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1. Uteng  M, Hauge  HH, Markwick  PR, Fimland  G, Mantzilas  D, Nissen-Meyer  J, Muhle-Goll  C,     ( 2003 )

Three-dimensional structure in lipid micelles of the pediocin-like antimicrobial peptide sakacin P and a sakacin P variant that is structurally stabilized by an inserted C-terminal disulfide bridge.

Biochemistry 42 (39)
PMID : 14516192  :   DOI  :   10.1021/bi034572i    
Abstract >>
The three-dimensional structures in dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles and in trifluoroethanol (TFE) of the pediocin-like antimicrobial peptide sakacin P and an engineered variant of sakacin P (termed sakP[N24C+44C]) have been determined by use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. SakP[N24C+44C] has an inserted non-native activity- and structure-stabilizing C-terminal disulfide bridge that ties the C-terminus to the middle part of the peptide. In the presence of DPC, the cationic N-terminal region (residues 1-17) of both peptides has an S-shaped conformation that is reminiscent of a three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet and that is more pronounced when the peptide was dissolved in TFE instead of DPC. The four positively charged residues located in the N-terminal part are found pointing to the same direction. For both peptides, the N-terminal region is followed by a well-defined central amphiphilic alpha-helix (residues 18-33), and this in turn is followed by the C-terminal tail (residues 34-43 for sakacin P and 34-44 for sakP[N24C+44C]) that lacks any apparent common secondary structural motif. In the presence of DPC, the C-terminal tails in both peptides fold back onto the central alpha-helix, thereby creating a hairpin-like structure in the C-terminal halves. The lack of long-range NOEs between the beta-sheet Nu-terminal region and the hairpin-like C-terminal half indicates that there is a flexible hinge between these regions. We discuss which implications such a structural arrangement has on the interaction with the target cell membrane.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Peptides
2. Alpert  CA, Crutz-Le Coq  AM, Malleret  C, Zagorec  M,     ( 2003 )

Characterization of a theta-type plasmid from Lactobacillus sakei: a potential basis for low-copy-number vectors in lactobacilli.

Applied and environmental microbiology 69 (9)
PMID : 12957947  :   DOI  :   10.1128/aem.69.9.5574-5584.2003     PMC  :   PMC194969    
Abstract >>
The complete nucleotide sequence of the 13-kb plasmid pRV500, isolated from Lactobacillus sakei RV332, was determined. Sequence analysis enabled the identification of genes coding for a putative type I restriction-modification system, two genes coding for putative recombinases of the integrase family, and a region likely involved in replication. The structural features of this region, comprising a putative ori segment containing 11- and 22-bp repeats and a repA gene coding for a putative initiator protein, indicated that pRV500 belongs to the pUCL287 subfamily of theta-type replicons. A 3.7-kb fragment encompassing this region was fused to an Escherichia coli replicon to produce the shuttle vector pRV566 and was observed to be functional in L. sakei for plasmid replication. The L. sakei replicon alone could not support replication in E. coli. Plasmid pRV500 and its derivative pRV566 were determined to be at very low copy numbers in L. sakei. pRV566 was maintained at a reasonable rate over 20 generations in several lactobacilli, such as Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus plantarum, in addition to L. sakei, making it an interesting basis for developing vectors. Sequence relationships with other plasmids are described and discussed.
KeywordMeSH Terms
3. Chavagnat  F, Haueter  M, Jimeno  J, Casey  MG,     ( 2002 )

Comparison of partial tuf gene sequences for the identification of lactobacilli.

FEMS microbiology letters 217 (2)
PMID : 12480101  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1574-6968.2002.tb11472.x    
Abstract >>
Comparative analysis of partial tuf sequences was evaluated for the identification and differentiation of lactobacilli. Comparison of the amino acid sequences allowed differentiation between species and also between the subspecies of Lactobacillus delbrueckii. The nucleotide sequence comparison allowed differentiation between other subspecies and between some strains. Lactobacilli from several collections and isolates from dairy samples were clearly identified by comparison of short tuf sequences with those of the type strains. In evaluating the taxonomy of the Lactobacillus casei-related taxa, different tuf amino acid signatures are in favour of a classification into three distinct species. The type strain designation for the L. casei species is discussed.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
Genes, Bacterial
4. Simon  L, Fremaux  C, Cenatiempo  Y, Berjeaud  JM,     ( 2002 )

Sakacin g, a new type of antilisterial bacteriocin.

Applied and environmental microbiology 68 (12)
PMID : 12450870  :   DOI  :   10.1128/aem.68.12.6416-6420.2002     PMC  :   PMC134399    
Abstract >>
Sakacin G is a 37-amino-acid-residue-long class IIa bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake 2512, which is encoded by the duplicated structural genes skgA1 and skgA2. Sakacin G appears to be unique and seems to be an intermediate between pediocin-like bacteriocins, according to its double-disulfide bridges required for antimicrobial activity, and mesentericin-like bacteriocins in terms of sequence homologies, inhibition spectrum, and specific activity.
KeywordMeSH Terms
5. Zúñiga  M, Miralles Md  Mdel C, Pérez-Martínez  G,     ( 2002 )

The Product of arcR, the sixth gene of the arc operon of Lactobacillus sakei, is essential for expression of the arginine deiminase pathway.

Applied and environmental microbiology 68 (12)
PMID : 12450828  :   DOI  :   10.1128/aem.68.12.6051-6058.2002     PMC  :   PMC134381    
Abstract >>
Lactobacillus sakei is a lactic acid bacterium commonly used as a starter culture for dry sausage production and can utilize arginine via the arginine deiminase pathway. The arcABCTD cluster of L. sakei has been characterized, and transcriptional studies have shown that its expression is subject to carbon catabolite repression and induction by arginine. Downstream of arcD an additional gene has been found; this gene, arcR, codes for a putative regulatory protein of the Crp/Fnr family. Transcriptional studies have shown that arcR is coordinately transcribed with the remaining arc genes, and therefore, these genes constitute the arcABCTDR operon. Northern analysis also showed a complex pattern of transcripts, suggesting that processing and partial termination may play a role in regulation of the expression of individual genes of the operon. Inactivation of arcR led to arrest of transcription of the operon, indicating that the ArcR protein is essential for expression of the arc genes. The availability of this mutant made it possible to study whether the ability to utilize arginine affects the growth of L. sakei in meat fermentations. Under our experimental conditions, expression of arginine deiminase does not confer an obvious advantage to L. sakei, since the wild type and an arcR mutant strain displayed similar dynamics of growth.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
Operon
6. Champomier-Vergès  MC, Marceau  A, Méra  T, Zagorec  M,     ( 2002 )

The pepR gene of Lactobacillus sakei is positively regulated by anaerobiosis at the transcriptional level.

Applied and environmental microbiology 68 (8)
PMID : 12147484  :   DOI  :   10.1128/aem.68.8.3873-3877.2002     PMC  :   PMC124041    
Abstract >>
Lactobacillus sakei is a lactic acid bacterium belonging to the natural flora of meat products. It constitutes the main flora of vacuum-packed meat and is largely used in western Europe as a starter for the manufacturing of fermented sausages. This species is able to grow both under aerobiosis and anaerobiosis. In many technological processes involving it, oxygen is scarce. The aim of this study was to identify the major proteins affected by growth under anaerobiosis. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis, we showed that one spot was 10-fold overexpressed when cells were grown under anaerobiosis. By N-terminal sequencing it was identified as a peptidase (PepR), and the pepR gene was cloned. Northern analysis revealed that pepR was expressed as a single 1.27-kb transcript induced under anaerobiosis. A mutant was constructed by single crossover in the pepR gene, and its growth and survival were not affected by anaerobiosis.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Transcription, Genetic
7. Skaugen  M, Andersen  EL, Christie  VH, Nes  IF,     ( 2002 )

Identification, characterization, and expression of a second, bicistronic, operon involved in the production of lactocin S in Lactobacillus sakei L45.

Applied and environmental microbiology 68 (2)
PMID : 11823212  :   DOI  :   10.1128/aem.68.2.720-727.2002     PMC  :   PMC126710    
Abstract >>
Through the analysis of spontaneous insertion mutants of Lactobacillus sakei L45, a second operon involved in lactocin S production was identified and characterized. The new, bicistronic unit, termed lasXY, is situated immediately upstream of the previously characterized nine-open reading frame (ORF) lactocin S operon (lasA-W) and is transcribed in the opposite direction. The proximal of the two newly identified genes, lasX, specifies a 285-residue protein that is similar to a group of proteins with reported gene regulation functions in gram-positive bacteria. It was demonstrated that the lasX mutants have a strongly reduced level of lasA and lasA-W mRNA, thus indicating the likely cause of the Bac(-) phenotype of these mutants. The second ORF in the operon, lasY, specifies a 300-residue ABC transporter homolog, the function of which is currently obscure. Transcription initiation mapping of the lasXY operon demonstrates that the two lactocin S promoters overlap such that both transcripts initiate within the -35 region of the oppositely oriented promoter. This organization of promoters is unique among this group of regulons and may constitute a modulatory site in the proposed LasX-dependent expression of lasA and downstream genes.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Peptides
8. Dudez  AM, Chaillou  S, Hissler  L, Stentz  R, Champomier-Vergès  MC, Alpert  CA, Zagorec  M,     ( 2002 )

Physical and genetic map of the Lactobacillus sakei 23K chromosome.

Microbiology (Reading, England) 148 (Pt 2)
PMID : 11832506  :   DOI  :   10.1099/00221287-148-2-421    
Abstract >>
The Lactobacillus sakei 23K chromosome was analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis after digestion with the restriction enzymes AscI, NotI and SfiI. The chromosome size was estimated to be 1845+/-80 kb. The use of I-CeuI, specific for rrn genes encoding 23S rRNAs, showed that seven rrn loci were present, on 40% of the chromosome. The seven rrn clusters were mapped and their orientation was determined, allowing the position of the replication origin to be estimated. Partial I-CeuI digestions were used to construct a backbone and the different restriction fragments obtained with AscI, NotI and SfiI were assembled to a physical map by Southern hybridization. Eleven L. sakei gene clusters previously identified were mapped, as well as 25 new loci located randomly on the chromosome and 11 regions flanking the rrn gene clusters. A total of 47 clusters were thus mapped on L. sakei chromosome. The new loci were sequenced, allowing the identification of 73 complete or incomplete coding sequences. Among these 73 new genes of L. sakei, the function of 36 could be deduced from their similarity to known genes described in databases. However, 10 genes had no homologues, 10 encoded proteins similar to proteins of unknown function and 17 were similar to hypothetical proteins.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genome, Bacterial
9. Qvarnström  Y,     ( 2000 )

Additive effects of a two-amino-acid insertion and a single-amino-acid substitution in dihydropteroate synthase for the development of sulphonamide-resistant Neisseria meningitidis.

Microbiology (Reading, England) 146 (Pt 5) (N/A)
PMID : 10832642  :   DOI  :   10.1099/00221287-146-5-1151    
Abstract >>
Sulphonamide resistance in some clinical isolates of Neisseria meningitidis is associated with an insertion in the chromosomal folP gene leading to the addition of two amino acids, serine and glycine, in the drug target enzyme dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS). Removal of the insertion resulted in a markedly higher Km for the substrate p-aminobenzoic acid and a markedly lower Km for 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-7,8-dihydropteridine pyrophosphate. In the same isolates an additional important difference, compared to wild-type enzymes, was found at amino acid position 68, which is a proline in most DHPS enzymes, but is serine in one and leucine in another clinical isolate of sulphonamide-resistant N. meningitidis. The alteration at position 68 was found to affect mainly the level of sulphonamide resistance and had only a minor effect on the Km for the substrates. Introduction of the serine-glycine dipeptide at position 194 and a proline to serine substitution at position 68 in DHPS from normal, susceptible N. meningitidis failed to produce a functional sulphonamide-resistant enzyme. The conclusion of this study is that it is not possible to change a normal chromosomally encoded DHPS of N. meningitidis to a sulphonamide-resistant one simply by an insertion of serine and glycine as seen in clinical isolates. It is likely that the resistance gene found in clinical isolates has evolved in another bacterial species where a combination of other amino acid changes may have contributed to produce a functionally resistant enzyme. This new resistance gene may have then been introduced into N. meningitidis by natural transformation.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
10. Stentz  R, Loizel  C, Malleret  C, Zagorec  M,     ( 2000 )

Development of genetic tools for Lactobacillus sakei: disruption of the beta-galactosidase gene and use of lacZ as a reporter gene To study regulation of the putative copper ATPase, AtkB.

Applied and environmental microbiology 66 (10)
PMID : 11010870  :   DOI  :   10.1128/aem.66.10.4272-4278.2000     PMC  :   PMC92296    
Abstract >>
Downstream from the ptsHI operon of Lactobacillus sakei, the genes atkY and atkB, organized in an operon, were observed. The two putative proteins, AtkB and AtkY, show sequence similarity to the Enterococcus hirae copper P-type ATPase, responsible for copper efflux, and its negative regulator. Characterization of AtkB as a copper P-type ATPase could not be demonstrated since an atkB mutant did not show any phenotype. Thus, another strategy was followed in order to investigate the transcriptional regulation of the atkYB locus, leading to the development of new genetic tools for L. sakei. A plasmid was constructed, the use of which allowed gene replacement at the lacLM locus in L. sakei by two successive crossovers. A strain deleted of the lacLM operon encoding the beta-galactosidase of L. sakei was constructed by this method, and the Escherichia coli lacZ gene could then be used as a reporter gene to investigate the regulation of atkYB. Results show that the atkYB operon is induced by small concentrations of CuSO(4) (30 to 40 microM) but not when CuSO(4) is omitted or added at higher concentrations.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Genes, Reporter
Operon
11. Skaugen  M,     ( 2000 )

Transposition in Lactobacillus sakei: inactivation of a second lactocin S operon by the insertion of IS1520, a new member of the IS3 family of insertion sequences.

Microbiology (Reading, England) 146 (Pt 5) (N/A)
PMID : 10832644  :   DOI  :   10.1099/00221287-146-5-1163    
Abstract >>
The analysis of spontaneous bacteriocin-negative mutants has led to the identification and characterization of a new, transpositionally active, insertion sequence of the IS3 family in the lactocin-S-producing Lactobacillus sakei strain L45. The element, which has been designated IS1520, is 1302 bp long with 10 bp perfect inverted repeat ends and generates direct repeats of a trinucleotide of target sequence upon transposition to the lactocin S locus. IS1520 encodes two consecutive, partially overlapping, major ORFs, which are frameshifted in a manner typical of the IS3 family. Despite a low overall DNA sequence similarity, the putative frameshifting region of IS1520 is highly similar to the corresponding region of IS1163, which is a related element previously shown to be active in L. sakei L45.
KeywordMeSH Terms
DNA Transposable Elements
Peptides
12. Stentz  R, Zagorec  M,     ( 1999 )

Ribose utilization in Lactobacillus sakei: analysis of the regulation of the rbs operon and putative involvement of a new transporter.

Journal of molecular microbiology and biotechnology 1 (1)
PMID : 10941799  :  
Abstract >>
A 7-kb DNA fragment of Lactobacillus sakei, containing the rbsD, rbsK and rbsR genes was sequenced. The genes responsible for ribose utilization are organized differently from what was previously described for model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. No gene encoding RbsA, RbsB and RbsC, the subunits of the ribose ABC-transporter, were present in the rbs gene cluster. Instead, we found an open reading frame coding for RbsU, a protein similar to GltA, the glucose transporter of Staphylococcus xylosus. The disruption of rbsK, encoding the ribokinase, impaired growth on ribose. The disruption of rbsR, encoding the repressor, had no effect on the ability to grow on ribose, but led to overexpression of a large transcript corresponding to rbsU, rbsD and rbsK, suggesting that RbsU might be involved in ribose utilization. Ribose uptake and phosphorylation assays on the wild type strain and various mutants showed that, in ptsI mutants, both ribose uptake and phosphorylation are increased. These increased activities can explain the faster growth rate on ribose that was observed in ptsI mutants. The phosphotransferase system is thus involved in the negative regulation of ribose utilization. This regulation might not act at the transcriptional level since the overexpression of the rbs genes in the rbsR mutant did not lead to the same phenotype. A gene sharing high similarity scores with ackA genes, encoding the acetate kinase, was found upstream from the rbs gene cluster. The unusual location of this gene is maybe not fortuitous since acetate kinase is involved in ribose catabolism.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
Escherichia coli Proteins
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Operon
13. Zuñiga  M, Morel-Deville  F, Pérez-Martínez  G, Champomier Vergès  MC,     ( 1999 )

Relationships between arginine degradation, pH and survival in Lactobacillus sakei.

FEMS microbiology letters 180 (2)
PMID : 10556725  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1574-6968.1999.tb08809.x    
Abstract >>
Lactobacillus sakei is one of the most important lactic acid bacteria of meat and fermented meat products. It is able to degrade arginine with ammonia and ATP production by the arginine deiminase pathway (ADI). This pathway is composed of three enzymes: arginine deiminase, ornithine transcarbamoylase and carbamate kinase, and an arginine transport system. The transcription of the ADI pathway is induced by arginine and subjected to catabolite repression. In order to understand the physiological role of the degradation of this amino acid we investigated the growth of bacteria under various conditions. We show that arginine degradation is responsible for an enhanced viability during the stationary phase when cells are grown under anaerobiosis. Arginine is necessary for the induction of the ADI pathway but in association with another environmental signal. Using a mutant of the L-lactate dehydrogenase unable to lower the pH we could clearly demonstrate that (i) low pH is not responsible for cell death during the stationary phase, so survival is due to another factor than elevated pH, (ii) neither low pH nor oxygen limitation is responsible for the induction of the ADI pathway together with arginine since the ldhL mutant is able to degrade arginine under aerobiosis.
KeywordMeSH Terms
14. Hertel  C, Schmidt  G,     ( 1999 )

Molecular characterisation of the dnaK operon of Lactobacillus sakei LTH681.

Systematic and applied microbiology 22 (3)
PMID : 10553284  :   DOI  :   10.1016/S0723-2020(99)80039-3    
Abstract >>
The use of lactobacilli as starter organisms in food fermentation processes requires thorough knowledge of their reaction to the multitude of ecological factors including their response to stress. We have characterised the dnaK gene region of Lactobacillus sakei LTH681. Two chromosomal EcoRI fragments of 2.5 and 4.0 kb were identified using a homologous dnaK probe generated by PCR. The sequence analysis of the cloned fragments showed that the dnaK gene region consists of four heat shock genes with the organisation hrcA-grpE-dnaK-dnaJ. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed high similarity to the corresponding heat shock proteins of Gram-positive bacteria. An upstream located orfY was found which exhibited substantial similarity (41.5%) to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase of Enterobacter aerogenes. Northern hybridisation analysis revealed that the transcription of the genes is induced by heat shock (42 degrees C) as well as salt (6%) or ethanol (10%) stress. Several transcripts were detected including a polycistronic mRNA of 4.9 kb which represents the transcript of the complete dnaK gene region indicating a tetracistronic organisation of the dnaK operon. The other RNA fragments were identified as shorter transcripts (3.7 and 1.3 kb) or cleavage products of the polycistronic mRNAs. The transcription start sites of the dnaK operon were determined under inducing and non-inducing conditions. The site varied with the applied stress condition. A regulatory CIRCE element was identified located between the transcription and translation start site. The promoter region including CIRCE was transcriptionally fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene gusA and expressed in L. sakei LTH681. The kinetics of transcriptional induction of gusA by heat shocking were identical to those of the dnaK operon confirming the involvement of the CIRCE element in regulation of gene expression.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Escherichia coli Proteins
15. Cocolin  L, Rantsiou  K,     ( 2007 )

Sequencing and expression analysis of sakacin genes in Lactobacillus curvatus strains.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology 76 (6)
PMID : 17690878  :   DOI  :   10.1007/s00253-007-1120-8    
Abstract >>
In this study, we focused our investigation on two strains of Lactobacillus curvatus, L442 and LTH1174, which are able to produce bacteriocins. L. curvatus LTH1174 is widely studied for its capability to produce curvacin A, while L. curvatus L442 was isolated from traditional Greek fermented sausages and was shown to possess a strong inhibitory activity toward Listeria monocytogenes. By polymerase chain reaction, we were able to target in both strains the genes for the production of sakacin P and sakacin Q, sppA and sppQ, respectively, both encoded chromosomally. While sppA was found to be conserved when compared with other sakacin P genes, sppQ showed a deletion of about 15 nucleotides when aligned with sequences obtained from Lactobacillus sakei. This difference did not affect the activity of sakacin Q as determined by testing sensitive strains. Expression analysis highlighted that sakacin P was expressed in L. curvatus L442 but not in L. curvatus LTH1174. Curing experiments were performed on L. curvatus LTH1174 to study the effect of the megaplasmid, present in this strain. In the plasmid-cured strain, expression of the sppA gene was detected. sppQ was expressed in both plasmid-cured and wild-type L. curvatus LTH1174, although expression was higher in the plasmid-cured strain.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
16. Diancourt  L, Passet  V, Chervaux  C, Garault  P, Smokvina  T, Brisse  S,     ( 2007 )

Multilocus sequence typing of Lactobacillus casei reveals a clonal population structure with low levels of homologous recombination.

Applied and environmental microbiology 73 (20)
PMID : 17704267  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.01095-07     PMC  :   PMC2075077    
Abstract >>
Robust genotyping methods for Lactobacillus casei are needed for strain tracking and collection management, as well as for population biology research. A collection of 52 strains initially labeled L. casei or Lactobacillus paracasei was first subjected to rplB gene sequencing together with reference strains of Lactobacillus zeae, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and other species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all 52 strains belonged to a single compact L. casei-L. paracasei sequence cluster, together with strain CIP107868 (= ATCC 334) but clearly distinct from L. rhamnosus and from a cluster with L. zeae and CIP103137(T) (= ATCC 393(T)). The strains were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism, multilocus sequence typing based on internal portions of the seven housekeeping genes fusA, ileS, lepA, leuS, pyrG, recA, and recG, and tandem repeat variation (multilocus variable-number tandem repeats analysis [MLVA] using nine loci). Very high concordance was found between the three methods. Although amounts of nucleotide variation were low for the seven genes (pi ranging from 0.0038 to 0.0109), 3 to 12 alleles were distinguished, resulting in 31 sequence types. One sequence type (ST1) was frequent (17 strains), but most others were represented by a single strain. Attempts to subtype ST1 strains by MLVA, ribotyping, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat characterization, and single nucleotide repeat variation were unsuccessful. We found clear evidence for homologous recombination during the diversification of L. casei clones, including a putative intragenic import of DNA into one strain. Nucleotides were estimated to change four times more frequently by recombination than by mutation. However, statistical congruence between individual gene trees was retained, indicating that recombination is not frequent enough to disrupt the phylogenetic signal. The developed multilocus sequence typing scheme should be useful for future studies of L. casei strain diversity and evolution.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Recombination, Genetic
Sequence Analysis, DNA
17. Scheirlinck  I, Van der Meulen  R, Van Schoor  A, Vancanneyt  M, De Vuyst  L, Vandamme  P, Huys  G,     ( 2007 )

Influence of geographical origin and flour type on diversity of lactic acid bacteria in traditional Belgian sourdoughs.

Applied and environmental microbiology 73 (19)
PMID : 17675431  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.00894-07     PMC  :   PMC2075033    
Abstract >>
A culture-based approach was used to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Belgian traditional sourdoughs and to assess the influence of flour type, bakery environment, geographical origin, and technological characteristics on the taxonomic composition of these LAB communities. For this purpose, a total of 714 LAB from 21 sourdoughs sampled at 11 artisan bakeries throughout Belgium were subjected to a polyphasic identification approach. The microbial composition of the traditional sourdoughs was characterized by bacteriological culture in combination with genotypic identification methods, including repetitive element sequence-based PCR fingerprinting and phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS) gene sequence analysis. LAB from Belgian sourdoughs belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Weissella, and Enterococcus, with the heterofermentative species Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis as the most frequently isolated taxa. Statistical analysis of the identification data indicated that the microbial composition of the sourdoughs is mainly affected by the bakery environment rather than the flour type (wheat, rye, spelt, or a mixture of these) used. In conclusion, the polyphasic approach, based on rapid genotypic screening and high-resolution, sequence-dependent identification, proved to be a powerful tool for studying the LAB diversity in traditional fermented foods such as sourdough.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Fermentation
Genetic Variation
18. Naterstad  K, Rud  I, Kvam  I, Axelsson  L,     ( 2007 )

Characterisation of the gap operon from Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus sakei.

Current microbiology 54 (3)
PMID : 17294332  :   DOI  :   10.1007/s00284-006-0013-x    
Abstract >>
Glycolysis constitutes the primary energy-generating pathway of most species of lactic acid bacteria. The metabolism ultimately results in massive lactic acid production, which is responsible for the major preservative effect of these organisms. This study reports the identification, sequencing, and characterisation of the central glycolytic operon, the gap operon, from Lactobacillus plantarum NC8 and L. sakei Lb790. The structure of the operons of the two Lactobacillus strains were similar and organised in the order cggR-gap-pgk-tpi-eno, encoding a putative central glycolytic gene regulator and the four glycolytic enzymes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, triosephosphate isomerase, and enolase, respectively. This operon structure has not been reported in any other bacterial species so far. Transcriptional analysis revealed three major transcripts, the mono-cistronic gap and eno and the tetra-cistronic gap-pgk-tpi-eno.
KeywordMeSH Terms
19. Coton  E, Coton  M,     ( 2005 )

Multiplex PCR for colony direct detection of Gram-positive histamine- and tyramine-producing bacteria.

Journal of microbiological methods 63 (1��3��)
PMID : 15935495  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.mimet.2005.04.001    
Abstract >>
Formation of biogenic amines (BA) may occur in fermented foods and beverages due to the amino acid decarboxylase activities of Gram-positive bacteria. These compounds may cause food poisoning and therefore could imply food exportation problems. A set of consensual primers based on histidine decarboxylase gene (hdc) sequences of different bacteria was designed for the detection of histamine-producing Gram-positive bacteria. A multiplex PCR based on these hdc primers and recently designed primers targeting the tyrosine decarboxylase (tyrdc) gene was created. A third set of primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of eubacteria was also used as an internal control. This multiplex PCR was performed on extracted DNA as well as directly on cell colonies. The results obtained show that this new molecular tool allowed for the detection of Gram-positive histamine- and/or tyramine-producing bacteria. The use of this molecular tool for early and rapid detection of Gram-positive BA-producing bacteria is of interest in evaluating the potential of cultured indigenous strains to produce biogenic amines in a fermented food product as well as to validate the innocuity of potential starter strains in the food industry.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Food Microbiology
20. Urso  R, Rantsiou  K, Cantoni  C, Comi  G, Cocolin  L,     ( 2006 )

Sequencing and expression analysis of the sakacin P bacteriocin produced by a Lactobacillus sakei strain isolated from naturally fermented sausages.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology 71 (4)
PMID : 16231175  :   DOI  :   10.1007/s00253-005-0172-x    
Abstract >>
A Lactobacillus sakei strain, designated as I151 and isolated from naturally fermented sausages, was found to produce the sakacin P bacteriocin which is active against Listeria monocytogenes. In this study, we performed the sequencing of the gene cluster involved in the production of the sakacin P, and we followed the expression of the sppA gene, encoding for the bacteriocin, in vitro, using Rogosa-Sharpe medium, and in situ, inoculating the strain in fermented sausages as starter culture. The results obtained underlined the high similarity (>99%) of the entire sakacin P gene cluster from the L. sakei studied here with others present in strains of L. sakei already described. Moreover, from the expression experiments, it was shown that the gene is expressed during the exponential phase and that production procedures typical of fermented sausages are not turning off the expression of the gene encoding the bacteriocin. The capability of the strain studied to produce sakacin P during production is considered an advantage for its use as starter culture to improve the safety aspect of traditional fermented sausages produced in Italy.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Food Microbiology
21. Goffin  P, Deghorain  M, Mainardi  JL, Tytgat  I, Champomier-Vergès  MC, Kleerebezem  M, Hols  P,     ( 2005 )

Lactate racemization as a rescue pathway for supplying D-lactate to the cell wall biosynthesis machinery in Lactobacillus plantarum.

Journal of bacteriology 187 (19)
PMID : 16166538  :   DOI  :   10.1128/JB.187.19.6750-6761.2005     PMC  :   PMC1251571    
Abstract >>
Lactobacillus plantarum is a lactic acid bacterium that produces d- and l-lactate using stereospecific NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenases (LdhD and LdhL, respectively). However, reduction of glycolytic pyruvate by LdhD is not the only pathway for d-lactate production since a mutant defective in this activity still produces both lactate isomers (T. Ferain, J. N. Hobbs, Jr., J. Richardson, N. Bernard, D. Garmyn, P. Hols, N. E. Allen, and J. Delcour, J. Bacteriol. 178:5431-5437, 1996). Production of d-lactate in this species has been shown to be connected to cell wall biosynthesis through its incorporation as the last residue of the muramoyl-pentadepsipeptide peptidoglycan precursor. This particular feature leads to natural resistance to high concentrations of vancomycin. In the present study, we show that L. plantarum possesses two pathways for d-lactate production: the LdhD enzyme and a lactate racemase, whose expression requires l-lactate. We report the cloning of a six-gene operon, which is involved in lactate racemization activity and is positively regulated by l-lactate. Deletion of this operon in an L. plantarum strain that is devoid of LdhD activity leads to the exclusive production of l-lactate. As a consequence, peptidoglycan biosynthesis is affected, and growth of this mutant is d-lactate dependent. We also show that the growth defect can be partially restored by expression of the d-alanyl-d-alanine-forming Ddl ligase from Lactococcus lactis, or by supplementation with various d-2-hydroxy acids but not d-2-amino acids, leading to variable vancomycin resistance levels. This suggests that L. plantarum is unable to efficiently synthesize peptidoglycan precursors ending in d-alanine and that the cell wall biosynthesis machinery in this species is specifically dedicated to the production of peptidoglycan precursors ending in d-lactate. In this context, the lactate racemase could thus provide the bacterium with a rescue pathway for d-lactate production upon inactivation or inhibition of the LdhD enzyme.
KeywordMeSH Terms
22. Knauf  HJ, Vogel  RF, Hammes  WP,     ( 1992 )

Cloning, sequence, and phenotypic expression of katA, which encodes the catalase of Lactobacillus sake LTH677.

Applied and environmental microbiology 58 (3)
PMID : 1575485  :   PMC  :   PMC195342    
Abstract >>
Lactobacillus sake LTH677 is a strain, isolated from fermented sausage, which forms a heme-dependent catalase. This rare property is highly desirable in sausage fermentation, as it prevents rancidity and discoloration caused by hydrogen peroxide. A gene bank containing MboI fragments of chromosomal DNA from Lactobacillus sake LTH677 in Escherichia coli plasmid pBR328 was constructed. The catalase gene was cloned by heterologous complementation of the Kat- phenotype of E. coli UM2. The catalase structural gene, designated katA, was assigned to a 2.3-kb region by deletion analysis of the originally cloned fragment in plasmid pHK1000. The original chromosomal arrangement was determined by Southern hybridization. Protein analysis revealed that the catalase subunit has a molecular size of 65,000 Da and that the active catalase possesses a hexameric structure. The molecular size of the subunit deduced from the nucleotide sequence was determined to 54,504 Da. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the 65,000-Da protein corresponded to the one deduced from the DNA sequence. After recloning of katA in the E. coli-Lactococcus shuttle vector pGKV210, the gene was successfully transferred and phenotypically expressed in Lactobacillus casei, which is naturally deficient in catalase activity.
KeywordMeSH Terms
23. Mathiesen  G, Huehne  K, Kroeckel  L, Axelsson  L, Eijsink  VG,     ( 2005 )

Characterization of a new bacteriocin operon in sakacin P-producing Lactobacillus sakei, showing strong translational coupling between the bacteriocin and immunity genes.

Applied and environmental microbiology 71 (7)
PMID : 16000763  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.71.7.3565-3574.2005     PMC  :   PMC1169027    
Abstract >>
Previous studies of genes involved in the production of sakacin P by Lactobacillus sakei Lb674 revealed the presence of an inducible promoter downstream of the known spp gene clusters. We show here that this promoter drives the expression of an operon consisting of a bacteriocin gene (sppQ), a cognate immunity gene (spiQ), another gene with an unknown function (orf4), and a pseudoimmunity gene containing a frameshift mutation (orf5). The leader peptide of the new one-peptide bacteriocin sakacin Q contains consensus elements that are typical for so-called "double-glycine" leader peptides. The mature bacteriocin shows weak similarity to the BrcA peptide of the two-peptide bacteriocin brochocin C. Sakacin Q has an antimicrobial spectrum that differs from that of sakacin P, thus expanding the antimicrobial properties of the producer strain. The genes encoding sakacin Q and its cognate immunity protein showed strong translational coupling, which was investigated in detail by analyzing the properties of a series of beta-glucuronidase fusions. Our results provide experimental evidence that production of the bacteriocin and production of the cognate immunity protein are tightly coregulated at the translational level.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Operon
24. Kralj  S, van Geel-Schutten  GH, Dondorff  MM, Kirsanovs  S, van der Maarel  MJ, Dijkhuizen  L,     ( 2004 )

Glucan synthesis in the genus Lactobacillus: isolation and characterization of glucansucrase genes, enzymes and glucan products from six different strains.

Microbiology (Reading, England) 150 (Pt 11)
PMID : 15528655  :   DOI  :   10.1099/mic.0.27321-0    
Abstract >>
Members of the genera Streptococcus and Leuconostoc synthesize various alpha-glucans (dextran, alternan and mutan). In Lactobacillus, until now, the only glucosyltransferase (GTF) enzyme that has been characterized is gtfA of Lactobacillus reuteri 121, the first GTF enzyme synthesizing a glucan (reuteran) that contains mainly alpha-(1-->4) linkages together with alpha-(1-->6) and alpha-(1-->4,6) linkages. Recently, partial sequences of glucansucrase genes were detected in other members of the genus Lactobacillus. This paper reports, for the first time, isolation and characterization of dextransucrase and mutansucrase genes and enzymes from various Lactobacillus species and the characterization of the glucan products synthesized, which mainly have alpha-(1-->6)- and alpha-(1-->3)-glucosidic linkages. The four GTF enzymes characterized from three different Lb. reuteri strains are highly similar at the amino acid level, and consequently their protein structures are very alike. Interestingly, these four Lb. reuteri GTFs have relatively large N-terminal variable regions, containing RDV repeats, and relatively short putative glucan-binding domains with conserved and less-conserved YG-repeating units. The three other GTF enzymes, isolated from Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus parabuchneri, contain smaller variable regions and larger putative glucan-binding domains compared to the Lb. reuteri GTF enzymes.
KeywordMeSH Terms
25. Marceau  A, Zagorec  M, Chaillou  S, Méra  T, Champomier-Vergès  MC,     ( 2004 )

Evidence for involvement of at least six proteins in adaptation of Lactobacillus sakei to cold temperatures and addition of NaCl.

Applied and environmental microbiology 70 (12)
PMID : 15574925  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.70.12.7260-7268.2004     PMC  :   PMC535173    
Abstract >>
Lactobacillus sakei is a lactic acid bacterium widely represented in the natural flora of fresh meat. The aim of this study was to analyze the differences in protein expression during environmental changes encountered during technological processes in which L. sakei is involved in order to gain insight into the ability of this species to grow and survive in such environments. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis, we observed significant variation of a set of 21 proteins in cells grown at 4 degrees C or in the presence of 4% NaCl. Six proteins could be identified by determination of their N-terminal sequences, and the corresponding gene clusters were studied. Two proteins belong to carbon metabolic pathways, and four can be clustered as general stress proteins. A phenotype was observed at low temperature for five of the six mutants constructed for these genes. The survival of four mutants during stationary phase at 4 degrees C was affected, and surprisingly, one mutant showed enhanced survival during stationary phase at low temperatures.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Adaptation, Physiological
Cold Temperature
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
26. Holck  A, Axelsson  L, Birkeland  SE, Aukrust  T, Blom  H,     ( 1992 )

Purification and amino acid sequence of sakacin A, a bacteriocin from Lactobacillus sake Lb706.

Journal of general microbiology 138 (12)
PMID : 1487735  :   DOI  :   10.1099/00221287-138-12-2715    
Abstract >>
Sakacin A, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake Lb706 and which inhibits the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulphate precipitation and ion-exchange, hydrophobic-interaction and reversed-phase chromatography. The complete amino acid sequence of sakacin A was determined by Edman degradation. The bacteriocin consisted of 41 amino acid residues and had a calculated M(r) of 4308.7, which is in good agreement with the value determined by mass spectrometry. The structural gene encoding sakacin A (sakA) was cloned and sequenced. The gene encoded a primary translation product of 59 amino acid residues which was cleaved between amino acids 18 and 19 to yield the active sakacin A. Sakacin A shared some sequence similarities with other bacteriocins.
KeywordMeSH Terms
27. Gueneau de Novoa  P, Williams  KP,     ( 2004 )

The tmRNA website: reductive evolution of tmRNA in plastids and other endosymbionts.

Nucleic acids research 32 (Database issue)
PMID : 14681369  :   DOI  :   10.1093/nar/gkh102     PMC  :   PMC308836    
Abstract >>
tmRNA combines tRNA- and mRNA-like properties and ameliorates problems arising from stalled ribosomes. Research on the mechanism, structure and biology of tmRNA is served by the tmRNA website (http://www.indiana.edu/~ tmrna), a collection of sequences, alignments, secondary structures and other information. Because many of these sequences are not in GenBank, a BLAST server has been added; another new feature is an abbreviated alignment for the tRNA-like domain only. Many tmRNA sequences from plastids have been added, five found in public sequence data and another 10 generated by direct sequencing; detection in early-branching members of the green plastid lineage brings coverage to all three primary plastid lineages. The new sequences include the shortest known tmRNA sequence. While bacterial tmRNAs usually have a lone pseudoknot upstream of the mRNA segment and a string of three or four pseudoknots downstream, plastid tmRNAs collectively show loss of pseudoknots at both postions. The pseudoknot-string region is also too short to contain the usual pseudoknot number in another new entry, the tmRNA sequence from a bacterial endosymbiont of insect cells, Tremblaya princeps. Pseudoknots may optimize tmRNA function in free-living bacteria, yet become dispensible when the endosymbiotic lifestyle relaxes selective pressure for fast growth.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Databases, Nucleic Acid
Evolution, Molecular
Internet
28. Vaughan  A, Eijsink  VG, Van Sinderen  D,     ( 2003 )

Functional characterization of a composite bacteriocin locus from malt isolate Lactobacillus sakei 5.

Applied and environmental microbiology 69 (12)
PMID : 14660366  :   DOI  :   10.1128/aem.69.12.7194-7203.2003     PMC  :   PMC309959    
Abstract >>
Lactobacillus sakei 5, isolated from malted barley, produces three bacteriocins. Genetic and functional analysis of the purified bacteriocins showed that this strain produces a plasmid-encoded bacteriocin that is identical to sakacin P, as well as two novel, chromosomally encoded bacteriocins, which were designated sakacin T and sakacin X. The structural genes specifying sakacin T and sakacin X are part of the sakacin TX locus, which consists of two adjacent but divergently oriented gene clusters. The first gene cluster includes stxP, stxR, stxK, and stxT, which, based on functional and comparative sequence analysis, are believed to encode an inducing peptide and proteins involved in regulation and secretion of these bacteriocins. The second gene cluster includes the structural and immunity genes for sakacin T, a class IIb two-peptide bacteriocin composed of SakTalpha and SakTbeta, and sakacin X, a class IIa bacteriocin. Interestingly, a so-called transport accessory protein was absent from the locus, and based on our results it appears that a dedicated accessory protein is not required for processing and transport of sakacin T and sakacin X.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Multigene Family
29. Todorov  SD, Rachman  C, Fourrier  A, Dicks  LM, van Reenen  CA, Prévost  H, Dousset  X,     ( 2011 )

Characterization of a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sakei R1333 isolated from smoked salmon.

Anaerobe 17 (1)
PMID : 20152920  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.anaerobe.2010.01.004    
Abstract >>
Strain R1333, isolated from commercially available smoked salmon, was identified as Lactobacillus sakei based on biochemical tests, sugar fermentation reactions (API 50 CHL), PCR with species-specific primers and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Strain R1333 produces a 3811 kDa class IIa bacteriocin, active against Streptococcus caprinus, Streptococcus macedonicus, Streptococcus spp., L. sakei, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii subsp. ivanovii and Listeria monocytogenes. The mode of activity against L. innocua 2030C and L. ivanovii subsp. ivanovii ATCC 19119 was bactericidal, resulting in cell lysis and enzyme- and DNA-leakage. The highest level of activity (1600 AU/mL) was recorded when cells were grown at 30�XC in MRS broth (initial pH 6.5). Only 800 AU/mL was recorded when strain R1333 was grown in MRS without Tween 80. Lower levels of bacteriocin production were recorded when strain R1333 was grown in MRS at 20�XC. Peptide R1333 adsorbs at low levels (200 AU/mL) to producer cells. Purification of bacteriocin R1333 was performed by 60% ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by separation on a SepPak C(18) column and reverse-phase HPLC on a Nucleosil C(18) column with a linear gradient from 0.1% TFA to 90% acetonitryl. A molecular mass of 3811 kDa was determined by mass spectrometry. Based on mass spectrometry and sequencing of the PCR amplified fragment targeting the sakG gene, L. sakei R1333 is a potential producer of sakacin G. This is the first report of the identification of sakacin G produced by L. sakei isolated from smoked salmon.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Food Microbiology
30. Chaillou  S, Daty  M, Baraige  F, Dudez  AM, Anglade  P, Jones  R, Alpert  CA, Champomier-Vergès  MC, Zagorec  M,     ( 2009 )

Intraspecies genomic diversity and natural population structure of the meat-borne lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus sakei.

Applied and environmental microbiology 75 (4)
PMID : 19114527  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.01721-08     PMC  :   PMC2643555    
Abstract >>
Lactobacillus sakei is a food-borne bacterium naturally found in meat and fish products. A study was performed to examine the intraspecies diversity among 73 isolates sourced from laboratory collections in several different countries. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated a 25% variation in genome size between isolates, ranging from 1,815 kb to 2,310 kb. The relatedness between isolates was then determined using a PCR-based method that detects the possession of 60 chromosomal genes belonging to the flexible gene pool. Ten different strain clusters were identified that had noticeable differences in their average genome size reflecting the natural population structure. The results show that many different genotypes may be isolated from similar types of meat products, suggesting a complex ecological habitat in which intraspecies diversity may be required for successful adaptation. Finally, proteomic analysis revealed a slight difference between the migration patterns of highly abundant GapA isoforms of the two prevailing L. sakei subspecies (sakei and carnosus). This analysis was used to affiliate the genotypic clusters with the corresponding subspecies. These findings reveal for the first time the extent of intraspecies genomic diversity in L. sakei. Consequently, identification of molecular subtypes may in the future prove valuable for a better understanding of microbial ecosystems in food products.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Polymorphism, Genetic
31. Zhai  Z, Hao  Y, Yin  S, Luan  C, Zhang  L, Zhao  L, Chen  D, Wang  O, Luo  Y,     ( 2009 )

Characterization of a novel rolling-circle replication plasmid pYSI8 from Lactobacillus sakei YSI8.

Plasmid 62 (1)
PMID : 19275914  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.plasmid.2009.02.005    
Abstract >>
A plasmid from Lactobacillus sakei YSI8, designated as pYSI8, was sequenced and characterized. It consisted of a 4973bp circular molecule with a G+C content of 35.6%. The plasmid pYSI8 was predicted to contain five putative ORFs, in which ORF1 shared 79% and 76% identity with Rep proteins of pLH2 and pLC2, members of rolling-circle replication (RCR) pMV158 family. Detection of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) intermediates by Southern hybridization and mung bean nuclease treatment confirmed that pYSI8 replicated via the RCR mechanism. Accumulation of ssDNA in rifampicin-treated strains implied that the host-encoded RNA polymerase was involved in the conversion of ssDNA to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Furthermore, the copy number of pYSI8 was estimated to be 41.9+/-0.5 in each cell by real-time polymerase chain reaction.
KeywordMeSH Terms
DNA Replication
32. Chang  JY, Chang  HC,     ( 2009 )

Identification of a replicon from pCC3, a cryptic plasmid from Leuconostoc citreum C4 derived from kimchi, and development of a new host-vector system.

Biotechnology letters 31 (5)
PMID : 19142587  :   DOI  :   10.1007/s10529-009-9912-9    
Abstract >>
Analysis of the structural properties of pCC3, a cryptic plasmid from Leuconostoc citreum C4 isolated from kimchi, determined its length as 3,338 bp and revealed three open reading frames (ORFs): ORF1-ORF3. ORF3 showed high homology with a replication initiation protein of the theta-type plasmid pTXL1. The fragment encompassing ORF3 and its upstream sequences (nt 1,299-1,634) was found to contain a functional plasmid replicon. A new shuttle vector, pUCC3E1, was constructed based on pCC3. Using Southern hybridization analysis, no single-stranded DNA intermediate was detected from Leu. citreum harboring pUCC3E1, which indicates that pCC3 replicated via the theta mechanism. The pUCC3E1 could be replicated in E. coli TG1 (5.8 x 10(4) CFU/microg DNA) and the developed cloning hosts, Leu. citreum C16 (2.1 x 10(2) CFU/microg DNA) and Leu. citreum GJ7 (8.0 x 10(1) CFU/microg DNA). pUCC3E1 was stably maintained in Leu. citreum C16 (for 100 generations, ca. 94.2%) in the absence of erythromycin (5 microg/ml).
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genetic Vectors
33. Yang  EJ, Chang  HC,     ( 2009 )

Analysis of pYC2, a cryptic plasmid in Lactobacillus sakei BM5 isolated from kimchi.

Biotechnology letters 31 (1)
PMID : 18800189  :   DOI  :   10.1007/s10529-008-9842-y    
Abstract >>
Analysis of the structural properties of pYC2, a cryptic plasmid from Lactobacillus sakei BM5 isolated from kimchi, determined its length as 1,970 bp with a G + C content of 34%. The double-strand origin (dso) and single-strand origin (sso) of rolling-circle replicating plasmids were found in the nucleotide sequence of the pYC2 plasmid. Sequence analysis of pYC2 revealed that ORF 1 and ORF 2 showed high homology with the Cop and Rep proteins encoded by the pMV158 family of plasmids replicating via the rolling-circle mechanism. pYC2 also replicates by this mechanism, as confirmed by Southern hybridization analysis.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Food Microbiology
34. Ammor  MS, Gueimonde  M, Danielsen  M, Zagorec  M, van Hoek  AH, de Los Reyes-Gavilán  CG, Mayo  B, Margolles  A,     ( 2008 )

Two different tetracycline resistance mechanisms, plasmid-carried tet(L) and chromosomally located transposon-associated tet(M), coexist in Lactobacillus sakei Rits 9.

Applied and environmental microbiology 74 (5)
PMID : 18192429  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.01463-07     PMC  :   PMC2258611    
Abstract >>
Lactobacillus sakei is extensively used as functional starter culture in fermented meat products. One of the safety criteria of a starter culture is the absence of potentially transferable antibiotic resistance determinants. However, tetracycline-resistant L. sakei strains have already been observed. In this paper, we show that tetracycline resistance in L. sakei Rits 9, a strain isolated from Italian Sola cheese made from raw milk, is mediated by a transposon-associated tet(M) gene coding for a ribosomal protection protein and a plasmid-carried tet(L) gene coding for a tetracycline efflux pump. pLS55, the 5-kb plasmid carrying the tet(L) gene, is highly similar to the pMA67 plasmid recently described for Paenibacillus larvae, a species pathogenic to honeybees. pLS55 could be transferred by electroporation into the laboratory strain L. sakei 23K. While the L. sakei 23K transformant containing pLS55 displayed an intermediate tetracycline resistance level (MIC, <32 microg/ml), L. sakei Rits 9, containing both tetracycline-resistant determinants, had a MIC of <256 microg/ml, suggesting that Tet L and Tet M confer different levels of resistance in L. sakei. Remarkably, in the absence of tetracycline, a basal expression of both genes was detected for L. sakei Rits 9. In addition, subinhibitory concentrations of tetracycline affected the expression patterns of tet(M) and tet(L) in different ways: the expression of tet(M) was induced only at high tetracycline concentrations, whereas the expression of tet(L) was up-regulated at lower concentrations. This is the first time that two different mechanisms conferring resistance to tetracycline are characterized for the same strain of a lactic acid bacterium.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Phylogeny
35. Blaiotta  G, Fusco  V, Ercolini  D, Aponte  M, Pepe  O, Villani  F,     ( 2008 )

Lactobacillus strain diversity based on partial hsp60 gene sequences and design of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assays for species identification and differentiation.

Applied and environmental microbiology 74 (1)
PMID : 17993558  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.01711-07     PMC  :   PMC2223197    
Abstract >>
A phylogenetic tree showing diversities among 116 partial (499-bp) Lactobacillus hsp60 (groEL, encoding a 60-kDa heat shock protein) nucleotide sequences was obtained and compared to those previously described for 16S rRNA and tuf gene sequences. The topology of the tree produced in this study showed a Lactobacillus species distribution similar, but not identical, to those previously reported. However, according to the most recent systematic studies, a clear differentiation of 43 single-species clusters was detected/identified among the sequences analyzed. The slightly higher variability of the hsp60 nucleotide sequences than of the 16S rRNA sequences offers better opportunities to design or develop molecular assays allowing identification and differentiation of either distant or very closely related Lactobacillus species. Therefore, our results suggest that hsp60 can be considered an excellent molecular marker for inferring the taxonomy and phylogeny of members of the genus Lactobacillus and that the chosen primers can be used in a simple PCR procedure allowing the direct sequencing of the hsp60 fragments. Moreover, in this study we performed a computer-aided restriction endonuclease analysis of all 499-bp hsp60 partial sequences and we showed that the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns obtainable by using both endonucleases AluI and TacI (in separate reactions) can allow identification and differentiation of all 43 Lactobacillus species considered, with the exception of the pair L. plantarum/L. pentosus. However, the latter species can be differentiated by further analysis with Sau3AI or MseI. The hsp60 PCR-RFLP approach was efficiently applied to identify and to differentiate a total of 110 wild Lactobacillus strains (including closely related species, such as L. casei and L. rhamnosus or L. plantarum and L. pentosus) isolated from cheese and dry-fermented sausages.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
36. Sa  HD, Park  JY, Jeong  SJ, Lee  KW, Kim  JH,     ( 2015 )

Characterization of Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD) from Lactobacillus sakei A156 Isolated from Jeot-gal.

Journal of microbiology and biotechnology 25 (5)
PMID : 25791853  :  
Abstract >>
A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing microorganism was isolated from jeot-gal (anchovy), a Korean fermented seafood. The isolate, A156, produced GABA profusely when incubated in MRS broth with monosodium glutamate (3% (w/v)) at 37�XC for 48 h. A156 was identified as Lactobacillus sakei by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The GABA conversion yield was 86% as determined by GABase enzyme assay. The gadB gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) was cloned by PCR. gadC encoding a glutamate/GABA antiporter was located immediately upstream of gadB. The operon structure of gadCB was confirmed by RT-PCR. gadB was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and recombinant GAD was purified. The purified GAD was 54.4 kDa in size by SDS-PAGE. Maximum GAD activity was observed at pH 5.0 and 55�XC and the activity was dependent on pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. The Km and Vmax of GAD were 0.045 mM and 0.011 mM/min, respectively, when glutamate was used as the substrate.
KeywordMeSH Terms
37. Chaillou  S, Lucquin  I, Najjari  A, Zagorec  M, Champomier-Vergès  MC,     ( 2013 )

Population genetics of Lactobacillus sakei reveals three lineages with distinct evolutionary histories.

PloS one 8 (9)
PMID : 24069179  :   DOI  :   10.1371/journal.pone.0073253     PMC  :   PMC3777942    
Abstract >>
Lactobacillus sakei plays a major role in meat fermentation and in the preservation of fresh meat. The large diversity of L. sakei strains represents a valuable and exploitable asset in the development of a variety of industrial applications; however, an efficient method to identify and classify these strains has yet to be developed. In this study, we used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to analyze the polymorphism and allelic distribution of eight loci within an L. sakei population of 232 strains collected worldwide. Within this population, we identified 116 unique sequence types with an average pairwise nucleotide diversity per site (�k) of 0.13%. Results from Structure, goeBurst, and ClonalFrame software analyses demonstrated that the L. sakei population analyzed here is derived from three ancestral lineages, each of which shows evidence of a unique evolutionary history influenced by independent selection scenarios. However, the signature of selective events in the contemporary population of isolates was somewhat masked by the pervasive phenomenon of homologous recombination. Our results demonstrate that lineage 1 is a completely panmictic subpopulation in which alleles have been continually redistributed through the process of intra-lineage recombination. In contrast, lineage 2 was characterized by a high degree of clonality. Lineage 3, the earliest-diverging branch in the genealogy, showed evidence of both clonality and recombination. These evolutionary histories strongly indicate that the three lineages may correspond to distinct ecotypes, likely linked or specialized to different environmental reservoirs. The MLST scheme developed in this study represents an easy and straightforward tool that can be used to further analyze the population dynamics of L. sakei strains in food products.
KeywordMeSH Terms
38.     ( 1997 )

Molecular cloning and analysis of the ptsHI operon in Lactobacillus sake.

Applied and environmental microbiology 63 (6)
PMID : 9172326  :   PMC  :   PMC168499    
Abstract >>
The ptsH and ptsI genes of Lactobacillus sake, encoding the general enzymes of the phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS), were cloned and sequenced. HPr (88 amino acids), encoded by ptsH, and enzyme I (574 amino acids), encoded by ptsI, are homologous to the corresponding known enzymes of other bacteria. Nucleotide sequence and mRNA analysis showed that the two genes are cotranscribed in a large transcript encoding both HPr and enzyme I. The transcription of ptsHI was shown to be independent of the carbon source. Four ptsI mutants were constructed by single-crossover recombination. For all mutants, growth on PTS carbohydrates was abolished. Surprisingly, the growth rates of mutants on ribose and arabinose, two carbohydrates which are not transported by the PTS, were accelerated. This unexpected phenotype suggests that the PTS negatively controls ribose and arabinose utilization in L. sake by a mechanism different from the regulation involving HPr described for other gram-positive bacteria.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
Operon
39.     ( 1997 )

Organization and expression of a gene cluster involved in the biosynthesis of the lantibiotic lactocin S.

Molecular & general genetics : MGG 253 (6)
PMID : 9079878  :   DOI  :   10.1007/s004380050371    
Abstract >>
Some 8.8 kb of the Lactobacillus sake plasmid pCIM1 was sequenced, revealing eight tightly clustered open reading frames (ORFs) downstream from lasA, which encodes pre-lactocin S. Transcription analyses demonstrated that the genes are expressed as an operon, with transcription initiating upstream of lasA and terminating immediately 3' to the ninth ORF x lasA is also represented by two small RNAs (RNAI and RNAII) which differ in size by approximately 90 nucleotides, and primer extension experiments demonstrated a corresponding difference in the 5' termini. A palindromie sequence constitutes the 3' terminus of both RNAI and RNAII, and we propose that this sequence has a dual regulatory function in controlling the expression of las operon, acting both as a barrier to 3'-5' exonuclease degradation of the lasA-specific transcript(s), and as a "leaky" transcriptional terminator which limits the expression of down-stream genes. Three of the genes in the las operon have identifiable counterparts in other lantibiotic systems: lasM is likely to be involved in prepeptide modification, lasT, which encodes an ATP-dependent transport protein, is probably involved in the secretion of lactocin S, while lasP specifies a subtilisin-type serine protease which may be the lactocin S leader peptidase. Insertional mutation of either lasT or lasM by the resident transposable element IS1163 abolishes lactocin S production. The remaining five ORFs in the las operon are apparently unique, and their significance with respect to the lactocin S phenotype is presently not known.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Multigene Family
Peptides
40.     ( 1993 )

Antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from sour doughs: purification and characterization of bavaricin A, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus bavaricus MI401.

The Journal of applied bacteriology 75 (2)
PMID : 8407671  :  
Abstract >>
Three hundred and thirty-five lactic acid bacteria were isolated from sour doughs and screened for antagonistic activity. Of these 145 showed activity against one or several of the indicator strains used in the screening. The antimicrobial activity of 18 isolates were due to a proteinaceous compound. These 18 isolates belonged to three different Lactobacillus species: Lactobacillus bavaricus, Lactobacillus curvatus and Lactobacillus plantarum. The spectrum of antimicrobial activity for the three species suggested that the inhibitory components were different. The inhibitory compound from Lact. bavaricus MI401 was chosen for further study. The proteinaceous nature, antimicrobial activity against closely-related species, heat resistance and sensitivity to alkaline treatment strongly indicated that this substance was a bacteriocin, which we designated bavaricin A. The bacteriocin was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion exchange, hydrophobic interaction and reverse-phase chromatography. The purification resulted in 193,000-fold increase in specific activity. SDS-PAGE of bavaricin A showed a molecular weight of 3500-4000 Da. By amino acid sequencing 41 amino acids were determined. Bavaricin A had a bactericidal mode of action and inhibited nine out of 10 Listeria monocytogenes. Lactobacillus bavaricus MI401 produced bavaricin A at temperatures from 4 degrees C to 30 degrees C. The production of active bavaracin A was inhibited at increasing sodium chloride concentration. In the presence of 3% sodium chloride at 4 degrees C no active bavaricin A could be detected. Nitrite (100 ppm) did not affect the production of active bavaricin A.
KeywordMeSH Terms
41.     ( 1996 )

Purification of the bacteriocin bavaricin MN and characterization of its mode of action against Listeria monocytogenes Scott A cells and lipid vesicles.

Applied and environmental microbiology 62 (12)
PMID : 8953724  :   PMC  :   PMC168279    
Abstract >>
Bavaricin MN was purified from Lactobacillus sake culture supernatant 135-fold with a final yield of 11%. Sequence analysis revealed bavaricin MN to be a 42-amino-acid peptide having a molecular weight of 4,769 and a calculated pI of 10.0. Computer analysis indicated that the C-terminal region may form an alpha-helical structure with an amphipathic nature deemed important in the interaction of bacteriocins with biological membranes. Bavaricin MN rapidly depleted the membrane potential (delta p) of energized Listeria monocytogenes cells in a concentration-dependent fashion. At a bavaricin MN concentration of 9.0 micrograms/ml, the delta p decreased by 85%. Both the electrical potential (delta psi) and Z delta pH components of the delta p were depleted, and this depletion was not dependent on a threshold level of proton motive force. In addition to studying the effect of bavaricin MN on the delta p of vegetative cells, bavaricin MN-induced carboxyfluorescein (CF) efflux from L. monocytogenes-derived lipid vesicles was also characterized. Bavaricin MN-induced CF leakage was also concentration dependent with an optimum of pH 6.0. The rate of CF efflux was 63% greater in lipid vesicles in which a delta psi was generated compared with that in lipid vesicles in the absence of a delta psi.
KeywordMeSH Terms
42.     ( 1993 )

Cloning and nucleotide sequence of a gene from Lactobacillus sake Lb706 necessary for sakacin A production and immunity.

Applied and environmental microbiology 59 (9)
PMID : 8215360  :   PMC  :   PMC182379    
Abstract >>
Sakacin A is an antilisterial bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake Lb706. In order to identify genes involved in sakacin A production and immunity, the plasmid fraction of L. sake Lb706 was shotgun cloned directly into a sakacin A-nonproducing and -sensitive variant, L. sake Lb706-B, by using the broad-host-range vector pVS2. Two clones that produced sakacin A and were immune to the bacteriocin were obtained. A DNA fragment of approximately 1.8 kb, derived from a 60-kb plasmid of strain Lb706 and present in the inserts of both clones, was necessary for restoration of sakacin A production and immunity in strain Lb706-B. The sequence of the 1.8-kb fragment from one of the clones was determined. It contained one large open reading frame, designated sakB, potentially encoding a protein of 430 amino acid residues. Hybridization and nucleotide sequence analyses revealed that the cloned sakB complemented a mutated copy of sakB present in strain Lb706-B. The sakB gene mapped 1.6 kb from the previously cloned structural gene for sakacin A (sakA) on the 60-kb plasmid. The putative SakB protein shared 22% amino acid sequence identity (51% similarity if conservative changes are considered) to AgrB, the deduced amino acid sequence of the Staphylococcus aureus gene agrB. The polycistronic agr (accessory gene regulator) locus is involved in the regulation of exoprotein synthesis in S. aureus. Similar to the AgrB protein, SakB had some features in common with a family of transmembrane histidine protein kinases, involved in various adaptive response systems of bacteria.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
43.     ( 1995 )

Two genes encoding the beta-galactosidase of Lactobacillus sake.

Microbiology (Reading, England) 141 (Pt 12) (N/A)
PMID : 8574399  :   DOI  :   10.1099/13500872-141-12-3059    
Abstract >>
The beta-galactosidase of Lactobacillus sake DSM 20017 is encoded by two genes located on its chromosome. These genes designated lacL and lacM were cloned in Escherichia coli NM 554 on an 8.65 kbp HindIII fragment inserted in vector pRB473. Deletion analysis of the originally cloned fragment revealed that both genes are required for the formation of a functional beta-galactosidase. lacL and lacM are transcribed as a single transcript of approximately 2.9 kbp starting 34 bp upstream of the translational start codon. The proteins derived from lacL and lacM share only 18-59% homology with other beta-galactosidases. The genes encoding the beta-galactosidase are scattered with multiple direct and inverted repeats of 9-12 bp. However, comparison with the plasmid-encoded Leuconostoc lactis beta-galactosidase revealed equal distribution of conserved amino acid residues and suggests that the genes have a common origin. Specific deletions or insertions resulting from the presence of the repeats were not observed. The L. sake beta-galactosidase was phenotypically expressed in E. coli NM 554 and Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1432. Its two genes can be used to replace antibiotic reporter genes to develop food-grade vectors and alpha-complementation systems for self-cloning in meat lactobacilli.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
Lac Operon
44.     ( 1996 )

Induction of bacteriocin production in Lactobacillus sake by a secreted peptide.

Journal of bacteriology 178 (8)
PMID : 8636023  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.178.8.2232-2237.1996     PMC  :   PMC177930    
Abstract >>
Lactobacillus sake LTH673 is known to produce a bacteriocin called sakacin P. Production of and immunity to sakacin P were found to depend on the presence of a protease-sensitive component that is produced by L. sake LTH673 itself. This component (called inducing factor [IF]) was purified from culture supernatants and shown to be a basic, nonbacteriocin peptide consisting of 19 amino acids, which in principle is capable of forming a highly amphiphilic helical structure. Circular dichroism studies showed that IF indeed could adopt a helical structure, but only in membrane-mimicking environments. Both purified IF and chemically synthesized IF induced expression of the structural gene for sakacin P and concomitant secretion of the gene product. In addition, IF induced its own production and immunity to sakacin P and related bacteriocins. These results indicate that bacteriocin production by L. sake LTH673 is controlled by an autoinduction pathway in which IF may function as a cell density signal.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
45.     ( 1996 )

Analysis of the sakacin P gene cluster from Lactobacillus sake Lb674 and its expression in sakacin-negative Lb. sake strains.

Microbiology (Reading, England) 142 (Pt 6) (N/A)
PMID : 8704983  :   DOI  :   10.1099/13500872-142-6-1437    
Abstract >>
Sakacin P is a small, heat-stable, ribosomally synthesized peptide produced by certain strains of Lactobacillus sake. It inhibits the growth of several Gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes. A 7.6 kb chromosomal DNA fragment from Lb. sake Lb674 encompassing all genes responsible for sakacin P production and immunity was sequenced and introduced into Lb. sake strains Lb790 and Lb706X which are bacteriocin-negative and sensitive to sakacin P. The transformants produced sakacin P in comparable amounts to the parental strain, Lb674. The sakacin P gene cluster comprised six consecutive genes: sppK, sppR, sppA, spiA, sppT and sppE, all transcribed in the same direction. The deduced proteins SppK and SppR resembled the histidine kinase and response regulator proteins of bacterial two-component signal transducing systems of the AgrB/AgrA-type. The genes sppA and spiA encoded the sakacin P preprotein and the putative immunity protein, respectively. The predicted proteins SppT and SppE showed strong similarities to the proposed transport proteins of several other bacteriocins and to proteins implicated in the signal-sequence-independent export of Escherichia coli haemolysin A. Deletion and frameshift mutation analyses showed that sppK, sppT and sppE were essential for sakacin P production in Lb706X. The putative SpiA peptide was shown to be involved in immunity to sakacin P. Analogues of sppR and spiA were found on the chromosomes of Lb. sake Lb706X and Lb790, indicating the presence of an incomplete spp gene cluster in these strains.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
46.     ( 1994 )

In vivo conversion of L-serine to D-alanine in a ribosomally synthesized polypeptide.

The Journal of biological chemistry 269 (44)
PMID : 7961627  :  
Abstract >>
In the course of characterizing the bacteriocin lactocin S and its encoding gene, we discovered three alanine-for-serine substitutions which, apparently, is a violation of the genetic code. Subsequent chiral analysis of lactocin S hydrolysates revealed a correlation between D-alanine content and the three substitutions, implying a conversion of L-serine to D-alanine in lactocin S maturation. In order to explain this observation, we suggest a sequence of events initiated by the dehydration of serine, which is common in the biosynthesis of the lanthionine-containing polycyclic lantibiotics (Schnell, N., Entian, K.-D., Schneider, U., G?tz, F., Z?hner, H., Kellner, R. & Jung, G. (1988) Nature 333, 276-278; Jung, G. (1991) Angew, Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 30, 1051-1068; Bierbaum, G. & Sahl, H.-G. (1993) Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 278, 1-22) and completed by the stereospecific reduction of dehydroalanine residues. The occurrence of non-lanthionine alpha-carbon stereoinversion in lactocin S maturation substantiates the hypothetical alpha-epimerization scheme originally put forward by Bycroft (Bycroft, B. W. (1969) Nature 224, 595-597), and we propose a revision of this model to accommodate the lactocin S-type stereoinversion. Lactocin S is the first prokaryotic exception to the rule that only L-amino acids are included in ribosomally synthesized peptides.
KeywordMeSH Terms
47.     ( 1994 )

Cloning and sequencing of sakP encoding sakacin P, the bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake LTH 673.

Microbiology (Reading, England) 140 (Pt 2) (N/A)
PMID : 8180701  :   DOI  :   10.1099/13500872-140-2-361    
Abstract >>
Sakacin P is a heat-stable, unmodified peptide bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake LTH 673. The strain was isolated from fermented dry sausages and is well adapted to this habitat. The bacteriocin inhibits the growth of the opportunistic food pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and Listeria monocytogenes and therefore, it may improve the hygienic status of fermented food, i.e. meat products. Oligonucleotide probes were designed from the N-terminal amino acid sequence of sakacin P and used to identify sakP, the structural gene of sakacin P, on the chromosome of L. sake LTH 673. SakP was cloned into Escherichia coli NM554 and the nucleotide sequence of the gene and its adjacent regions were determined. Sakacin P appears to be synthesized as a prepeptide of 61 amino acids which is proteolytically processed to the mature bacteriocin consisting of 43 amino acids. Sequencing of the cloned fragment also revealed the presence of two other open reading frames orfX and orfY, which are located upstream and downstream of sakP, respectively, putatively encoding proteins of 52 and 98 amino acids, respectively. The functions of both ORFs remain unknown. Primer extension analysis revealed a promoter upstream of sakP. Two transcripts of approximately 0.35 and 1.0 kb were detected by Northern hybridization encoding either only sakP, or both sakP and orfY, respectively.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
48.     ( 1994 )

Purification and cloning of sakacin 674, a bacteriocin from Lactobacillus sake Lb674.

FEMS microbiology letters 115 (2��3��)
PMID : 8138128  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1574-6968.1994.tb06629.x    
Abstract >>
Sakacin 674, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake Lb764 and which inhibits the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulphate precipitation and sequential ion exchange, hydrophobic interaction and reversed phase chromatography. The complete amino acid sequence of sakacin 674 was determined by Edman degradation. The bacteriocin consisted of 43 amino acid residues and had a calculated molecular mass of 4436.6 Da, which is in good agreement with the molecular mass of 4437.2 as determined by mass spectrometry. The structural gene encoding sakacin 674 (sakR) was located on the chromosome. This gene was cloned and sequenced. It encoded a primary translation product of 61 amino acid residues which was cleaved between amino acids 18 and 19 to yield the active sakacin 674. Sakacin 674 resembled other known bacteriocins and was very similar to sakacin P.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
49. Axelsson  L, Holck  A,     ( 1995 )

The genes involved in production of and immunity to sakacin A, a bacteriocin from Lactobacillus sake Lb706.

Journal of bacteriology 177 (8)
PMID : 7721704  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.177.8.2125-2137.1995     PMC  :   PMC176857    
Abstract >>
Sakacin A is a small, heat-stable, antilisterial bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake Lb706. The nucleotide sequence of a 8,668-bp fragment, shown to contain all information necessary for sakacin A production and immunity, was determined. The sequence revealed the presence of two divergently transcribed operons. The first encompassed the structural gene sapA (previously designated sakA) and saiA, which encoded a putative peptide of 90 amino acid residues. The second encompassed sapK (previously designated sakB), sapR, sapT, and sapE. sapK and sapR presumably encoded a histidine kinase and a response regulator with marked similarities to the AgrB/AgrA type of two-component signal-transducing systems. The putative SapT and SapE proteins shared similarity with the Escherichia coli hemolysin A-like signal sequence-independent transport systems. SapT was the HlyB analog with homology to bacterial ATP-binding cassette exporters implicated in bacteriocin transport. Frameshift mutations and deletion analyses showed that sapK and sapR were necessary for both production and immunity, whereas sapT and sapE were necessary for production but not for immunity. The putative SaiA peptide was shown to be involved in the immunity to sakacin A. The region between the operons contained IS1163, a recently described L. sake insertion element. IS1163 did not appear to be involved in expression of the sap genes. Northern (RNA) blot analysis revealed that the putative SapK/SapR system probably acts as a transcriptional activator on both operons. A 35-bp sequence, present upstream of the putative sapA promoter, and a similar sequence (30 of 35 nucleotides identical) upstream of sapK were shown to be necessary for proper expression and could thus be possible targets for transcriptional activation.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
50. Skaugen  M, Nes  IF,     ( 1994 )

Transposition in Lactobacillus sake and its abolition of lactocin S production by insertion of IS1163, a new member of the IS3 family.

Applied and environmental microbiology 60 (8)
PMID : 7521995  :   PMC  :   PMC201728    
Abstract >>
This report presents the nucleotide sequence and insertional activity of IS1163, which is a new member of the IS3 family of transposable elements. Analysis of spontaneous mutants of the lactocin S-producing Lactobacillus sake strain L45 show that the bacteriocin-negative phenotype is due to either loss of the producer plasmid or the insertion of IS1163 into the lactocin S operon (las operon). The data further show that insertional inactivation of the lactocin S operon is the result of a transposition event involving a chromosomally located donor copy of IS1163. Although the insertions described are clustered within a 250-bp region of the las operon, there are no features of the insertion sites to suggest target-specific insertion of IS1163. The overlapping, frameshifted organization of the two major open reading frames found in IS1163 is typical for the IS3 family, but the structure of the putative frameshift region includes features which distinguish IS1163 from the other members of the group. The insertional activity of IS1163 in L. sake L45 has aided in identifying regions of pCIM1 essential for lactocin S production and may have further practical applications as a mutational tool in L. sake.
KeywordMeSH Terms
51. Nácher-Vázquez  M, Ruiz-Masó  JA, Mohedano  ML, Del Solar  G, Aznar  R, López  P,     ( 2017 )

Dextransucrase Expression Is Concomitant with that of Replication and Maintenance Functions of the pMN1 Plasmid in Lactobacillus sakei MN1.

Frontiers in microbiology 8 (N/A)
PMID : 29209293  :   DOI  :   10.3389/fmicb.2017.02281     PMC  :   PMC5702455    
Abstract >>
The exopolysaccharide synthesized by Lactobacillus sakei MN1 is a dextran with antiviral and immunomodulatory properties of potential utility in aquaculture. In this work we have investigated the genetic basis of dextran production by this bacterium. Southern blot hybridization experiments demonstrated the plasmidic location of the dsrLS gene, which encodes the dextransucrase involved in dextran synthesis. DNA sequencing of the 11,126 kbp plasmid (pMN1) revealed that it belongs to a family which replicates by the theta mechanism, whose prototype is pUCL287. The plasmid comprises the origin of replication, repA, repB, and dsrLS genes, as well as seven open reading frames of uncharacterized function. Lb. sakei MN1 produces dextran when sucrose, but not glucose, is present in the growth medium. Therefore, plasmid copy number and stability, as well as dsrLS expression, were investigated in cultures grown in the presence of either sucrose or glucose. The results revealed that pMN1 is a stable low-copy-number plasmid in both conditions. Gene expression studies showed that dsrLS is constitutively expressed, irrespective of the carbon source present in the medium. Moreover, dsrLS is expressed from a monocistronic transcript as well as from a polycistronic repA-repB-orf1-dsrLS mRNA. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plasmid-borne dextransucrase-encoding gene, as well as the first time that co-transcription of genes involved in plasmid maintenance and replication with a gene encoding an enzyme has been established.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Lactobacillus sakei
dextran
dextransucrase
lactic acid bacteria
plasmid
probiotics
Lactobacillus sakei
dextran
dextransucrase
lactic acid bacteria
plasmid
probiotics
52.     ( 2013 )

Identification and characterization of novel multiple bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus sakei D98.

Journal of applied microbiology 115 (1)
PMID : 23594273  :   DOI  :   10.1111/jam.12226    
Abstract >>
To characterize novel multiple bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus sakei D98. Lactobacillus sakei D98 isolated from Shubo (rice malt) produced at least three bacteriocins. Using three purification steps, three novel antimicrobial peptides termed sakacin D98a, sakacin D98b and sakacin D98c were purified from the culture supernatant. Amino acid and DNA sequencing analysis revealed that the sakacins D98a, D98b and D98c are novel class IIa-like or class IId bacteriocins. In particular, sakacin D98b has a variant pediocin-box sequence, YANGVXC (with Ala instead of Gly), and a different location for the disulfide bridge (Cys(11) and Cys(18)) from that found in other class IIa bacteriocins. Three novel bacteriocins were identified from Lactobacillus sakei D98. Their antimicrobial spectra and intensities indicate that these sakacins would have different modes of action. In addition, sakacin D98b showed low inhibitory activity against Listeria, probably due to the differences in amino acids and position of the disulfide bridge compared with the other class IIa bacteriocins. Sakacins D98a and D98c are novel bacteriocins belonging to class IId bacteriocins. On the other hand, sakacin D98b, a class IIa-like bacteriocin, has a unique internal structure and activity spectrum.
KeywordMeSH Terms
53.     ( 2013 )

A putative transport protein is involved in citrulline excretion and re-uptake during arginine deiminase pathway activity by Lactobacillus sakei.

Research in microbiology 164 (3)
PMID : 23178175  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.resmic.2012.11.004    
Abstract >>
Arginine conversion through the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway is a common metabolic trait of Lactobacillus sakei which is ascribed to an arc operon and which inquisitively involves citrulline excretion and re-uptake. The aim of this study was to verify whether a putative transport protein (encoded by the PTP gene) plays a role in citrulline-into-ornithine conversion by L. sakei strains. This was achieved through a combination of fermentation experiments, gene expression analysis via quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) and construction of a PTP knock-out mutant. Expression of the PTP gene was modulated by environmental pH and was highest in the end-exponential or mid-exponential growth phase for L. sakei strains CTC 494 and 23K, respectively. In contrast to known genes of the arc operon, the PTP gene showed low expression at pH 7.0, in agreement with the finding that citrulline-into-ornithine conversion is inhibited at this pH. The presence of additional energy sources also influenced ADI pathway activity, in particular by decreasing citrulline-into-ornithine conversion. Further insight into the functionality of the PTP gene was obtained with a knock-out mutant of L. sakei CTC 494 impaired in the PTP gene, which displayed inhibition in its ability to convert extracellular citrulline into ornithine. In conclusion, results indicated that the PTP gene may putatively encode a citrulline/ornithine antiporter.
KeywordMeSH Terms
54.     ( 1998 )

Structural and functional analysis of the gene cluster encoding the enzymes of the arginine deiminase pathway of Lactobacillus sake.

Journal of bacteriology 180 (16)
PMID : 9696763  :   PMC  :   PMC107411    
Abstract >>
Lactobacillus sake can use arginine via the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway. We designed degenerate primers based on an alignment of known sequences of ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTC)-encoding genes in order to amplify the L. sake counterpart sequences by PCR. Screening a genomic library of L. sake in lambdaEMBL3 allowed us to isolate a clone containing a 10-kb L. sake genomic DNA insert. Sequence analysis revealed that the genes involved in arginine catabolism were clustered and encoded ADI (arcA), OTC (arcB), carbamate kinase (arcC), and a putative carrier with high similarity to the arginine/ornithine antiporter of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (arcD). Additionally, a putative transaminase-encoding gene (arcT) was located in this region. The genes followed the order arcA arcB arcC arcT arcD, which differs from that found in other microorganisms. arcA, arcB, arcC, and arcD mutants were constructed, and the ADI pathway was impaired in all of them. Transcriptional studies indicated that arcA gene is subject to catabolite repression, and under the conditions used, several transcripts could be detected, suggesting the existence of different initiation sites or processing of a larger mRNA.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Escherichia coli Proteins
Multigene Family
Protein Kinases
55.     ( 1998 )

Disruption of the sole ldhL gene in Lactobacillus sakei prevents the production of both L- and D-lactate.

Microbiology (Reading, England) 144 (Pt 12) (N/A)
PMID : 9884224  :   DOI  :   10.1099/00221287-144-12-3327    
Abstract >>
A 7 kb DNA fragment was cloned from Lactobacillus sakei which contains the IdhL gene encoding the L(+)-lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH). Analysis of the DNA sequence, Northern experiments and primer extension experiments showed that IdhL is transcribed from a single promoter, leading to a monocistronic 1.15 kb mRNA which yields the L-LDH. A stable mutant was constructed by chromosomal integration of a chloramphenicol cassette into IdhL by a double-crossover event. Both L- and D-lactate were produced by the wild-type strain whereas only residual amounts of both isomers were produced by the mutant. This demonstrates that L. sakei possesses an L-LDH producing L-lactate and a lactate racemase able to transform it to D-lactate, but is devoid of D-LDH activity. Moreover the ability to degrade L-lactate present in the medium that was observed with the mutant strain grown aerobically suggests that an L-lactate oxidase activity is also present in L. sakei.
KeywordMeSH Terms
56.     ( 1998 )

Oxygen-dependent regulation of the expression of the catalase gene katA of Lactobacillus sakei LTH677.

Applied and environmental microbiology 64 (4)
PMID : 9546173  :   PMC  :   PMC106155    
Abstract >>
The catalase gene katA of Lactobacillus sakei LTH677 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli UM2, Lactobacillus casei LK1, and Lactobacillus curvatus LTH1432. The last host is a catalase-deficient plasmid-cured derivative of a starter organism used in meat fermentation. The regulation of katA expression was found to be the same in L. sakei LTH677 and the recombinant strains. The addition of H2O2 to anaerobic cultures, as well as a switch to aerobic conditions, resulted in a strong increase in KatA activity. The expression was investigated in more detail with L. sakei LTH677 and L. curvatus LTH4002. The recombinant strain LTH4002 did not accumulate H2O2 under glucose-limited aerobic conditions and remained viable in the stationary phase. Under inductive conditions, the katA-specific mRNA and the apoenzyme were synthesized de novo. Deletion derivatives of the katA promoter were produced, and the regulatory response was investigated by fusion to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene gusA and expression in L. sakei LTH677. The fact that gene expression was subject to induction was confirmed at the level of transcription and protein synthesis. A small putative regulatory sequence of at least 25 bp was identified located upstream of the -35 site. Competition experiments performed with L. sakei LTH677 harboring the fusion constructs consisting of the katA promoter and gusA revealed that an activator protein is involved in the transcriptional induction of katA.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
57.     ( 1997 )

Pheromone-induced production of antimicrobial peptides in Lactobacillus.

Molecular microbiology 26 (2)
PMID : 9383159  :   DOI  :   10.1046/j.1365-2958.1997.5821951.x    
Abstract >>
Production of the bacteriocin sakacin P by Lactobacillus sake LTH673 is dependent on a secreted 19-residue peptide pheromone (IP-673). The gene encoding IP-673 (sppIP) was identified and sequenced. SppIP was shown to be co-transcribed with genes encoding a histidine kinase (sppK) and a response regulator (sppR) typical for signal transduction in bacteria. Further sequencing and transcription studies have shown that IP-673 induces transcription of its own gene and of what are often considered to be all genes necessary for bacteriocin production and immunity. Studies with a reporter gene showed that the promoter in front of the sakacin P structural gene (sppA) is strictly regulated. The promoter in front of sppIP turned out to be less strictly regulated, and low basal promoter activity could be detected in uninduced cells. Bacteriocin production in Bac isolates of L. plantarum C11 could be induced by the non-cognate IP-673 only after the introduction of sppK, indicating that sppK encodes the pheromone receptor. These results show that bacteriocin production in lactobacilli is regulated using a short, strain-specific peptide pheromone. Growth conditions were shown to have considerable effects on the functionality of this regulatory mechanism.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial

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