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1. Schmid  M, Walcher  M, Bubert  A, Wagner  M, Wagner  M, Schleifer  KH,     ( 2003 )

Nucleic acid-based, cultivation-independent detection of Listeria spp and genotypes of L monocytogenes.

FEMS immunology and medical microbiology 35 (3)
PMID : 12648840  :   DOI  :   10.1016/S0928-8244(02)00456-X    
Abstract >>
Based on comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, two oligonucleotide probes for in situ detection of all members of the genus Listeria were designed. These probes allowed fast and reliable in situ detection of Listeria spp. even in complex samples like raw milk. Almost full-length iap (invasion-associated protein) gene sequences were determined for 69 Listeria monocytogenes strains of all 13 known serotypes. A comparison of these sequences revealed that the L. monocytogenes strains can be grouped into three distinct genotypes. These clusters correlate well with distinct serotypes. Thus, strains of serotypes b and d belong to genotype I, a and c to genotype II, and 4a and 4c, which are rarely isolated from humans, group together within genotype III. These results could be corroborated by further comparative sequence analysis of genes encoding two phospholipases - plcA and plcB. Based on the iap gene sequences, a highly specific and reproducible competitive PCR detection method was developed. Primer pairs targeting genotype-specific regions of the iap gene were designed. The amplification of non-specific PCR products from DNA of non-target strains was prevented by adding competitive primers. By applying this method, the rapid and reliable distinction of the three L. monocytogenes genotypes was possible.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Food Contamination
Food Microbiology
2. Cai  S, Wiedmann  M,     ( 2001 )

Characterization of the prfA virulence gene cluster insertion site in non-hemolytic Listeria spp.: probing the evolution of the Listeria virulence gene island.

Current microbiology 43 (4)
PMID : 11683362  :  
Abstract >>
The prfA virulence gene cluster is present between prs and ldh in the pathogenic L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii, but absent from the non-pathogenic L. innocua and L. welshimeri. To probe the evolution of this virulence gene cluster, we sequenced the prs-ldh intergenic region in L. welshimeri and L. innocua. Two ORFs (ORFA and ORFB) were found in both species as well as in L. monocytogenes. Another ORF of unknown function (ORFZ) was found in L. monocytogenes and L. innocua, while two unique ORFs were present in L. welshimeri. ORFA and ORFB showed significant functional constraint, suggesting that further investigations in the functions of these genes, including possible roles in horizontal gene transfer or sequence deletion, are warranted. DNA sequences homologous to Tn1545 integration consensus sequences were found downstream of prs and ORFB, thus defining the likely junctions of the virulence gene island and indicating that the prs-ldh intergenic region may represent a Tn insertion hot spot. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that a combination of horizontal gene transfer and deletion events mayhave been involved in the evolution of the prfA virulence gene cluster in Listeria.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Evolution, Molecular
Genes, Bacterial
Mutagenesis, Insertional
3. Kalmokoff  ML, Banerjee  SK, Cyr  T, Hefford  MA, Gleeson  T,     ( 2001 )

Identification of a new plasmid-encoded sec-dependent bacteriocin produced by Listeria innocua 743.

Applied and environmental microbiology 67 (9)
PMID : 11526003  :   DOI  :   10.1128/aem.67.9.4041-4047.2001     PMC  :   PMC93127    
Abstract >>
Listeria innocua 743 produces an inhibitory activity demonstrating broad-spectrum inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes isolates. Gel-electrophoretic analysis of culture supernatants indicated that two inhibitors with different molecular weights were produced by this strain. Insertion of Tn917 into a 2.9 Kb plasmid (pHC743) generated mutants with either an impaired ability or a loss in ability to produce one of the inhibitors. Sequence analysis of the transposon insertion regions revealed the presence of two continuous open reading frames, the first encoding a new pediocin-like bacteriocin (lisA) and the second encoding a protein homologous with genes involved in immunity toward other bacteriocins (lisB). Translation of the bacteriocin gene (lisA) initiates from a noncanonical start codon and encodes a 71-amino-acid prebacteriocin which lacked the double glycine leader peptidase processing site common in other type II bacteriocins. Alignment of the sequence with the processed N termini of related bacteriocins suggests that the mature bacteriocin consists of 43 amino acids, with a predicted molecular mass of 4,484 Da. Mutants containing insertions into lisA were sensitive to the inhibitor, indicating that lisAB forms a single operon and that lisB represents the immunity protein. Cloning of an amplicon containing the lisAB operon into Escherichia coli resulted in expression and export of the bacteriocin. This finding confirms that the phenotype is dependent on the structural and immunity gene only and that export of this bacteriocin is sec dependent. This is the first confirmation of bacteriocin production in a Listeria spp., and it is of interest that this bacteriocin is closely related to the pediocin family of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria.
KeywordMeSH Terms
4. Lan  Z, Fiedler  F, Kathariou  S,     ( 2000 )

A sheep in wolf's clothing: Listeria innocua strains with teichoic acid-associated surface antigens and genes characteristic of Listeria monocytogenes serogroup 4.

Journal of bacteriology 182 (21)
PMID : 11029438  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.182.21.6161-6168.2000     PMC  :   PMC94752    
Abstract >>
Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b has been implicated in numerous food-borne epidemics and in a substantial fraction of sporadic listeriosis. A unique lineage of the nonpathogenic species Listeria innocua was found to express teichoic acid-associated surface antigens that were otherwise expressed only by L. monocytogenes of serotype 4b and the rare serotypes 4d and 4e. These L. innocua strains were also found to harbor sequences homologous to the gene gtcA, which has been shown to be essential for teichoic acid glycosylation in L. monocytogenes serotype 4b. Transposon mutagenesis and genetic studies revealed that the gtcA gene identified in this lineage of L. innocua was functional in serotype 4b-like glycosylation of the teichoic acids of these organisms. The genomic organization of the gtcA region was conserved between this lineage of L. innocua and L. monocytogenes serotype 4b. Our data are in agreement with the hypothesis that, in this lineage of L. innocua, gtcA was acquired by lateral transfer from L. monocytogenes serogroup 4. The high degree of nucleotide sequence conservation in the gtcA sequences suggests that such transfer was relatively recent. Transfer events of this type may alter the surface antigenic properties of L. innocua and may eventually lead to evolution of novel pathogenic lineages through additional acquisition of genes from virulent listeriae.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
5. Volokhov  DV, Duperrier  S, Neverov  AA, George  J, Buchrieser  C, Hitchins  AD,     ( 2007 )

The presence of the internalin gene in natural atypically hemolytic Listeria innocua strains suggests descent from L. monocytogenes.

Applied and environmental microbiology 73 (6)
PMID : 17220266  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.01796-06     PMC  :   PMC1828802    
Abstract >>
The atypical hemolytic Listeria innocua strains PRL/NW 15B95 and J1-023 were previously shown to contain gene clusters analogous to the pathogenicity island (LIPI-1) present in the related foodborne gram-positive facultative intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, which causes listeriosis. LIPI-1 includes the hemolysin gene, thus explaining the hemolytic activity of the atypical L. innocua strains. No other L. monocytogenes-specific virulence genes were found to be present. In order to investigate whether any other specific L. monocytogenes genes could be identified, a global approach using a Listeria biodiversity DNA array was applied. According to the hybridization results, the isolates were defined as L. innocua strains containing LIPI-1. Surprisingly, evidence for the presence of the L. monocytogenes-specific inlA gene, previously thought to be absent, was obtained. The inlA gene codes for the InlA protein which enables bacterial entry into some nonprofessional phagocytic cells. PCR and sequence analysis of this region revealed that the flanking genes of the inlA gene at the upstream, 5'-end region were similar to genes found in L. monocytogenes serotype 4b isolates, whereas the organization of the downstream, 3'-end region was similar to that typical of L. innocua. Sequencing of the inlA region identified a small stretch reminiscent of the inlB gene of L. monocytogenes. The presence of two clusters of L. monocytogenes-specific genes makes it unlikely that PRL/NW 15B95 and J1-023 are L. innocua strains altered by horizontal transfer. It is more likely that they are distinct relics of the evolution of L. innocua from an ancestral L. monocytogenes, as postulated by others.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Evolution, Molecular
6. Volokhov  D, George  J, Anderson  C, Duvall  RE, Hitchins  AD,     ( 2006 )

Discovery of natural atypical nonhemolytic Listeria seeligeri isolates.

Applied and environmental microbiology 72 (4)
PMID : 16597942  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.72.4.2439-2448.2006     PMC  :   PMC1449060    
Abstract >>
We found seven Listeria isolates, initially identified as isolates with the Xyl(+) Rha(-) biotype of Listeria welshimeri by phenotypic tests, which exhibited discrepant genotypic properties in a well-validated Listeria species identification oligonucleotide microarray. The microarray gives results of these seven isolates being atypical hly-negative L. seeligeri isolates, not L. welshimeri isolates. The aberrant L. seeligeri isolates were d-xylose fermentation positive, l-rhamnose fermentation negative (Xyl(+) Rha(-)), and nonhemolytic on blood agar and in the CAMP test with both Staphylococcus aureus (S(-) reaction) and Rhodococcus equi (R(-) reaction). All genes of the prfA cluster of L. seeligeri, located in the prs-ldh region, including the orfA2, orfD, prfA, orfE, plcA, hly, orfK, mpl, actA, dplcB, plcB, orfH, orfX, orfI, orfP, orfB, and orfA genes, were checked by PCR and direct sequencing for evidence of their presence in the atypical isolates. The prs-prfA cluster-ldh region of the L. seeligeri isolates was approximately threefold shorter due to the loss of orfD, prfA, orfE, plcA, hly, orfK, mpl, actA, dplcB, plcB, orfH, orfX, and orfI. The genetic map order of the cluster genes of all the atypical L. seeligeri isolates was prs-orfA2-orfP-orfB-orfA-ldh, which was comparable to the similar region in L. welshimeri, with the exception of the presence of orfA2. DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 17 housekeeping genes indicated an L. seeligeri genomic background in all seven of the atypical hly-negative L. seeligeri isolates. Thus, the novel biotype of Xyl(+) Rha(-) Hly(-) L. seeligeri strains can only be distinguished from Xyl(+) Rha(-) L. welshimeri strains genotypically, not phenotypically. In contrast, the Rha(+) Xyl(+) biotype of L. welshimeri would not present an identification issue.
KeywordMeSH Terms
7. Schmid  MW, Ng  EY, Lampidis  R, Emmerth  M, Walcher  M, Kreft  J, Goebel  W, Wagner  M, Schleifer  KH,     ( 2005 )

Evolutionary history of the genus Listeria and its virulence genes.

Systematic and applied microbiology 28 (1)
PMID : 15709360  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.syapm.2004.09.005    
Abstract >>
The genus Listeria contains the two pathogenic species Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii and the four apparently apathogenic species Listeria innocua, Listeria seeligeri, Listeria welshimeri, and Listeria grayi. Pathogenicity of the former two species is enabled by an approximately 9 kb virulence gene cluster which is also present in a modified form in L. seeligeri. For all Listeria species, the sequence of the virulence gene cluster locus and its flanking regions was either determined in this study or assembled from public databases. Furthermore, some virulence-associated internalin loci were compared among the six species. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on a data set containing the sequences of prs, ldh, vclA, and vclB (all directly flanking the virulence gene cluster), as well as the iap gene and the 16S and 23S-rRNA coding genes which are located at different sites in the listerial chromosomes. L. grayi represents the deepest branch within the genus. The remaining five species form two groupings which have a high bootstrap support and which are consistently found by using different treeing methods. One lineage represents L. monocytogenes and L. innocua, while the other contains L. welshimeri, L. ivanovii and L. seeligeri, with L. welshimeri forming the deepest branch. Based on this perception, we tried to reconstruct the evolution of the virulence gene cluster. Since no traces of lateral gene transfer events could be detected the most parsimonious scenario is that the virulence gene cluster was present in the common ancestor of L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. ivanovii, L. seeligeri and L. welshimeri and that the pathogenic capability has been lost in two separate events represented by L. innocua and L. welshimeri. This hypothesis is also supported by the location of the putative deletion breakpoints of the virulence gene cluster within L. innocua and L. welshimeri.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Evolution, Molecular
Phylogeny
8. Gueneau de Novoa  P, Williams  KP,     ( 2004 )

The tmRNA website: reductive evolution of tmRNA in plastids and other endosymbionts.

Nucleic acids research 32 (Database issue)
PMID : 14681369  :   DOI  :   10.1093/nar/gkh102     PMC  :   PMC308836    
Abstract >>
tmRNA combines tRNA- and mRNA-like properties and ameliorates problems arising from stalled ribosomes. Research on the mechanism, structure and biology of tmRNA is served by the tmRNA website (http://www.indiana.edu/~ tmrna), a collection of sequences, alignments, secondary structures and other information. Because many of these sequences are not in GenBank, a BLAST server has been added; another new feature is an abbreviated alignment for the tRNA-like domain only. Many tmRNA sequences from plastids have been added, five found in public sequence data and another 10 generated by direct sequencing; detection in early-branching members of the green plastid lineage brings coverage to all three primary plastid lineages. The new sequences include the shortest known tmRNA sequence. While bacterial tmRNAs usually have a lone pseudoknot upstream of the mRNA segment and a string of three or four pseudoknots downstream, plastid tmRNAs collectively show loss of pseudoknots at both postions. The pseudoknot-string region is also too short to contain the usual pseudoknot number in another new entry, the tmRNA sequence from a bacterial endosymbiont of insect cells, Tremblaya princeps. Pseudoknots may optimize tmRNA function in free-living bacteria, yet become dispensible when the endosymbiotic lifestyle relaxes selective pressure for fast growth.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Databases, Nucleic Acid
Evolution, Molecular
Internet
9. Bubert  A, Kuhn  M, Goebel  W, Köhler  S,     ( 1992 )

Structural and functional properties of the p60 proteins from different Listeria species.

Journal of bacteriology 174 (24)
PMID : 1459966  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.174.24.8166-8171.1992     PMC  :   PMC207560    
Abstract >>
The major extracellular protein p60 of Listeria monocytogenes seems to be required for this microorganism's adherence to and invasion of 3T6 mouse fibroblasts but not for adherence to human epithelial Caco-2 cells. Western blot analysis with polyclonal antibodies against p60 of L. monocytogenes indicated the presence of cross-reacting proteins in the culture supernatants of all Listeria species. Protein p60 of L. monocytogenes could restore adhesion of the L. monocytogenes mutant RIII (impaired in the synthesis of p60) to mouse fibroblasts more efficiently than that of Listeria grayi. The amino acid sequences of the p60-related proteins of L. innocua, L. ivanovii, L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri, and L. grayi indicated highly conserved regions of about 120 amino acids at both the N-terminal and the C-terminal ends. The middle portions of these proteins, consisting of about 240 amino acids, varied considerably. These parts include the repeat domain consisting of repetitions of Thr (T) and Asn (N) which was present only, albeit in different arrangements, in the p60 proteins of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua. The p60-related proteins of L. grayi, L. ivanovii, L. seeligeri, and L. welshimeri each contained an insertion of 54 amino acids which was absent in the p60 proteins of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Adhesion
10. Jagadeesan  B, Koo  OK, Kim  KP, Burkholder  KM, Mishra  KK, Aroonnual  A, Bhunia  AK,     ( 2010 )

LAP, an alcohol acetaldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme in Listeria, promotes bacterial adhesion to enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells only in pathogenic species.

Microbiology (Reading, England) 156 (Pt 9)
PMID : 20507888  :   DOI  :   10.1099/mic.0.036509-0    
Abstract >>
Listeria adhesion protein (LAP), an alcohol acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (lmo1634), interacts with host-cell receptor Hsp60 to promote bacterial adhesion during the intestinal phase of Listeria monocytogenes infection. The LAP homologue is present in pathogens (L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovii) and non-pathogens (L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri); however, its role in non-pathogens is unknown. Sequence analysis revealed 98 % amino acid similarity in LAP from all Listeria species. The N-terminus contains acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and the C-terminus an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Recombinant LAP from L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovii, L. innocua and L. welshimeri exhibited ALDH and ADH activities, and displayed strong binding affinity (K(D) 2-31 nM) towards Hsp60. Flow cytometry, ELISA and immunoelectron microscopy revealed more surface-associated LAP in pathogens than non-pathogens. Pathogens exhibited significantly higher adhesion (P<0.05) to Caco-2 cells than non-pathogens; however, pretreatment of bacteria with Hsp60 caused 47-92 % reduction in adhesion only in pathogens. These data suggest that biochemical properties of LAP from pathogenic Listeria are similar to those of the protein from non-pathogens in many respects, such as substrate specificity, immunogenicity, and binding affinity to Hsp60. However, protein fractionation analysis of extracts from pathogenic and non-pathogenic Listeria species revealed that LAP was greatly reduced in intracellular and cell-surface protein fractions, and undetectable in the extracellular milieu of non-pathogens even though the lap transcript levels were similar for both. Furthermore, a LAP preparation from L. monocytogenes restored adhesion in a lap mutant (KB208) of L. monocytogenes but not in L. innocua, indicating possible lack of surface reassociation of LAP molecules in this bacterium. Taken together, these data suggest that LAP expression level, cell-surface localization, secretion and reassociation are responsible for LAP-mediated pathogenicity and possibly evolved to adapt to a parasitic life cycle in the host.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Adhesion
11. Chen  J, Chen  Q, Jiang  L, Cheng  C, Bai  F, Wang  J, Mo  F, Fang  W,     ( 2010 )

Internalin profiling and multilocus sequence typing suggest four Listeria innocua subgroups with different evolutionary distances from Listeria monocytogenes.

BMC microbiology 10 (N/A)
PMID : 20356375  :   DOI  :   10.1186/1471-2180-10-97     PMC  :   PMC2867954    
Abstract >>
Ecological, biochemical and genetic resemblance as well as clear differences of virulence between L. monocytogenes and L. innocua make this bacterial clade attractive as a model to examine evolution of pathogenicity. This study was attempted to examine the population structure of L. innocua and the microevolution in the L. innocua-L. monocytogenes clade via profiling of 37 internalin genes and multilocus sequence typing based on the sequences of 9 unlinked genes gyrB, sigB, dapE, hisJ, ribC, purM, gap, tuf and betL. L. innocua was genetically monophyletic compared to L. monocytogenes, and comprised four subgroups. Subgroups A and B correlated with internalin types 1 and 3 (except the strain 0063 belonging to subgroup C) and internalin types 2 and 4 respectively. The majority of L. innocua strains belonged to these two subgroups. Subgroup A harbored a whole set of L. monocytogenes-L. innocua common and L. innocua-specific internalin genes, and displayed higher recombination rates than those of subgroup B, including the relative frequency of occurrence of recombination versus mutation (rho/theta) and the relative effect of recombination versus point mutation (r/m). Subgroup A also exhibited a significantly smaller exterior/interior branch length ratio than expected under the coalescent model, suggesting a recent expansion of its population size. The phylogram based on the analysis with correction for recombination revealed that the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of L. innocua subgroups A and B were similar. Additionally, subgroup D, which correlated with internalin type 5, branched off from the other three subgroups. All L. innocua strains lacked seventeen virulence genes found in L. monocytogenes (except for the subgroup D strain L43 harboring inlJ and two subgroup B strains bearing bsh) and were nonpathogenic to mice. L. innocua represents a young species descending from L. monocytogenes and comprises four subgroups: two major subgroups A and B, and one atypical subgroup D serving as a link between L. monocytogenes and L. innocua in the evolutionary chain. Although subgroups A and B appeared at approximately the same time, subgroup A seems to have experienced a recent expansion of the population size with higher recombination frequency and effect than those of subgroup B, and might represent the possible evolutionary direction towards adaptation to environments. The evolutionary history in the L. monocytogenes-L. innocua clade represents a rare example of evolution towards reduced virulence of pathogens.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Typing Techniques
12. den Bakker  HC, Bundrant  BN, Fortes  ED, Orsi  RH, Wiedmann  M,     ( 2010 )

A population genetics-based and phylogenetic approach to understanding the evolution of virulence in the genus Listeria.

Applied and environmental microbiology 76 (18)
PMID : 20656873  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.00447-10     PMC  :   PMC2937515    
Abstract >>
The genus Listeria includes (i) the opportunistic pathogens L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii, (ii) the saprotrophs L. innocua, L. marthii, and L. welshimeri, and (iii) L. seeligeri, an apparent saprotroph that nevertheless typically contains the prfA virulence gene cluster. A novel 10-loci multilocus sequence typing scheme was developed and used to characterize 67 isolates representing six Listeria spp. (excluding L. grayi) in order to (i) provide an improved understanding of the phylogeny and evolution of the genus Listeria and (ii) use Listeria as a model to study the evolution of pathogenicity in opportunistic environmental pathogens. Phylogenetic analyses identified six well-supported Listeria species that group into two main subdivisions, with each subdivision containing strains with and without the prfA virulence gene cluster. Stochastic character mapping and phylogenetic analysis of hly, a gene in the prfA cluster, suggest that the common ancestor of the genus Listeria contained the prfA virulence gene cluster and that this cluster was lost at least five times during the evolution of Listeria, yielding multiple distinct saprotrophic clades. L. welshimeri, which appears to represent the most ancient clade that arose from an ancestor with a prfA cluster deletion, shows a considerably lower average sequence divergence than other Listeria species, suggesting a population bottleneck and a putatively different ecology than other saprotrophic Listeria species. Overall, our data suggest that, for some pathogens, loss of virulence genes may represent a selective advantage, possibly by facilitating adaptation to a specific ecological niche.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Biological Evolution
Genetics, Population
Phylogeny
13. Graves  LM, Helsel  LO, Steigerwalt  AG, Morey  RE, Daneshvar  MI, Roof  SE, Orsi  RH, Fortes  ED, Milillo  SR, den Bakker  HC, Wiedmann  M, Swaminathan  B, Sauders  BD,     ( 2010 )

Listeria marthii sp. nov., isolated from the natural environment, Finger Lakes National Forest.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 60 (Pt 6)
PMID : 19667380  :   DOI  :   10.1099/ijs.0.014118-0    
Abstract >>
Four isolates (FSL S4-120(T), FSL S4-696, FSL S4-710, and FSL S4-965) of Gram-positive, motile, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming bacilli that were phenotypically similar to species of the genus Listeria were isolated from soil, standing water and flowing water samples obtained from the natural environment in the Finger Lakes National Forest, New York, USA. The four isolates were closely related to one another and were determined to be the same species by whole genome DNA-DNA hybridization studies (>82 % relatedness at 55 degrees C and >76 % relatedness at 70 degrees C with 0.0-0.5 % divergence). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis confirmed their close phylogenetic relatedness to Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua and more distant relatedness to Listeria welshimeri, L. seeligeri, L. ivanovii and L. grayi. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences for sigB, gap, and prs showed that these isolates form a well-supported sistergroup to L. monocytogenes. The four isolates were sufficiently different from L. monocytogenes and L. innocua by DNA-DNA hybridization to warrant their designation as a new species of the genus Listeria. The four isolates yielded positive reactions in the AccuProbe test that is purported to be specific for L. monocytogenes, did not ferment L-rhamnose, were non-haemolytic on blood agar media, and did not contain a homologue of the L. monocytogenes virulence gene island. On the basis of their phenotypic characteristics and their genotypic distinctiveness from L. monocytogenes and L. innocua, the four isolates should be classified as a new species within the genus Listeria, for which the name Listeria marthii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of L. marthii is FSL S4-120(T) (=ATCC BAA-1595(T) =BEIR NR 9579(T) =CCUG 56148(T)). L. marthii has not been associated with human or animal disease at this time.
KeywordMeSH Terms
14. Chen  J, Jiang  L, Chen  X, Luo  X, Chen  Y, Yu  Y, Tian  G, Liu  D, Fang  W,     ( 2009 )

Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4a is a possible evolutionary intermediate between L. monocytogenes serovars 1/2a and 4b and L. innocua.

Journal of microbiology and biotechnology 19 (3)
PMID : 19349748  :  
Abstract >>
The genus Listeria consists of six closely related species and forms three phylogenetic groups: L. monocytogenes- L. innocua, L. ivanovii-L. seeligeri-L. welshimeri, and L. grayi. In this report, we attempted to examine the evolutionary relationship in the L. monocytogenes-L. innocua group by probing the nucleotide sequences of 23S rRNA and 16S rRNA, and the gene clusters lmo0029-lmo0042, ascBdapE, rplS-infC, and prs-ldh in L. monocytogenes serovars 1/2a, 4a, and 4b, and L. innocua. Additionally, we assessed the status of L. monocytogenes-specific inlA and inlB genes and 10 L. innocua-specific genes in these species/serovars, together with phenotypic characterization by using in vivo and in vitro procedures. The results indicate that L. monocytogenes serovar 4a strains are genetically similar to L. innocua in the lmo0035-lmo0042, ascB-dapE, and rplS-infC regions and also possess L. innocua-specific genes lin0372 and lin1073. Furthermore, both L. monocytogenes serovar 4a and L. innocua exhibit impaired intercellular spread ability and negligible pathogenicity in mouse model. On the other hand, despite resembling L. monocytogenes serovars 1/2a and 4b in having a nearly identical virulence gene cluster, and inlA and inlB genes, these serovar 4a strains differ from serovars 1/2a and 4b by harboring notably altered actA and plcB genes, displaying strong phospholipase activity and subdued in vivo and in vitro virulence. Thus, by possessing many genes common to L. monocytogenes serovars 1/2a and 4b, and sharing many similar gene deletions with L. innocua, L. monocytogenes serovar 4a represents a possible evolutionary intermediate between L. monocytogenes serovars 1/2a and 4b and L. innocua.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Biological Evolution
15. Chen  J, Jiang  L, Chen  Q, Zhao  H, Luo  X, Chen  X, Fang  W,     ( 2009 )

lmo0038 is involved in acid and heat stress responses and specific for Listeria monocytogenes lineages I and II, and Listeria ivanovii.

Foodborne pathogens and disease 6 (3)
PMID : 19278345  :   DOI  :   10.1089/fpd.2008.0207    
Abstract >>
The genus Listeria comprises two pathogenic species, L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii, as well as four nonpathogenic species, L. innocua, L. weishimeri, L. seeligeri, and L. grayi. Within L. monocytogenes, lineages I and II are responsible for most listeriosis cases, while lineage III strains are rarely associated with human morbidity but providing important clues for Listeria evolution. The gene lmo0038, belonging to the peptidylarginine deiminase family, was involved in the optimal growth under stress conditions, including low pH and heat shock (52 degrees C), and virulence potential. Further, this gene was specific to L. monocytogenes lineages I and II and L. ivanovii with significant similarities at nucleotide and amino acid levels. A novel multiplex PCR, based on lmo0038 in combination with optimized iap migration profiles, was developed for simultaneous identification of Listeria species and discrimination of L. monocytogenes lineage III, with a detection limit down to 1.0-9.0 x 10(2) CFU/mL. This assay was evaluated by 119 suspected Listeria food-related isolates and corrected 4 and 5 misidentifications by Listeria selective agar plate screening and API system, respectively. Therefore, this one-step molecular assay provides a rapid, reliable, and inexpensive screening test to detect Listeria species-particularly, the pathogenic species in surveillance programs concerning food safety and foodborne disease cases.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Hot Temperature
16. Honda  S, Wakita  S, Sugahara  Y, Kawakita  M, Oyama  F, Sakaguchi  M,     ( 2016 )

Characterization of two Listeria innocua chitinases of different sizes that were expressed in Escherichia coli.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology 100 (18)
PMID : 27138200  :   DOI  :   10.1007/s00253-016-7546-0    
Abstract >>
Two putative chitinase genes, lin0153 and lin1996, from the nonpathogenic bacterium Listeria innocua were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the gene products were characterized. The genes were close homologs of chitinases from the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, in which chitinases and chitin-binding proteins play important roles in pathogenesis in mice-infection models. The purified recombinant enzymes that are different in size, LinChi78 (lin0153 product) and LinChi35 (lin1996 product)-with molecular masses of 82 and 38 kDa, including vector-derived additional sequences, respectively-exhibited optimum catalytic activity under neutral and acidic conditions at 50 �XC, respectively, and were stable over broad pH (4-11) and temperature (4-40 �XC) ranges. LinChi35 displayed higher k cat and K M values for 4-nitrophenyl N,N-diacetyl-�]-D-chitobioside [4NP-(GlcNAc)2] than LinChi78. Both enzymes produced primarily dimers from colloidal chitin as a substrate. However, LinChi78 and LinChi35 could hydrolyze oligomeric substrates in a processive exo- and nonprocessive endo-manner, respectively, and showed different reactivity toward oligomeric substrates. Both enzymes could bind chitin beads but were different in their binding ability toward crystalline �\-chitin and cellulose. The structure-function relationships of these chitinases are discussed in reference to other bacterial chitinases.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Characterization
Chitin
Chitinase
Cloning
Expression
Listeria species
17. Clayton  EM, Daly  KM, Guinane  CM, Hill  C, Cotter  PD, Ross  PR,     ( 2014 )

Atypical Listeria innocua strains possess an intact LIPI-3.

BMC microbiology 14 (N/A)
PMID : 24606727  :   DOI  :   10.1186/1471-2180-14-58     PMC  :   PMC3974016    
Abstract >>
Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen which is the causative agent of listeriosis and can be divided into three evolutionary lineages I, II and III. While all strains possess the well established virulence factors associated with the Listeria pathogenicity island I (LIPI-1), lineage I strains also possess an additional pathogenicity island designated LIPI-3 which encodes listeriolysin S (LLS), a post-translationally modified cytolytic peptide. Up until now, this pathogenicity island has been identified exclusively in a subset of lineage I isolates of the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. In total 64 L. innocua strains were screened for the presence of LIPI-3. Here we report the identification of an intact LIPI-3 in 11 isolates of L. innocua and the remnants of the cluster in several others. Significantly, we can reveal that placing the L. innocua lls genes under the control of a constitutive promoter results in a haemolytic phenotype, confirming that the cluster is capable of encoding a functional haemolysin. Although the presence of the LIPI-3 gene cluster is confined to lineage I isolates of L. monocytogenes, a corresponding gene cluster or its remnants have been identified in many L. innocua strains.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genomic Islands
18. Moreno  LZ, Paixão  R, de Gobbi  DD, Raimundo  DC, Porfida Ferreira  TS, Micke Moreno  A, Hofer  E, dos Reis  CM, Matté  GR, Matté  MH,     ( 2014 )

Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of atypical Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua isolated from swine slaughterhouses and meat markets.

BioMed research international 2014 (N/A)
PMID : 24987702  :   DOI  :   10.1155/2014/742032     PMC  :   PMC4058478    
Abstract >>
In the last decade, atypical Listeria monocytogenes and L. innocua strains have been detected in food and the environment. Because of mutations in the major virulence genes, these strains have different virulence intensities in eukaryotic cells. In this study, we performed phenotypic and genotypic characterization of atypical L. monocytogenes and L. innocua isolates obtained from swine slaughterhouses and meat markets. Forty strains were studied, including isolates of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua with low-hemolytic activity. The isolates were characterized using conventional phenotypic Listeria identification tests and by the detection and analysis of L. monocytogenes-specific genes. Analysis of 16S rRNA was used for the molecular identification of the Listeria species. The L. monocytogenes isolates were positive for all of the virulence genes studied. The atypical L. innocua strains were positive for hly, plcA, and inlC. Mutations in the InlC, InlB, InlA, PI-PLC, PC-PLC, and PrfA proteins were detected in the atypical isolates. Further in vitro and transcriptomic studies are being developed to confirm the role of these mutations in Listeria virulence.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Abattoirs
Food Microbiology
Genotype
Listeria monocytogenes
Mutation
19. Bertsch  D, Anderegg  J, Lacroix  C, Meile  L, Stevens  MJ,     ( 2013 )

pDB2011, a 7.6 kb multidrug resistance plasmid from Listeria innocua replicating in Gram-positive and Gram-negative hosts.

Plasmid 70 (2)
PMID : 23774482  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.plasmid.2013.06.001    
Abstract >>
pDB2011, a multidrug resistance plasmid isolated from the foodborne Listeria innocua strain TTS-2011 was sequenced and characterized. Sequence analysis revealed that pDB2011 had a length of 7641 bp and contained seven coding DNA sequences of which two were annotated as replication proteins, one as a recombination/mobilization protein and one as a transposase. Furthermore, pDB2011 harbored the trimethoprim, spectinomycin and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance genes dfrD, spc and erm(A), respectively. However, pDB2011 was only associated with trimethoprim and spectinomycin resistance phenotypes and not with phenotypic resistance to erythromycin. A region of the plasmid encoding the resistance genes spc and erm(A) plus the transposase was highly similar to Staphylococcus aureus transposon Tn554. The dfrD gene was 100% identical to dfrD found in a number of Listeria monocytogenes isolates. Additionally, assessment of the potential host range of pDB2011 revealed that the plasmid was able to replicate in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 as well as in Escherichia coli MC1061 and DH5�\. This study reports the first multidrug resistance plasmid in L. innocua. A large potential for dissemination of pDB2011 is indicated by its host range of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Broad-host-range plasmid
Macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance
Spectinomycin resistance
Trimethoprim resistance
dfrD
erm(A)
20. Zink  R, Loessner  MJ, Scherer  S,     ( 1995 )

Characterization of cryptic prophages (monocins) in Listeria and sequence analysis of a holin/endolysin gene.

Microbiology (Reading, England) 141 (Pt 10) (N/A)
PMID : 7582018  :   DOI  :   10.1099/13500872-141-10-2577    
Abstract >>
Monocins in Listeria were induced by UV-irradiation of liquid cultures, and defective phage particles were purified from the lysates. Electron microscopy showed flexible, non-contractile bacteriophage-tail-like particles, consisting of specific proteins of molecular mass 20-45 kDa and pI 4.6-6.7. These particles were able to lyse listerial cells. DNA sequence homologies between chromosomal DNA of monocin-producing strains and labelled Listeria phage DNAs were inferred from DNA/DNA hybridizations, suggesting that most of the prophage DNA is still present in the listerial chromosome. An endolysin gene cpl2438 was cloned from listerial chromosomal DNA and was identified by its expression of lytic activity against Listeria cells in a bioassay. The gene consists of 864 nt encoding a protein of 287 aa with a calculated molecular mass of 32975 Da (CPL2438). This is in good agreement with the size of a protein observed in SDS-PAGE after overexpression of the lytic protein in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequence of a putative holin gene (hol2438, 291 nt) upstream of cpl2438 was determined after PCR-amplification of listerial DNA and it shows typical features common to the holin gene family. Expression of the encoded protein (HOL2438, 95 aa, 10.1 kDa) in E. coli was found to be lethal for the host cells. The results underline the close relationship between monocins and intact Listeria bacteriophages, indicating that monocins are incompletely assembled phage particles derived from cryptic prophages of Listeria, probably including the phage lysin.
KeywordMeSH Terms
21.     ( 1998 )

General stress transcription factor sigmaB and its role in acid tolerance and virulence of Listeria monocytogenes.

Journal of bacteriology 180 (14)
PMID : 9658010  :   PMC  :   PMC107335    
Abstract >>
The gene encoding the general stress transcription factor sigmaB in the gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes was isolated with degenerate PCR primers followed by inverse PCR amplification. Evidence for gene identification includes the following: (i) phylogenetic analyses of reported amino acid sequences for sigmaB and the closely related sigmaF proteins grouped L. monocytogenes sigmaB in the same cluster with the sigmaB proteins from Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, (ii) the gene order in the 2, 668-bp portion of the L. monocytogenes sigB operon is rsbU-rsbV-rsbW-sigB-rsbX and is therefore identical to the order of the last five genes of the B. subtilis sigB operon, and (iii) an L. monocytogenes sigmaB mutant had reduced resistance to acid stress in comparison with its isogenic parent strain. The sigB mutant was further characterized in mouse models of listeriosis by determining recovery rates of the wild-type and mutant strains from livers and spleens following intragastric or intraperitoneal infection. Our results suggest that sigmaB-directed genes do not appear to be essential for the spread of L. monocytogenes to mouse liver or spleen at 2 and 4 days following intragastric or intraperitoneal infection.
KeywordMeSH Terms

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