( 2003 )
Genotypic differentiation of twelve Clostridium species by polymorphism analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene.
PMID : 12747415 : DOI : 10.1078/072320203322337362
Housekeeping genes encoding metabolic enzymes may provide alternative markers to 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) for genotypic and phylogenetic characterization of bacterial species. We have developed a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay, targeting the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene, which allows the differentiation of twelve pathogenic Clostridium species. Degenerate primers constructed from alignments of tpi sequences of various gram-positive bacteria allowed the amplification of a 501 bp target region in the twelve Clostridium type strains. A phylogenetic tree constructed from the nucleotidic sequences of these tpi amplicons was well correlated with that inferred from analysis of 16S rDNA gene sequences. The analysis of tpi sequences revealed restriction sites of enzyme AluI that could be species-specific. Indeed, AluI digestion of amplicons from the twelve type strains provided distinct restriction patterns. A total of 127 strains (three to sixteen strains for each species) was further analyzed by PCR-RFLP of the tpi gene, and confirmed that each species could be characterized by one to three restriction types (RTs). The differences between RTs within species could be explained by point mutations in AluI restriction sites of the tpi sequences. PCR-restriction analysis of the tpi gene offers an accurate tool for species identification within the genus Clostridium, and provides an alternative marker to 16S rDNA for phylogenetic analyses.
( 2006 )
Clostridium asparagiforme sp. nov., isolated from a human faecal sample.
PMID : 16337765 : DOI : 10.1016/j.syapm.2005.11.001
An obligatory anaerobic, Gram-positive, rod-shaped organism was isolated from faeces of a healthy human donor. It was characterized using biochemical, phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. The organism produced acetate, lactate, and ethanol as the major products of glucose fermentation. The G + C content was 53 mol%. Based on comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the unidentified bacterium is a member of the Clostridium subphylum of the Gram-positive bacteria, and most closely related to species of the Clostridium coccoides cluster (rRNA cluster XIVa) [M.D. Collins et al., The phylogeny of the genus Clostridium: proposal of five new genera and eleven new species combinations, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 44 (1994) 812-826]. Clostridium bolteae and Clostridium clostridioforme were identified as the most closely related described species. A 16S rRNA sequence divergence value of > 3% suggested that the isolate represents a new species. This was also supported by the gyrase-encoding gyrB gene sequences. Based on these findings, we propose the novel bacterium from human faeces to be classified as a new species, Clostridium asparagiforme. The type strain of C. asparagiforme is N6 (DSM 15981 and CCUG 48471).
( 2004 )
cpnDB: a chaperonin sequence database.
PMID : 15289485 : DOI : 10.1101/gr.2649204 PMC : PMC509277
Type I chaperonins are molecular chaperones present in virtually all bacteria, some archaea and the plastids and mitochondria of eukaryotes. Sequences of cpn60 genes, encoding 60-kDa chaperonin protein subunits (CPN60, also known as GroEL or HSP60), are useful for phylogenetic studies and as targets for detection and identification of organisms. Conveniently, a 549-567-bp segment of the cpn60 coding region can be amplified with universal PCR primers. Here, we introduce cpnDB, a curated collection of cpn60 sequence data collected from public databases or generated by a network of collaborators exploiting the cpn60 target in clinical, phylogenetic, and microbial ecology studies. The growing database currently contains approximately 2000 records covering over 240 genera of bacteria, eukaryotes, and archaea. The database also contains over 60 sequences for the archaeal Type II chaperonin (thermosome, a homolog of eukaryotic cytoplasmic chaperonin) from 19 archaeal genera. As the largest curated collection of sequences available for a protein-encoding gene, cpnDB provides a resource for researchers interested in exploiting the power of cpn60 as a diagnostic or as a target for phylogenetic or microbial ecology studies, as well as those interested in broader subjects such as lateral gene transfer and codon usage. We built cpnDB from open source tools and it is available at http://cpndb.cbr.nrc.ca.
( 2011 )
Clostridium clostridioforme and Atopobium minutum clinical isolates with vanB-type resistance in France.
PMID : 21775552 : DOI : 10.1128/JCM.00308-11 PMC : PMC3165563
Acquired vancomycin resistance in Gram-positive anaerobes has been reported only in Australia and Canada from rare vanB-positive stool samples in the absence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). We report the emergence of VanB-type resistance in Clostridium clostridioforme and Atopobium minutum involved in human infections in France.
( 2008 )
Ruminococcus gauvreauii sp. nov., a glycopeptide-resistant species isolated from a human faecal specimen.
PMID : 18523184 : DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.65259-0
A novel strictly anaerobic, vancomycin-resistant, Gram-positive coccus (strain CCRI-16,110(T)) was isolated from a human faecal specimen. This strain was characterized using morphological, biochemical and molecular taxonomic methods. The organism was unable to hydrolyse aesculin and failed to produce acid from cellobiose, d-lactose and alpha-raffinose. Acetic acid was the sole product of glucose fermentation by the organism. On the basis of 16S rRNA and tuf gene sequence comparison, strain CCRI-16,110(T) was most closely related to species of the genus Ruminococcus and formed a hitherto unknown sublineage within the Clostridium coccoides rRNA cluster of organisms (cluster XIVa). Based on phenotypic and phylogenetic evidence, a novel species, Ruminococcus gauvreauii sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is CCRI-16,110(T) (=NML 060141(T) =CCUG 54,292(T) =JCM 14987(T)).
( 2017 )
High-Quality Whole-Genome Sequences of the Oligo-Mouse-Microbiota Bacterial Community.
PMID : 29051233 : DOI : 10.1128/genomeA.00758-17 PMC : PMC5646386
The Oligo-Mouse-Microbiota (Oligo-MM12) is a community of 12 mouse intestinal bacteria to be used for microbiome research in gnotobiotic mice. We present here the high-quality whole genome sequences of the Oligo-MM12 strains, which were obtained by combining the accuracy of the Illumina platforms with the long reads of the PacBio technology.