van Belkum MJ,
( 2006 )
Characterization of the theta-type plasmid pCD3.4 from Carnobacterium divergens, and modulation of its host range by RepA mutation.
PMID : 16385127 : DOI : 10.1099/mic.0.28294-0
The complete nucleotide sequence of the 3475 bp plasmid pCD3.4 from Carnobacterium divergens LV13, which encodes the bacteriocin divergicin A, was determined. Nucleotide sequence, deletion and complementation analyses revealed the presence of a trans-acting replication protein, RepA, and DNA sequences involved in plasmid replication and copy-number control. The DNA region preceding the repA gene probably contains the origin of replication. This sequence includes four and a half direct repeats (iterons) of 22 bp, to which RepA is thought to bind, and an AT-rich region containing a 12 bp repeat, at which initiation of DNA might occur. Further upstream of this sequence resides a fifth iteron required for optimal plasmid replication. The RepA protein shows homology to replication proteins of the pUCL287 subfamily of theta-type replicons. Two ORFs were found downstream of the repA gene that could be deleted without affecting replication and stability of the plasmid. pCD3.4 has a narrow host range, and could only be maintained in Carnobacterium spp.; however, a mutant of the plasmid was obtained that enabled the pCD3.4 replicon to replicate in Enterococcus faecium, but not in Carnobacterium spp. The mutation was located in the C-terminal region of the RepA protein, changing a proline into a serine. This is believed to be the first example of such plasmid-host-range modulation in Gram-positive bacteria.
( 2005 )
Phylogeny and identification of Enterococci by atpA gene sequence analysis.
PMID : 15872246 : DOI : 10.1128/JCM.43.5.2224-2230.2005 PMC : PMC1153757
The relatedness among 91 Enterococcus strains representing all validly described species was investigated by comparing a 1,102-bp fragment of atpA, the gene encoding the alpha subunit of ATP synthase. The relationships observed were in agreement with the phylogeny inferred from 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. However, atpA gene sequences were much more discriminatory than 16S rRNA for species differentiation. All species were differentiated on the basis of atpA sequences with, at a maximum, 92% similarity. Six members of the Enterococcus faecium species group (E. faecium, E. hirae, E. durans, E. villorum, E. mundtii, and E. ratti) showed > 99% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, but the highest value of atpA gene sequence similarity was only 89.9%. The intraspecies atpA sequence similarities for all species except E. faecium strains varied from 98.6 to 100%; the E. faecium strains had a lower atpA sequence similarity of 96.3%. Our data clearly show that atpA provides an alternative tool for the phylogenetic study and identification of enterococci.
( 2004 )
Purification, characterization and amino acid sequencing of divergicin M35: a novel class IIa bacteriocin produced by Carnobacterium divergens M35.
PMID : 15541799 : DOI : 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2004.04.013
Carnobacterium divergens M35, isolated from a commercial sample of frozen smoked mussels, produces a new bacteriocin, divergicin M35, a class IIa bacteriocin. Divergicin M35 is sensitive to pronase-E, alpha-chymotrypsin and proteinase K, but not to trypsin and withstands thermal treatments up to 121 degrees C for 30 min. Divergicin M35 was extracted from the culture supernatant of C. divergens M35 using an SP-Sepharose cation-exchange column, desalted and purified on a C18 Sep-Pack column and further purified by reverse phase-high pressure liquid chromatography. This procedure allowed the recovery of 10% of the bacteriocin present in the culture supernatant with purity higher than 99%. Divergicin M35 had a molecular mass of 4518.75 Da as determined by mass spectrometry, a pI value of 8.3 and positive net charge (+3). The amino acid sequence of divergicin M35 was found to consist of 43 amino acid with four cysteine residues (Cys10, 15, 25, 43) and showed 80.5% homology with divercin V41 (80.5%) and 80.0% with bavaricin MN. Divergicin M35 showed powerful antilisterial activity, especially against Listeria monocytogenes and was also active against carnobacteria but not against strains of Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Bifidobacteria and Escherichia. Divergicin M35 production began in late exponential phase and reached a maximum activity of 65,000 AU/ml in early stationary phase. Initial broth pH, Tween 80 and acetate did not affect C. divergens M35 growth or divergicin production. This bacteriocin may be a potential tool for inhibiting L. monocytogenes in seafood products that do not usually undergo an adequate heat treatment.
( 2008 )
Genetic and biochemical characterization of CAD-1, a chromosomally encoded new class A penicillinase from Carnobacterium divergens.
PMID : 18070972 : DOI : 10.1128/AAC.01145-07 PMC : PMC2224782
Carnobacterium divergens clinical isolates BM4489 and BM4490 were resistant to penicillins but remained susceptible to combinations of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and piperacillin-tazobactam. Cloning and sequencing of the responsible determinant from BM4489 revealed a coding sequence of 912 bp encoding a class A beta-lactamase named CAD-1. The bla(CAD-1) gene was assigned to a chromosomal location in the two strains that had distinct pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. CAD-1 shared 53% and 42% identity with beta-lactamases from Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Alignment of CAD-1 with other class A beta-lactamases indicated the presence of 25 out of the 26 isofunctional amino acids in class A beta-lactamases. Escherichia coli harboring bla(CAD-1) exhibited resistance to penams (benzylpenicillin and amoxicillin) and remained susceptible to amoxicillin in combination with clavulanic acid. Mature CAD-1 consisted of a 34.4-kDa polypeptide. Kinetic analysis indicated that CAD-1 exhibited a narrow substrate profile, hydrolyzing benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, and piperacillin with catalytic efficiencies of 6,600, 3,200, and 2,900 mM(-1) s(-1), respectively. The enzyme did not interact with oxyiminocephalosporins, imipenem, or aztreonam. CAD-1 was inhibited by tazobactam (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] = 0.27 microM), clavulanic acid (IC(50) = 4.7 microM), and sulbactam (IC(50) = 43.5 microM). The bla(CAD-1) gene is likely to have been acquired by BM4489 and BM4490 as part of a mobile genetic element, since it was not found in the susceptible type strain CIP 101029 and was adjacent to a gene for a resolvase.
( 1996 )
Divergicin 750, a novel bacteriocin produced by Carnobacterium divergens 750.
PMID : 8869500 : DOI : 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1996.tb08043.x
Divergicin 750, a bacteriocin produced by Carnobacterium divergens 750, preferentially inhibited the growth of strains of Carnobacterium and Enterococcus. Selected strains of Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium perfringens were also inhibited. The bacteriocin was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation and sequential S-Sepharose, hydrophobic interaction and reversed phase chromatography. The complete amino acid sequence was determined by Edman degradation. The peptide consisted of 34 amino acid residues. The calculated M(r) from the peptide sequence, 3447.7, agreed well with that obtained by mass spectrometry. Divergicin 750 did not show any sequence similarities to other known bacteriocins. The plasmid-located structural gene encoding divergicin 750 (dvn750) was cloned and sequenced. The gene encoded a primary translation product of 63 amino acids with a deduced M(r) = 6789.4 which is cleaved between amino acid residues 29 and 30 to yield the mature bacteriocin.
Van Belkum MJ,
( 1995 )
A signal peptide secretion-dependent bacteriocin from Carnobacterium divergens.
PMID : 7768812 : DOI : 10.1128/jb.177.11.3143-3149.1995 PMC : PMC177004
Divergicin A is a strongly hydrophobic, narrow-spectrum, nonlantibiotic bacteriocin produced by Carnobacterium divergens LV13. This strain of C. divergens contains a 3.4-kb plasmid that mediates production of, and immunity to, the bacteriocin. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the purified divergicin A was used to locate the structural gene (dvnA). The structural gene encodes a prepeptide of 75 amino acids consisting of a 29-amino-acid N-terminal extension and a mature peptide of 46 amino acids. Directly downstream of dvnA there is a second open reading frame that encodes the immunity protein for divergicin A. Divergicin A has a calculated molecular mass of 4,223.89 Da. The molecular mass determined by mass spectrometry is 4,223.9 Da, indicating that there is no posttranslational modification of the peptide. The N-terminal extension of divergicin A has an Ala-Ser-Ala (positions -3 to -1) cleavage site and acts as a signal peptide that accesses the general export system of the cell (such as the sec pathway in Escherichia coli). This is the first bacteriocin of lactic acid bacteria to be reported that does not have dedicated maturation and secretion genes. Production of divergicin A was observed in heterologous hosts containing only the two genes associated with divergicin A production and immunity. Fusing alkaline phosphatase behind the signal peptide for divergicin resulted in the secretion of this enzyme in the periplasmic space and supernatant of E. coli.
( 2018 )
Growth of Carnobacterium spp. isolated from chilled vacuum-packaged meat under relevant acidic conditions.
PMID : 30081251 : DOI : 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2018.07.032
Carnobacterium spp. are frequently isolated from vacuum-packaged (VP) meat. Specific strains of Carnobacterium and their growth characteristics may be associated with the storage life of such products. This study investigated the growth of 44 Carnobacterium isolates obtained from VP meat cuts produced at three Canadian abattoirs (A, B and C) under the following conditions: pH 5.4, 6.2 and 7.4; lactic acid at 60 and 90 mM; acetic acid at 33.6 mM. Whole genome sequencing was performed for all 44 isolates and a core genome phylogenetic tree was created to identify strain variability among isolates from different abattoirs. The isolates were clustered into 11 groups. All isolates from abattoirs B and C were identified as C. divergens, while the isolates from abattoir A included both C. maltaromaticum and C. divergens at equal proportions. C. divergens isolates from abattoir A belonged to two phylogenetic groups and none of them was found in the phylogenetic groups containing isolates from abattoirs B or C. Whole genome sequencing revealed that identical strains were isolated from different samples obtained at the same abattoir. The mean growth rate and maximum population density of the C. maltaromaticum isolates were lower than those of the C. divergens isolates. C. divergens isolates from abattoir A had higher growth rates and maximum population density than those from abattoirs B and C. In conclusion, growth characteristic and whole genome analysis both demonstrated strain variability of Carnobacterium among abattoirs, which could be a result of the difference in the antimicrobial interventions used for carcasses at different abattoirs, and may be associated with different storage lives of VP meats produced from different abattoirs.
( 1998 )
Divercin V41, a new bacteriocin with two disulphide bonds produced by Carnobacterium divergens V41: primary structure and genomic organization.
PMID : 9802025 : DOI : 10.1099/00221287-144-10-2837
Divercin V41 is a new bacteriocin produced by Carnobacterium divergens V41, a lactic acid bacterium isolated from fish viscera. The amino acid sequence of divercin V41 showed high homologies with pediocin PA-1 and enterocin A. Two disulphide bonds were present in the hydrophilic N-terminal domain and in the highly variable hydrophobic C-terminal domain, respectively. A DNA probe designed from the N-terminal sequence of the purified peptide was used to locate the structural gene of divercin V41. A 6 kb chromosomal fragment containing the divercin V41 structural gene (dvnA) was cloned and sequenced. The results indicate that divercin V41 is synthesized as a pre-bacteriocin of 66 amino acids. The 23-residue N-terminal extension is cleaved off to yield the mature 43-amino-acid divercin V41. In addition, the fragment encodes putative proteins commonly found within bacteriocin operons, including an ATP-dependent transporter, two immunity-like proteins and the two components of a lantibiotic-type signal-transducing system. The genetic organization of the fragment suggested important gene rearrangements.