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1. Lee  CY, Meighen  EA,     ( 1992 )

The lux genes in Photobacterium leiognathi are closely linked with genes corresponding in sequence to riboflavin synthesis genes.

Biochemical and biophysical research communications 186 (2)
PMID : 1339274  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0006-291x(92)90802-r    
Abstract >>
Three open reading frames (ORFs) have been found in the region downstream of the luxG gene in the Photobacterium leiognathi lux operon. These genes (ORF I, II, and III) are not only closely linked to the lux operon and transcribed in the same direction but also show the same organization and code for proteins homologous in sequence to the gene products of ribB, ribA, and ribH of Bacillus subtilis, respectively. The Photobacterium leiognathi gene (ORF II) corresponding to ribA was expressed in Escherichia coli in the bacteriophage T7 promoter-RNA polymerase system and a 40 kDa 35S-labeled polypeptide has been detected on SDS-PAGE. Expression of DNA extending from luxBEG to ORF II inserted between a strong promoter and a reporter gene and transferred by conjugation into Vibrio harveyi did not affect the expression of the reporter gene. The results provide evidence that neither promoter nor terminator sites were present in the DNA between the luxG and ORF II indicating that these genes might be part of the lux operon.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
Genes, Bacterial
Luminescent Proteins
Operon
2. Lin  JW, Chao  YF, Weng  SF,     ( 2001 )

Riboflavin synthesis genes ribE, ribB, ribH, ribA reside in the lux operon of Photobacterium leiognathi.

Biochemical and biophysical research communications 284 (3)
PMID : 11396941  :   DOI  :   10.1006/bbrc.2001.5013    
Abstract >>
Nucleotide sequence of the riboflavin synthesis genes ribE, ribB, ribH, ribA (GenBank Accession No. AF364106) resided in the lux operon of Photobacterium leiognathi PL741 has been determined, and the amino acid sequences of riboflavin synthetase (RibE), DHBP synthetase (RibB), lumazine synthetase (RibH), GTP cyclohydrolase II (RibA) encoded by the riboflavin synthesis genes are deduced. Nucleotide sequence reveals that the ribE gene encodes the riboflavin synthetase responsible for converting lumazine to riboflavin, the ribB gene encodes the DHBP synthetase responsible for 3,4-dihydroxyl-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthesis, the ribH gene encodes the lumazine synthetase responsible for lumazine synthesis, and the ribA gene encodes the GTP cyclohydrolase II responsible for lumazine synthesis. Functional analysis illustrates that the specific segments lay behind the ribH and ribA genes might form potential loops Omega(oT) and Omega(TI)--Omega(TII); Omega(oT) is functioned as mRNA stability loop or/and for subregulation by alternative modulation, and Omega(TI)--Omega(TII) could be the transcriptional terminator of the lux operon. The gene order of the ribE, ribB, ribH, ribA genes resided in the lux operon and linked to the lum operon is <--ter*-lumQ-lumP-R&R-luxC-luxD-luxA-luxB-luxN-luxE-luxG-ribE-ribB-ribH-ribA-ter--> (R&R: regulatory region; ter: transcriptional terminator), whereas the R&R is the regulatory region for the lum and the lux operons, and ter and ter* are the transcriptional terminators for the lux and lum operons.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Plant
Operon
3. Yamamoto  T, Hamada  Y, Ichikawa  M, Kajiwara  H, Mine  T, Tsukamoto  H, Takakura  Y,     ( 2007 )

A beta-galactoside alpha2,6-sialyltransferase produced by a marine bacterium, Photobacterium leiognathi JT-SHIZ-145, is active at pH 8.

Glycobiology 17 (11)
PMID : 17704107  :   DOI  :   10.1093/glycob/cwm086    
Abstract >>
A gene encoding a sialyltransferase produced by Photobacterium leiognathi JT-SHIZ-145 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The sialyltransferase gene contained an open reading frame of 1494 base pairs (bp) encoding a predicted protein of 497 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of the sialyltransferase had no significant similarity to mammalian sialyltransferases and did not contain sialyl motifs, but did show high homology to another marine bacterial sialyltransferase, a beta-galactoside alpha2,6-sialyltransferase produced by P. damselae JT0160. The acceptor substrate specificity of the new enzyme was similar to that of the alpha2,6-sialyltransferase from P. damselae JT0160, but its activity was maximal at pH 8. This property is quite different from the properties of all mammalian and bacterial sialyltransferases reported previously, which have maximal activity at acidic pH. In general, both sialosides and cytidine-5'-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid, the common donor substrate of sialyltransferases, are more stable under basic conditions. Therefore, a sialyltransferase with an optimum pH in the basic range should be useful for the preparation of sialosides and the modification of glycoconjugates, such as asialo-glycoproteins and asialo-glycolipids. Thus, the sialyltransferase obtained from P. leiognathi JT-SHIZ-145 is a promising tool for the efficient production of sialosides.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Marine Biology
Water Microbiology
4. Kaeding  AJ, Ast  JC, Pearce  MM, Urbanczyk  H, Kimura  S, Endo  H, Nakamura  M, Dunlap  PV,     ( 2007 )

Phylogenetic diversity and cosymbiosis in the bioluminescent symbioses of "Photobacterium mandapamensis".

Applied and environmental microbiology 73 (10)
PMID : 17369329  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.02212-06     PMC  :   PMC1907103    
Abstract >>
Photobacterium mandapamensis (proposed name) and Photobacterium leiognathi are closely related, phenotypically similar marine bacteria that form bioluminescent symbioses with marine animals. Despite their similarity, however, these bacteria can be distinguished phylogenetically by sequence divergence of their luminescence genes, luxCDAB(F)E, by the presence (P. mandapamensis) or the absence (P. leiognathi) of luxF and, as shown here, by the sequence divergence of genes involved in the synthesis of riboflavin, ribBHA. To gain insight into the possibility that P. mandapamensis and P. leiognathi are ecologically distinct, we used these phylogenetic criteria to determine the incidence of P. mandapamensis as a bioluminescent symbiont of marine animals. Five fish species, Acropoma japonicum (Perciformes, Acropomatidae), Photopectoralis panayensis and Photopectoralis bindus (Perciformes, Leiognathidae), Siphamia versicolor (Perciformes, Apogonidae), and Gadella jordani (Gadiformes, Moridae), were found to harbor P. mandapamensis in their light organs. Specimens of A. japonicus, P. panayensis, and P. bindus harbored P. mandapamensis and P. leiognathi together as cosymbionts of the same light organ. Regardless of cosymbiosis, P. mandapamensis was the predominant symbiont of A. japonicum, and it was the apparently exclusive symbiont of S. versicolor and G. jordani. In contrast, P. leiognathi was found to be the predominant symbiont of P. panayensis and P. bindus, and it appears to be the exclusive symbiont of other leiognathid fishes and a loliginid squid. A phylogenetic test for cospeciation revealed no evidence of codivergence between P. mandapamensis and its host fishes, indicating that coevolution apparently is not the basis for this bacterium's host preferences. These results, which are the first report of bacterial cosymbiosis in fish light organs and the first demonstration that P. leiognathi is not the exclusive light organ symbiont of leiognathid fishes, demonstrate that the host species ranges of P. mandapamensis and P. leiognathi are substantially distinct. The host range difference underscores possible differences in the environmental distributions and physiologies of these two bacterial species.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Biodiversity
Ecosystem
Symbiosis
5. Wada  M, Kamiya  A, Uchiyama  N, Yoshizawa  S, Kita-Tsukamoto  K, Ikejima  K, Yu  R, Imada  C, Karatani  H, Mizuno  N, Suzuki  Y, Nishida  M, Kogure  K,     ( 2006 )

LuxA gene of light organ symbionts of the bioluminescent fish Acropoma japonicum (Acropomatidae) and Siphamia versicolor (Apogonidae) forms a lineage closely related to that of Photobacterium leiognathi ssp. mandapamensis.

FEMS microbiology letters 260 (2)
PMID : 16842343  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1574-6968.2006.00322.x    
Abstract >>
A molecular phylogenetic analysis of luxA gene sequences of light organ symbionts of the fish Acropoma japonicum (Acropomatidae) and Siphamia versicolor (Apogonidae) revealed that the sequences were related to those of Photobacterium leiognathi ssp. mandapamensis, which is not known to occur as a light organ symbiont among bioluminescent P. leiognathi clades. The presence of another lux gene element, luxF, coding for nonfluorescent protein, provided additional support for the identity of the light organ symbionts of the fish. Cladogenesis of the light organ symbiont P. leiognathi may be influenced by the radiation of host fishes.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Phylogeny
Symbiosis
6. Ast  JC, Dunlap  PV,     ( 2004 )

Phylogenetic analysis of the lux operon distinguishes two evolutionarily distinct clades of Photobacterium leiognathi.

Archives of microbiology 181 (5)
PMID : 15034641  :   DOI  :   10.1007/s00203-004-0663-7    
Abstract >>
The luminous marine bacterium Photobacterium mandapamensis was synonymized several years ago with Photobacterium leiognathi based on a high degree of phenotypic and genetic similarity. To test the possibility that P. leiognathi as now formulated, however, actually contains two distinct bacterial groups reflecting the earlier identification of P. mandapamensis and P. leiognathi as separate species, we compared P. leiognathi strains isolated from light-organ symbiosis with leiognathid fishes (i.e., ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1) with strains from seawater originally described as P. mandapamensis and later synonymized as P. leiognathi (i.e., ATCC 27561(T) and ATCC 33981) and certain strains initially identified as P. leiognathi (i.e., PL-721, PL-741, 554). Analysis of the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes did not resolve distinct clades, affirming a close relationship among these strains. However, strains ATCC 27561(T), ATCC 33981, PL-721, PL-741 and 554 were found to bear a luxF gene in the lux operon (luxABFE), whereas ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1 lack this gene (luxABE). Phylogenetic analysis of the luxAB(F)E region confirmed this distinction. Furthermore, ATCC 27561(T), ATCC 33981, PL-721, PL-741 and 554 all produced a higher level of luminescence on high-salt medium, as previously described for PL-721, whereas ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1 all produced a higher level of luminescence on low-salt medium, a characteristic of P. leiognathi from leiognathid fish light organs. These results demonstrate that P. leiognathi contains two evolutionarily and phenotypically distinct clades, P. leiognathi subsp. leiognathi (strains ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1), and P. leiognathi subsp. mandapamensis (strains ATCC 27561(T), ATCC 33981, PL-721, PL-741 and 554).
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
Operon
7. Hendry  TA, Dunlap  PV,     ( 2011 )

The uncultured luminous symbiont of Anomalops katoptron (Beryciformes: Anomalopidae) represents a new bacterial genus.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 61 (3)
PMID : 21864694  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.ympev.2011.08.006    
Abstract >>
Flashlight fishes (Beryciformes: Anomalopidae) harbor luminous symbiotic bacteria in subocular light organs and use the bacterial light for predator avoidance, feeding, and communication. Despite many attempts anomalopid symbionts have not been brought into laboratory culture, which has restricted progress in understanding their phylogenetic relationships with other luminous bacteria, identification of the genes of their luminescence system, as well as the nature of their symbiotic interactions with their fish hosts. To begin addressing these issues, we used culture-independent analysis of the bacteria symbiotic with the anomalopid fish, Anomalops katoptron, to characterize the phylogeny of the bacteria and to identify the genes of their luminescence system including those involved in the regulation of luminescence. Analysis of the 16S rRNA, atpA, gapA, gyrB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA genes resolved the A. katoptron symbionts as a clade nested within and deeply divergent from other members of Vibrionaceae. The bacterial luminescence (lux) genes were identified as a contiguous set (luxCDABEG), as found for the lux operons of other luminous bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis based on the lux genes confirmed the housekeeping gene phylogenetic placement. Furthermore, genes flanking the lux operon in the A. katoptron symbionts differed from those flanking lux operons of other genera of luminous bacteria. We therefore propose the candidate name Candidatus Photodesmus (Greek: photo = light, desmus = servant) katoptron for the species of bacteria symbiotic with A. katoptron. Results of a preliminary genomic analysis for genes regulating luminescence in other bacteria identified only a Vibrio harveyi-type luxR gene. These results suggest that expression of the luminescence system might be continuous in P. katoptron.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Luminescence
8. Mine  T, Katayama  S, Kajiwara  H, Tsunashima  M, Tsukamoto  H, Takakura  Y, Yamamoto  T,     ( 2010 )

An alpha2,6-sialyltransferase cloned from Photobacterium leiognathi strain JT-SHIZ-119 shows both sialyltransferase and neuraminidase activity.

Glycobiology 20 (2)
PMID : 19797322  :   DOI  :   10.1093/glycob/cwp157    
Abstract >>
We cloned, expressed, and characterized a novel beta-galactoside alpha2,6-sialyltransferase from Photobacterium leiognathi strain JT-SHIZ-119. The protein showed 56-96% identity to the marine bacterial alpha2,6-sialyltransferases classified into glycosyltransferase family 80. The sialyltransferase activity of the N-terminal truncated form of the recombinant enzyme was 1477 U/L of Escherichia coli culture. The truncated recombinant enzyme was purified as a single band by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis through 3 column chromatography steps. The enzyme had distinct activity compared with known marine bacterial alpha2,6-sialyltransferases. Although alpha2,6-sialyltransferases cloned from marine bacteria, such as Photobacterium damselae strain JT0160, P. leiognathi strain JT-SHIZ-145, and Photobacterium sp. strain JT-ISH-224, show only alpha2,6-sialyltransferase activity, the recombinant enzyme cloned from P. leiognathi strain JT-SHIZ-119 showed both alpha2,6-sialyltransferase and alpha2,6-linkage-specific neuraminidase activity. Our results provide important information toward a comprehensive understanding of the bacterial sialyltransferases belonging to the group 80 glycosyltransferase family in the CAZy database.
KeywordMeSH Terms
9. Lee  CY, Szittner  RB, Meighen  EA,     ( 1991 )

The lux genes of the luminous bacterial symbiont, Photobacterium leiognathi, of the ponyfish. Nucleotide sequence, difference in gene organization, and high expression in mutant Escherichia coli.

European journal of biochemistry 201 (1)
PMID : 1915359  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1432-1033.1991.tb16269.x    
Abstract >>
The lux genes required for light expression in the luminescent bacterium Photobacterium leiognathi (ATCC 25521) have been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and their organization and nucleotide sequence determined. Transformation of a recombinant 9.5-kbp chromosomal DNA fragment of P. leiognathi into an E. coli mutant (43R) gave luminescent colonies that were as bright as those of the parental strain. Moreover, expression of the lux genes in the mutant E. coli was strong enough so that not only were high levels of luciferase detected in crude extracts, but the fatty-acid reductase activity responsible for synthesis of the aldehyde substrate for the luminescent reaction could readily be measured. Determination of the 7.3-kbp nucleotide sequence of P. leiognathi DNA, including the genes for luciferase (luxAB) and fatty-acid reductase (luxCDE) as well as a new lux gene (luxG) found recently in luminescent Vibrio species, showed that the order of the lux genes was luxCDABEG. Moreover, luxF, a gene homologous to luxB and located between luxB and luxE in Photobacterium but not Vibrio strains, was absent. In spite of this different lux gene organization, an intergenic stem-loop structure between luxB and luxE was discovered to be highly conserved in other Photobacterium species after luxF.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Gene Expression
Luminescent Measurements
10. Urbanczyk  H, Kiwaki  N, Furukawa  T, Iwatsuki  Y,     ( 2012 )

Limited geographic distribution of certain strains of the bioluminescent symbiont Photobacterium leiognathi.

FEMS microbiology ecology 81 (2)
PMID : 22404110  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1574-6941.2012.01353.x    
Abstract >>
Photobacterium leiognathi is a facultative bioluminescent symbiont of marine animals. Strains of P. leiognathi that are merodiploid for the luminescence genes (lux-rib operon) have been previously obtained only from Japan. In contrast, strains bearing a single lux-rib operon have been obtained from all the areas sampled in Japan and the western Pacific. In this study, we tested whether distribution of merodiploid P. leiognathi is limited by physical barriers in the environment, or because fish in the western Pacific preferentially form symbiosis with bacteria bearing a single lux-rib operon. We collected light organ symbionts from Secutor indicius, a fish species that is typically found in the western Pacific and has only recently expanded its geographic range to Japan. We found that all S. indicius specimens collected from Japan formed symbiosis only with single lux-rib operon-bearing strains, although fish from other species collected from the same geographic area frequently contained merodiploid strains. This result shows that S. indicius were preferentially colonized by bacteria bearing a single lux-rib operon and suggests that the limited geographic distribution of merodiploid P. leiognathi can be attributed to preferential colonization of fish species found in the western Pacific by strains bearing only a single lux-rib operon.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Operon
Phylogeny
Symbiosis
11.     ( 1997 )

The pkI gene encoding pyruvate kinase I links to the luxZ gene which enhances bioluminescence of the lux operon from Photobacterium leiognathi.

Biochemical and biophysical research communications 239 (1)
PMID : 9345300  :   DOI  :   10.1006/bbrc.1997.7461    
Abstract >>
Partial 3'-end nucleotide sequence of the pkI gene (GenBank accession No. AF019143) from Photobacterium leiognathi ATCC 25521 has been determined, and the encoded pyruvate kinase I is deduced. Pyruvate kinase I is the key enzyme of glycolysis, which converts phosphoenol pyruvate to pyruvate. Alignment and comparison of pyruvate kinase Is from P. leiognathi, E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium show that they are homologous. Nucleotide sequence reveals that the pkI gene is linked to the luxZ gene that enhances bioluminescence of the lux operon from P. leiognathi. The gene order of the pkI and luxZ genes is-pk1-ter-->-R&R"-luxZ-ter"-->, whereas ter is transcriptional terminator for the pkI and related genes, and R&R" is the regulatory region and ter" is transcriptional terminator for the luxZ gene. It clearly elicits that the pkI gene and luxZ gene are divided to two operons. Functional analysis confirms that the potential hairpin loop omega T is the transcriptional terminator for the pkI and related genes. It infers that the pkI and related genes are simply linked to the luxZ gene in P. leiognathi genome.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Luminescent Measurements
Operon
12.     ( 1996 )

Novel dimeric interface and electrostatic recognition in bacterial Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 93 (23)
PMID : 8917495  :   DOI  :   10.1073/pnas.93.23.12774     PMC  :   PMC23996    
Abstract >>
Eukaryotic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases (CuZnSODs) are antioxidant enzymes remarkable for their unusually stable beta-barrel fold and dimer assembly, diffusion-limited catalysis, and electrostatic guidance of their free radical substrate. Point mutations of CuZnSOD cause the fatal human neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We determined and analyzed the first crystallographic structure (to our knowledge) for CuZnSOD from a prokaryote, Photobacterium leiognathi, a luminescent symbiont of Leiognathid fish. This structure, exemplifying prokaryotic CuZnSODs, shares the active-site ligand geometry and the topology of the Greek key beta-barrel common to the eukaryotic CuZnSODs. However, the beta-barrel elements recruited to form the dimer interface, the strategy used to forge the channel for electrostatic recognition of superoxide radical, and the connectivity of the intrasubunit disulfide bond in P. leiognathi CuZnSOD are discrete and strikingly dissimilar from those highly conserved in eukaryotic CuZnSODs. This new CuZnSOD structure broadens our understanding of structural features necessary and sufficient for CuZnSOD activity, highlights a hitherto unrecognized adaptability of the Greek key beta-barrel building block in evolution, and reveals that prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes diverged from one primordial CuZnSOD and then converged to distinct dimeric enzymes with electrostatic substrate guidance.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Protein Folding
Protein Structure, Secondary
13.     ( 1993 )

Sequence of the luxD gene encoding acyltransferase of the lux operon from Photobacterium leiognathi.

Gene 126 (1)
PMID : 8472957  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0378-1119(93)90606-4    
Abstract >>
The nucleotide sequence of luxD (EMBL accession No. X65611), encoding acyltransferase (ACT), of the lux operon from Photobacterium leiognathi PL741 was determined, and the amino acid (aa) sequence was deduced. ACT is a component of the fatty acid reductase complex, which is responsible for converting fatty acid to aldehyde that serves as the substrate in the luciferase-catalyzed bioluminescent reactions. The protein has a calculated M(r) of 34,384 and comprises 305 aa residues. Alignment and comparison of the ACT of P. leiognathi with that of Vibrio fischeri ATCC7744, V. harveyi B392 and Xenorhabdus luminescens Hm shows that there is 66%, 59% and 61% aa identity, respectively.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Operon
14.     ( 1993 )

The lumazine protein-encoding gene in Photobacterium leiognathi is linked to the lux operon.

Gene 126 (1)
PMID : 8472956  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0378-1119(93)90605-3    
Abstract >>
The nucleotide (nt) sequence of the lumP (EMBL accession No. X65612) gene of Photobacterium leiognathi PL741 was determined and the amino acid (aa) sequence deduced. The encoded aa sequence of lumP was identified as that of the lumazine protein (LumP) by homology with that of Photobacterium phosphoreum (56%). This small protein has a calculated M(r) of 19,997 and comprises 186 aa residues. Biochemical studies suggested that LumP is the protein which, when combined with luciferase, is responsible for the bioluminescent spectrum shift from blue-green light (490-505 nm) to blue (470 nm) in P. leiognathi. The nt sequence of the flanking region showed that lumP is linked to the lux operon but runs in the opposite direction. The gene order of the lumP and lux operon is as follows: <--lumP-R&R-luxC-luxD-luxA-luxB-luxN-lu xE-->; the R&R regulatory region sequence included two promoter systems, PR for the lux operon and PL for the lumP or the lum operon.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genetic Linkage
Luminescent Proteins
Operon
15.     ( 1993 )

Crystal structure of a flavoprotein related to the subunits of bacterial luciferase.

The EMBO journal 12 (5)
PMID : 8491169  :   PMC  :   PMC413395    
Abstract >>
The molecular structure of the luxF protein from the bioluminescent bacterium Photobacterium leiognathi has been determined by X-ray diffraction techniques and refined to a conventional R-factor of 17.8% at 2.3 A resolution. The 228 amino acid polypeptide exists as a symmetrical homodimer and 33% of the monomer's solvent-accessible surface area is buried upon dimerization. The monomer displays a novel fold that contains a central seven-stranded beta-barrel. The solvent-exposed surface of the monomer is covered by seven alpha-helices, whereas the dimer interface is primarily a flat surface composed of beta-strands. The protein monomer binds two molecules of flavin mononucleotide, each of which has C6 of the flavin isoalloxazine moiety covalently attached to the C3' carbon atom of myristic acid. Both myristyl groups of these adducts are buried within the hydrophobic core of the protein. One of the cofactors contributes to interactions at the dimer interface. The luxF protein displays considerable amino acid sequence homology with both alpha- and beta-subunits of bacterial luciferase, especially the beta-subunit. Conserved amino acid residues shared between luxF and the luciferase subunits cluster predominantly in two distinct regions of the luxF protein molecule. These homologous regions in the luciferase subunits probably share a three-dimensional fold similar to that of the luxF protein.
KeywordMeSH Terms
16.     ( 1993 )

Nucleotide sequence of the luxC gene encoding fatty acid reductase of the lux operon from Photobacterium leiognathi.

Biochemical and biophysical research communications 191 (1)
PMID : 8447834  :   DOI  :   10.1006/bbrc.1993.1219    
Abstract >>
The nucleotide sequence of the luxC gene (EMBL Accession No. 65156) encoding fatty acid reductase (FAR) of the lux operon from Photobacterium leiognathi PL741 was determined and the encoded amino acid sequence deduced. The fatty acid reductase is a component of the fatty acid reductase complex. The complex is responsible for converting fatty acid to aldehyde which serves as the substrate in the luciferase-catalyzed bioluminescent reaction. The protein comprises 478 amino acid residues and has a calculated M(r) of 53,858. Alignment and comparison of the fatty acid reductase of P. leiognathi with that of Vibrio harveyi B392 and Vibrio fischeri ATCC 7744 shows that there is 70% and 59% amino acid residues identity, respectively.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
Operon
17. Moore  SA, James  MN,     ( 1995 )

Structural refinement of the non-fluorescent flavoprotein from Photobacterium leiognathi at 1.60 A resolution.

Journal of molecular biology 249 (1)
PMID : 7776372  :   DOI  :   10.1006/jmbi.1995.0289    
Abstract >>
The crystallographically-determined structure of the non-fluorescent flavoprotein (NFP) from Photobacterium leiognathi, a homolog of the bacterial luciferase subunits, has been refined to a conventional R-factor [formula: see text] of 0.175 using synchrotron data between 10.0 and 1.60 A resolution. The molecular structure is a homodimer of beta/alpha domains, the monomer having structural similarities to (beta alpha)8 barrel proteins. However, one beta-strand and three alpha-helices of a typical (beta alpha)8 domain are not present in the NFP structure. The refined structure of NFP consists of the 228 amino acid polypeptide, 191 water molecules, a sulfate ion, and two flavin mononucleotides (FMNs) each with a covalently-attached myristate (C14 fatty acid). Both flavin adducts are well-ordered and have exceptional electron density for both the FMN and the myristate moieties. Each flavin mononucleotide-myristate adduct is characterized by a stereospecific linkage (the S enantiomer) between C-6 of the flavin isoalloxazine ring and the C-3' atom of the fatty acyl chain. The stereospecific nature of this flavin-fatty acid linkage suggests that it is the result of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, most likely the bioluminescence reaction itself. The myristate chains are buried from solvent in hydrophobic pockets in the interior of the protein. Four amino acid side-chains of the NFP polypeptide have been modeled with alternate conformations. Five of the protein's seven alpha-helices have classical C-capping boxes. NFP is dimeric and many of the extensive contacts at the dimer interface are mediated by hydrogen-bonded water molecules as well as by hydrophobic interactions. One of the myristate acyl chains sits between NFP monomers and contributes a significant portion of the hydrophobic interactions at the NFP dimer interface.
KeywordMeSH Terms
18. Steffens  GJ, Bannister  JV, Bannister  WH, Flohé  L, Günzler  WA, Kim  SM, Otting  F,     ( 1983 )

The primary structure of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase from Photobacterium leiognathi: evidence for a separate evolution of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase in bacteria.

Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fur physiologische Chemie 364 (6)
PMID : 6884993  :  
Abstract >>
The complete amino-acid sequence of the copper-zinc superoxide dismutase of the Photobacterium leiognathi was determined. The fragmentation strategy employed included cyanogen bromide cleavage at its methionine residues and the only tryptophan residue. The S-carboxymethylated chain was further cleaved by means of trypsin, in order to obtain overlapping fragments. For sequence determination automated solid or liquid-phase techniques of Edman degradation were used. C-Terminal amino acids of the entire chain were determined after treatment with carboxypeptidase A. Comparison of the primary structure of this bacterial Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase with the established amino-acid sequences of the other eukaryotic Cu-Zn superoxide dismutases revealed clear homologies. Correspondingly, the Cu-Zn-binding amino-acid residues of the active centre were localized: His45, His47, His70, His79, His125 and Asp91. The two cysteine residues in position 52 and 147 were homologous to the cysteine residues, modelling the essential intrachain disulfide bridge of the corresponding bovine enzyme. As only 25-30% of aligned sequence positions were found to be identical, the enzyme of P. leiognathi shows only a remote phylogenetic relationship towards eukaryotic Cu-Zn superoxide dismutases. When compared to the established phylogenetic tree of the cytochrome c family, this indicates a separate evolution of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase in Photobacterium. Therefore, a natural gene transfer from the eukaryotic host (ponyfish) to the prokaryotic photobacterium, which Martin and Fridovich postulated 1981 (J. Biol. Chem. 256, 6080-6089) on the basis of amino-acid compositions, can be excluded.
KeywordMeSH Terms
19. Barra  D, Schinin?  ME, Bannister  WH, Bannister  JV, Bossa  F,     ( 1987 )

The primary structure of iron-superoxide dismutase from Photobacterium leiognathi.

The Journal of biological chemistry 262 (3)
PMID : 3542995  :  
Abstract >>
The complete amino acid sequence of iron-superoxide dismutase from Photobacterium leiognathi was determined. The sequence was deduced following characterization of the peptides obtained from tryptic, chymotryptic, and Staphylococcus aureus V-8 protease digests of the apoprotein. The amino acid sequence listed below is made up of 193 residues. It is the first complete sequence to be determined for an iron-superoxide dismutase. The iron-superoxide dismutase shows the same order of homology with the manganese-superoxide dismutases as these enzymes show among themselves. No homology was observed with the copper/zinc-containing class of superoxide dismutases. Ala-Phe-Glu-Leu-Pro-Ala-Leu-Pro-Phe-Ala-Met-Asn-Ala-Leu-Glu-Pro-His-Ile- Ser-Gln-Glu-Thr-Leu-Glu-Tyr-His-Tyr-Gly-Lys-His-His-Asn-Thr-Tyr-Val-Val- Lys-Leu-Asn-Gly-Leu-Val-Glu-Gly-Thr-Glu-Leu-Ala-Glu-Lys-Ser-Leu-Glu-Glu- Ile-Ile-Lys-Thr-Ser-Thr-Gly-Gly-Val-Phe-Asn-Asn-Ala-Ala-Gln-Val-Trp-Asn- His-Thr-Phe-Tyr-Trp-Asn-Cys-Leu-Ala-Pro-Asn-Ala-Gly-Gly-Glu-Pro-Thr-Gly- Glu-Val-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ile-Glu-Lys-Ala-Phe-Gly-Ser-Phe-Ala-Glu-Phe-Lys-Ala- Lys-Phe-Thr-Asp-Ser-Ala-Ile-Asn-Asn-Phe-Gly-Ser-Ser-Trp-Thr-Trp-Leu-Val- Lys-Asn-Ala-Asn-Gly-Ser-Leu-Ala-Ile-Val-Asn-Thr-Ser-Asn-Ala-Gly-Cys-Pro- Ile-Thr-Glu-Glu-Gly-Val-Thr-Pro-Leu-Leu-Thr-Val-Asp-Leu-Trp-Glu-His-Ala- Tyr-Tyr-Ile-Asp-Tyr-Arg-Asn-Leu-Arg-Pro-Ser-Tyr-Met-Asp-Gly-Phe-Trp-Ala- Leu-Val-Asn-Trp-Asp-Phe-Val-Ser-Lys-Asn-Leu-Ala-Ala.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Serine Endopeptidases
Superoxide Dismutase
20. Illarionov  BA, Protopopova  MV, Karginov  VA, Mertvetsov  NP, Gitel'zon  II,     ( 1988 )

[Nucleotide sequence of genes for alpha- and beta-subunits of luciferase from Photobacterium leiognathi].

Bioorganicheskaia khimiia 14 (3)
PMID : 3382442  :  
Abstract >>
Nucleotide sequence of the Photobacterium leiognathi DNA containing genes of alpha and beta subunits of luciferase has been determined. We also deduced amino acid sequence and molecular mass of luciferase and localized luciferase genes in the sequenced DNA fragment.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
21. Lin  JW, Yu  KY, Chao  YF, Weng  SF,     ( 1995 )

The lumQ gene is linked to the lumP gene and the lux operon in Photobacterium leiognathi.

Biochemical and biophysical research communications 217 (2)
PMID : 7503752  :   DOI  :   10.1006/bbrc.1995.2828    
Abstract >>
The nucleotide sequence of the designated lumQ gene (EMBL accession No. U35231) from Photobacterium leiognathi PL741 has been determined, and the encoded amino acid sequence is deduced. The LumQ protein has a calculated M(r) of 28,416 and comprises 248 amino acid residues. The lumQ gene is identified as the envY-like gene by significant similarity of the encoded protein with the EnvY and AdiY proteins of E. coli; there the envY gene encodes the porin thermoregulatory protein EnvY, and the adiY gene encodes the putative transcriptional regulator protein AdiY. It suggests that the lumQ gene of P. leiognathi is orthologous to the envY and adiY genes of E. coli. The function of the protein encoded by the lumQ gene from P. leiognathi is not really defined yet, it is likely to be the DNA-binding protein related to the araC and xylS family of transcriptional regulators. The lumQ and lumP genes form the lum operon which linked to the lux operon, but run in the opposite direction. The gene order of the lum and the lux operon is < -ter-lumQ-lumP-R&R-luxC-luxD-luxA-luxB- luxN-luxE- > (R&R: regulatory region; ter: transcriptional terminator); whereas the regulatory region (R&R) includes two promoter systems, PR-promoter for the lux operon and PL-promoter for the lum operon; ter is the transcriptional terminator of the lum operon.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
Luminescent Measurements
Transcription Factors
22. Steinman  HM,     ( 1987 )

Bacteriocuprein superoxide dismutase of Photobacterium leiognathi. Isolation and sequence of the gene and evidence for a precursor form.

The Journal of biological chemistry 262 (4)
PMID : 3805055  :  
Abstract >>
The gene encoding the bacteriocuprein superoxide dismutase from Photobacterium leiognathi, American Type Culture Collection strain 25521, was cloned in a pUC12 vector and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence predicted a 22-residue leader peptide amino-terminal to the known bacteriocuprein sequence. The expected precursor bacteriocuprein was directly identified in the in vitro translation products of the cloned gene by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and automated Edman degradation. Enzymatically active bacteriocuprein that lacked the leader peptide was identified in sonic extracts of Escherichia coli hosts containing the cloned gene. A single transcript of 580 nucleotides was observed in blots of total P. leiognathi RNA, and a unique site of transcriptional initiation was identified by primer extension analysis. P. leiognathi bacteriocuprein is the first bacteriocuprein whose gene has been isolated and sequenced and the first copper-zinc superoxide dismutase in which a leader peptide has been found. The presence of a leader peptide suggests that the bacteriocuprein is localized in the membrane or periplasm, in contrast to the eukaryotic copper-zinc superoxide dismutases, which are cytoplasmic enzymes. Such a difference in intracellular location could be important for understanding the presence and function of the uncommon, bacteriocuprein superoxide dismutase in P. leiognathi.
KeywordMeSH Terms
23. Illarionov  BA, Protopopova  MV, Karginov  VA, Mertvetsov  NP, Gitelson  JI,     ( 1988 )

Nucleotide sequence of part of Photobacterium leiognathi lux region.

Nucleic acids research 16 (20)
PMID : 3186447  :   DOI  :   10.1093/nar/16.20.9855     PMC  :   PMC338783    
Abstract >>
N/A
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
24. Bannister  JV, Parker  MW,     ( 1985 )

The presence of a copper/zinc superoxide dismutase in the bacterium Photobacterium leiognathi: a likely case of gene transfer from eukaryotes to prokaryotes.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 82 (1)
PMID : 3855538  :   DOI  :   10.1073/pnas.82.1.149     PMC  :   PMC396989    
Abstract >>
The free-living bacterium Photobacterium leiognathi is also known to be a symbiont of ponyfish. The presence of a copper/zinc superoxide dismutase in P. leiognathi has been considered to be a case of gene transfer from eukaryotes to prokaryotes because this form of superoxide dismutase is normally present only in higher eukaryotic species. However, the amino acid sequence of the enzyme from the bacterium exhibited low identities (25-30%) with the same enzyme from eukaryotes. When amino acid mutations are taken into consideration, the weighted sequence similarity increases significantly; furthermore, the bacterial enzyme has the same active site residues and similar predicted secondary structure as the eukaryotic enzymes. The possibility of convergence is ruled out and the case of divergence is considered unlikely because of the observed phylogenetic distribution of the enzyme. This indicates that the presence of the copper/zinc superoxide dismutase in P. leiognathi can indeed be considered a case of gene transfer from eukaryotic species to prokaryotic species.
KeywordMeSH Terms
25.     ( 1990 )

Isolation of bioluminescent functions from Photobacterium leiognathi: analysis of luxA, luxB, luxG and neighboring genes.

Gene 86 (1)
PMID : 2311938  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0378-1119(90)90117-a    
Abstract >>
Genes encoding luminescence of Photobacterium leiognathi have been cloned in Escherichia coli. The luminescent clones were readily apparent. Among them, a clone containing a recombinant plasmid with a 13.5-kb insertion was identified. This DNA fragment contained all of the luminescence-encoding genes. The luciferase-encoding genes (lux) in this DNA fragment were localized. We have sequenced a part of the cloned lux region and identified the luxA, luxB and luxG genes encoding the alpha and beta subunits of luciferase and a gamma protein with an Mr of 26,180, respectively. The analysis of deduced amino acid sequences and comparison with known luciferase sequences from Vibrio harveyi, indicate the common origin of these proteins.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
Luminescent Measurements
26.     ( 1999 )

Evolutionary constraints for dimer formation in prokaryotic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase.

Journal of molecular biology 285 (1)
PMID : 9878406  :   DOI  :   10.1006/jmbi.1998.2267    
Abstract >>
Prokaryotic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases are characterized by a distinct quaternary structure, as compared to that of the homologous eukaryotic enzymes. Here we report a newly determined crystal structure of the dimeric Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase from Photobacterium leiognathi (crystallized in space group R32, refined at 2.5 A resolution, R-factor 0.19) and analyse it in comparison with that of the monomeric enzyme from Escherichia coli. The dimeric assembly, observed also in a previously studied monoclinic crystal form of P. leiognathi Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase, is based on a ring-shaped subunit contact region, defining a solvated interface cavity. Three clusters of neighbouring residues play a direct role in the stabilization of the quaternary assembly. The present analysis, extended to the amino acid sequences of the other 11 known prokaryotic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases, shows that at least in five other prokaryotic enzymes the interface residue clusters are under strong evolutionary constraint, suggesting the attainment of a quaternary structure coincident with that of P. leiognathi Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase. Calculation of electrostatic fields for both the enzymes from E. coli and P. leiognathi shows that the monomeric/dimeric association behaviour displayed by prokaryotic Cu, Zn superoxide dismutases is related to the distribution of surface charged residues. Moreover, Brownian dynamics simulations reproduce closely the observed enzyme:substrate association rates, highlighting the role of the active site neighbouring residues in determining the dismutase catalytic properties.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Evolution, Molecular

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