 0.60. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the AL2 proteins, which migrated into similar positions in this method, from 5 type strains were shown to be highly homologous. Our results indicated that ribosomal proteins have been conserved within species during evolution and that the members of the genus Arthrobacter are phylogenetically homogeneous. Thus, ribosomal protein profiles by this method are a potential tool for strain identification.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional
27. Itoh  T,     ( 1981 )

Primary structure of an acidic ribosomal protein from Micrococcus lysodeikticus.

FEBS letters 127 (1)
PMID : 7250376  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0014-5793(81)80342-0    
Abstract >>
N/A
KeywordMeSH Terms
28. Fujii  H, Koyama  T, Ogura  K,     ( 1982 )

Hexaprenyl pyrophosphate synthetase from Micrococcus luteus B-P 26. Separation of two essential components.

The Journal of biological chemistry 257 (24)
PMID : 7174655  :  
Abstract >>
Hexaprenyl pyrophosphate synthetase was detected in extracts of Micrococcus luteus B-P 26. During the course of purification the enzyme was resolved into two components, each of which had no catalytic activity but restored the hexaprenyl pyrophosphate synthetase activity when combined with each other. Both fractions, designated components A and B in the order of their elution from hydroxyapatite, were purified free of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase co-occurring in the same bacterium. They appeared to be proteins of molecular weights of approximately 20,000 (component A) and 60,000 (component B). Component A was more stable as compared with component B which was easily destroyed by relatively mild heat treatment. The hexaprenyl pyrophosphate synthetase reconstituted of these two components catalyzed the synthesis of all-trans-hexaprenyl pyrophosphate from isopentenyl pyrophosphate and all-trans-farnesyl or all-trans-geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, but it did not catalyze a reaction between isopentenyl pyrophosphate and either dimethylallyl or geranyl pyrophosphate.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Alkyl and Aryl Transferases
29. Ohama  T, Yamao  F, Muto  A, Osawa  S,     ( 1987 )

Organization and codon usage of the streptomycin operon in Micrococcus luteus, a bacterium with a high genomic G + C content.

Journal of bacteriology 169 (10)
PMID : 3654584  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.169.10.4770-4777.1987     PMC  :   PMC213853    
Abstract >>
The DNA sequence of the Micrococcus luteus str operon, which includes genes for ribosomal proteins S12 (str or rpsL) and S7 (rpsG) and elongation factors (EF) G (fus) and Tu (tuf), has been determined and compared with the corresponding sequence of Escherichia coli to estimate the effect of high genomic G + C content (74%) of M. luteus on the codon usage pattern. The gene organization in this operon and the deduced amino acid sequence of each corresponding protein are well conserved between the two species. The mean G + C content of the M. luteus str operon is 67%, which is much higher than that of E. coli (51%). The codon usage pattern of M. luteus is very different from that of E. coli and extremely biased to the use of G and C in silent positions. About 95% (1,309 of 1,382) of codons have G or C at the third position. Codon GUG is used for initiation of S12, EF-G, and EF-Tu, and AUG is used only in S7, whereas GUG initiates only one of the EF-Tu's in E. coli. UGA is the predominant termination codon in M. luteus, in contrast to UAA in E. coli.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Operon
30. Koyama  T, Yoshida  I, Ogura  K,     ( 1988 )

Undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase from Micrococcus luteus B-P 26: essential factors for the enzymatic activity.

Journal of biochemistry 103 (5)
PMID : 3182755  :   DOI  :   10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a122363    
Abstract >>
An undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase fraction, which was free of other prenyltransferases and was active without the addition of detergent or phospholipid, was obtained by Sephadex G-100 chromatography of cell-free extracts of Micrococcus luteus B-P 26 cells. The addition of small amounts of Triton X-100 to this fraction caused a marked loss of the enzyme activity, but the activity was gradually restored as further detergent was added. When the enzyme fraction was chromatographed on DEAE-cellulose, the synthase was partially purified, but the activity was not detected unless assayed with addition of the detergent or a lipid fraction of this bacterium. Among the three phospholipids isolated from this bacterium, cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol had a marked effect in activating lipid-depleted undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase, but O-lysylphosphatidylglycerol, which occurs prominently in this bacterium, had little effect.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Alkyl and Aryl Transferases
31. Yavas  A, Icgen  B,     ( 2018 )

Diversity of the Aromatic-Ring-Hydroxylating Dioxygenases in the Monoaromatic Hydrocarbon Degraders Held by a Common Ancestor.

Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology 101 (3)
PMID : 29752518  :   DOI  :   10.1007/s00128-018-2350-4    
Abstract >>
Aromatic ring hydroxylating dioxygenases (ARHDs), harboured by a variety of bacteria, catalyze the initial reaction in the degradation of a wide range of toxic environmental contaminants like aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Regardless of the source, bacteria harbouring RHDs play major role in the removal of these toxic contaminants. The diversity of ARHDs in contaminated sites is supposed to be huge. However, most of the ARHD diversity studies are based on the PAH degraders and the ARHD diversity in the monoaromatic hydrocarbon degraders has not fully explored yet. In this study, therefore, the ARHD gene from nine different genara of the monoaromatic hydrocarbon degraders including Raoultella, Stenotrophomons, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Comamonas, Pantoea, and Micrococcus was analysed through polymerase chain reactions and sequencing. The sequence alignments of the ARHD amplicons with 81%-99% homologies were found to be highly related and held by divergent evolution from a common ancestor.
KeywordMeSH Terms
ARHD
Aromatic ring hydroxylating dioxygenases
Hydrocarbon degraders
TodC1
ARHD
Aromatic ring hydroxylating dioxygenases
Hydrocarbon degraders
TodC1
ARHD
Aromatic ring hydroxylating dioxygenases
Hydrocarbon degraders
TodC1
ARHD
Aromatic ring hydroxylating dioxygenases
Hydrocarbon degraders
TodC1
ARHD
Aromatic ring hydroxylating dioxygenases
Hydrocarbon degraders
TodC1
32.     ( 1998 )

A bacterial cytokine.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95 (15)
PMID : 9671779  :   DOI  :   10.1073/pnas.95.15.8916     PMC  :   PMC21177    
Abstract >>
Viable cells of Micrococcus luteus secrete a factor, which promotes the resuscitation and growth of dormant, nongrowing cells of the same organism. The resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf) is a protein, which has been purified to homogeneity. In picomolar concentrations, it increases the viable cell count of dormant M. luteus cultures at least 100-fold and can also stimulate the growth of viable cells. Rpf also stimulates the growth of several other high G+C Gram-positive organisms, including Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis (BCG), Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Similar genes are widely distributed among high G+C Gram-positive bacteria; genome sequencing has uncovered examples in Mycobacterium leprae and Mb. tuberculosis and others have been detected by hybridization in Mb. smegmatis, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Streptomyces spp. The mycobacterial gene products may provide different targets for the detection and control of these important pathogens. This report is thus a description of a proteinaceous autocrine or paracrine bacterial growth factor or cytokine.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
33.     ( 1998 )

Molecular cloning, expression, and purification of undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase. No sequence similarity between E- and Z-prenyl diphosphate synthases.

The Journal of biological chemistry 273 (31)
PMID : 9677368  :   DOI  :   10.1074/jbc.273.31.19476    
Abstract >>
Cloning of the gene for undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase was successful, providing the first primary structure for any prenyltransferase that catalyzes Z-prenyl chain elongation. A genomic DNA library of Micrococcus luteus B-P 26 was constructed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant clones were grown on nylon membranes. The membrane was incubated directly by floating it on a reaction mixture containing radiolabeled isopentenyl diphosphate, nonlabeled farnesyl diphosphate, and Mg2+. Only the clones harboring plasmids encoding prenyltransferases could take up the substrates to synthesize and accumulate radiolabeled products inside the cells in amounts large enough to be detectable by autoradiography. Four positive colonies were found among about 4,000 bacterial colonies of the genomic DNA library. Two of them carried the gene for undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase, which catalyzes the Z-prenyl chain elongation, and the others carried the (all-E)-hexaprenyl diphosphate synthase genes (hexs-a and hexs-b; Shimizu, N., Koyama, T., and Ogura, K. (1998) J. Bacteriol. 180, 1578-1581). The undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase, which had a predicted molecular mass of 28.9 kDa, was overproduced in E. coli cells by applying a soluble expression system, and it was purified to near homogeneity. The deduced primary structure of the Z-prenyl chain-elongating enzyme is totally different from those of E-prenyl chain-elongating enzymes, which have characteristic conserved regions, including aspartate-rich motifs.
KeywordMeSH Terms
34.     ( 1998 )

Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of the genes encoding the two essential protein components of Micrococcus luteus B-P 26 hexaprenyl diphosphate synthase.

Journal of bacteriology 180 (6)
PMID : 9515931  :   PMC  :   PMC107062    
Abstract >>
The structural genes encoding the two essential components A and B of hexaprenyl diphosphate synthase, which produce the precursor of the prenyl side chain of menaquinone-6, were cloned from Micrococcus luteus B-P 26.
KeywordMeSH Terms

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