Gueneau de Novoa P,
( 2004 )
The tmRNA website: reductive evolution of tmRNA in plastids and other endosymbionts.
PMID : 14681369 : DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkh102 PMC : PMC308836
tmRNA combines tRNA- and mRNA-like properties and ameliorates problems arising from stalled ribosomes. Research on the mechanism, structure and biology of tmRNA is served by the tmRNA website (http://www.indiana.edu/~ tmrna), a collection of sequences, alignments, secondary structures and other information. Because many of these sequences are not in GenBank, a BLAST server has been added; another new feature is an abbreviated alignment for the tRNA-like domain only. Many tmRNA sequences from plastids have been added, five found in public sequence data and another 10 generated by direct sequencing; detection in early-branching members of the green plastid lineage brings coverage to all three primary plastid lineages. The new sequences include the shortest known tmRNA sequence. While bacterial tmRNAs usually have a lone pseudoknot upstream of the mRNA segment and a string of three or four pseudoknots downstream, plastid tmRNAs collectively show loss of pseudoknots at both postions. The pseudoknot-string region is also too short to contain the usual pseudoknot number in another new entry, the tmRNA sequence from a bacterial endosymbiont of insect cells, Tremblaya princeps. Pseudoknots may optimize tmRNA function in free-living bacteria, yet become dispensible when the endosymbiotic lifestyle relaxes selective pressure for fast growth.
( 2011 )
Phylogeny of nodulation and nitrogen-fixation genes in Bradyrhizobium: supporting evidence for the theory of monophyletic origin, and spread and maintenance by both horizontal and vertical transfer.
PMID : 21357454 : DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.028803-0
Bacteria belonging to the genus Bradyrhizobium are capable of establishing symbiotic relationships with a broad range of plants belonging to the three subfamilies of the family Leguminosae (=Fabaceae), with the formation of specialized structures on the roots called nodules, where fixation of atmospheric nitrogen takes place. Symbiosis is under the control of finely tuned expression of common and host-specific nodulation genes and also of genes related to the assembly and activity of the nitrogenase, which, in Bradyrhizobium strains investigated so far, are clustered in a symbiotic island. Information about the diversity of these genes is essential to improve our current poor understanding of their origin, spread and maintenance and, in this study, we provide information on 40 Bradyrhizobium strains, mostly of tropical origin. For the nodulation trait, common (nodA), Bradyrhizobium-specific (nodY/K) and host-specific (nodZ) nodulation genes were studied, whereas for fixation ability, the diversity of nifH was investigated. In general, clustering of strains in all nod and nifH trees was similar and the Bradyrhizobium group could be clearly separated from other rhizobial genera. However, the congruence of nod and nif genes with ribosomal and housekeeping genes was low. nodA and nodY/K were not detected in three strains by amplification or hybridization with probes using Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii type strains, indicating the high diversity of these genes or that strains other than photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium must have alternative mechanisms to initiate the process of nodulation. For a large group of strains, the high diversity of nod genes (with an emphasis on nodZ), the low relationship between nod genes and the host legume, and some evidence of horizontal gene transfer might indicate strategies to increase host range. On the other hand, in a group of five symbionts of Acacia mearnsii, the high congruence between nod and ribosomal/housekeeping genes, in addition to shorter nodY/K sequences and the absence of nodZ, highlights a co-evolution process. Additionally, in a group of B. japonicum strains that were symbionts of soybean, vertical transfer seemed to represent the main genetic event. In conclusion, clustering of nodA and nifH gives additional support to the theory of monophyletic origin of the symbiotic genes in Bradyrhizobium and, in addition to the analysis of nodY/K and nodZ, indicates spread and maintenance of nod and nif genes through both vertical and horizontal transmission, apparently with the dominance of one or other of these events in some groups of strains.
( 2009 )
Phylogeny and taxonomy of a diverse collection of Bradyrhizobium strains based on multilocus sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, ITS region and glnII, recA, atpD and dnaK genes.
PMID : 19628593 : DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.009779-0
The genus Bradyrhizobium encompasses a variety of bacteria that can live in symbiotic and endophytic associations with legumes and non-legumes, and are characterized by physiological and symbiotic versatility and broad geographical distribution. However, despite indications of great genetic variability within the genus, only eight species have been described, mainly because of the highly conserved nature of the 16S rRNA gene. In this study, 169 strains isolated from 43 different legumes were analysed by rep-PCR with the BOX primer, by sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) and by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of four housekeeping genes, glnII, recA, atpD and dnaK. Considering a cut-off at a level of 70 % similarity, 80 rep-PCR profiles were distinguished, which, together with type strains, were clustered at a very low level of similarity (24 %). In both single and concatenated analyses of the 16S rRNA gene and ITS sequences, two large groups were formed, with bootstrap support of 99 % in the concatenated analysis. The first group included the type and/or reference strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, B. betae, B. liaoningense, B. canariense and B. yuanmingense and B. japonicum USDA 110, and the second group included strains related to Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA 76(T), B. pachyrhizi PAC48(T) and B. jicamae PAC68(T). Similar results were obtained with MLSA of glnII, recA, atpD and dnaK. Greatest variability was observed when the atpD gene was amplified, and five strains related to B. elkanii revealed a level of variability never reported before. Another important observation was that a group composed of strains USDA 110, SEMIA 5080 and SEMIA 6059, all isolated from soybean, clustered in all six trees with high bootstrap support and were quite distinct from the clusters that included B. japonicum USDA 6(T). The results confirm that MLSA is a rapid and reliable way of providing information on phylogenetic relationships and of identifying rhizobial strains potentially representative of novel species.
( 2017 )
Genetic diversity of indigenous soybean-nodulating rhizobia in response to locally-based long term fertilization in a Mollisol of Northeast China.
PMID : 27848139 : DOI : 10.1007/s11274-016-2170-9
The influences of five different fertilizer treatments on diversity of rhizobia in soybean nodule were investigated in a long-term experiment with with four replicates: (1) control (without fertilization), (2) balanced NPK fertilizer (NPK), and (3-5) unbalanced chemical fertilizers without one of the major elements (NP, PK, and NK) in Mollisol in Northeast China. The highest soybean yield was observed in the NPK treatment. Total of 200 isolates were isolated and grouped into four Bradyrhizobium genospecies corresponding to B. japonicum, B. diazoefficiens, B. ottawaense and Bradyrhizobium sp. I, based upon the multilocus sequence analysis of 6 housekeeping genes. The Bradyrhizobium sp. I was extensively distributed throughout the study site and was recorded as the dominant soybean rhizobia (82.5-87.5%). Except the NK treatment, the other fertilizer treatments had no effect on rhizobial species composition. Compared with the CK treatment, all the fertilizer treatments decreased species richness, diversity and evenness. The soil organic carbon contents, available N content and pH were the key soil factors to rhizobial community structure. Results suggest that long-term fertilization can decrease rhizobial species diversity, while balanced fertilization with NPK is the most suitable fertilization regime if taking both soybean yields and rhizobial diversity into account.
( 2014 )
Genetic divergence of bradyrhizobium strains nodulating soybeans as revealed by multilocus sequence analysis of genes inside and outside the symbiosis island.
PMID : 24632260 : DOI : 10.1128/AEM.00044-14 PMC : PMC4018923
The genus Bradyrhizobium has been considered to be a taxonomically difficult group. In this study, phylogenetics and evolutionary genetics analyses were used to investigate divergence levels among Bradyrhizobium strains nodulating soybeans in China. Eleven genospecies were identified by sequence analysis of three phylogenetic and taxonomic markers (SMc00019, thrA, and truA). This was also supported by analyses of eight genes outside the symbiosis island ("off-island" genes; SMc00019, thrA, truA, fabB, glyA, phyR, exoN, and hsfA). However, seven genes inside the symbiosis island ("island" genes; nifA, nifH, nodC, nodV, fixA, trpD, and rhcC2) showed contrasting lower levels of nucleotide diversity and recombination rates than did off-island genes. Island genes had significantly incongruent gene phylogenies compared to the species tree. Four phylogenetic clusters were observed in island genes, and the epidemic cluster IV (harbored by Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens, Bradyrhizobium huanghuaihaiense, Bradyrhizobium liaoningense, Bradyrhizobium daqingense, Bradyrhizobium sp. I, Bradyrhizobium sp. III, and Bradyrhizobium sp. IV) was not found in Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense, Bradyrhizobium sp. II, or Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The gene flow level of island genes among genospecies is discussed in the context of the divergence level of off-island genes.
( 2018 )
Rhizobial biogeography and inoculation application to soybean in four regions across China.
PMID : 29719942 : DOI : 10.1111/jam.13897
The aim of the study was to survey rhizobial biogeography and to inoculate soybean with selected rhizobia in China to enhance symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF). Biogeography, genetic diversity and phylogeny of soybean rhizobia were surveyed. Inocula were prepared and applied to soybean. Results showed that Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Ensifer fredii were widely distributed in acid and alkaline soils respectively. Available iron was detected as the first determinant for distribution of the two rhizobia and the soybean varieties did not greatly affect the rhizobial compatibility. Geographical latitude and precipitation in June were the main geographical and climatic factors affecting the rhizobial distribution. Inoculation with selected rhizobia increased the nodule number, fresh weight, occupation ratio, seed protein content and soybean yields. Selection and application of effective soybean rhizobia across China according to biogeography were clarified to promote the SNF, thereby improving soybean yield. Rhizobial diversity and biogeography were evaluated systematically in six sites across China. Available iron and soil pH are found to be the most important determinants for the distribution of soybean rhizobia. Inoculation to soybean enhances SNF, positively correlating to the increase in soybean yield and seed protein content.