( 2003 )
Three new insertion sequence elements ISLdl2, ISLdl3, and ISLdl4 in Lactobacillus delbrueckii: isolation, molecular characterization, and potential use for strain identification.
PMID : 12749837 :
A group of new insertion sequence (IS) elements, ISLdl2, ISLdl3, and ISLdl4, from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis ATCC 15808 was isolated, characterized, and used for strain identification together with ISLdl1, recently characterized as an L. delbrueckii IS element belonging to the ISL3 family. ISLdl2 was 1367 bp in size and had a 24 bp IR and an 8 bp DR. The single ORF of ISLdl2 encoded a protein of 392 aa similar to transposases of the IS256 family. ISLdl3 had a single ORF encoding a protein of 343 aa similar to transposases of the IS30 family. Finally, ISLdl4 had a single ORF encoding a protein of 406 aa and displayed homology to the transposases of the IS110 family. ISLdl4 was only slight different from ISL4 (Accession No. AY040213). ISLdl1, ISLdl2, and ISLdl4 were present in all of the 10 L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis and subsp. delbrueckii strains tested, as well as in three of the 11 L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains tested. ISLdl3 was present only in four closely related strains of L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis. These IS elements were not observed in Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, or Lactobacillus plantarum. A cluster of IS elements, ISLdl1, ISLdl2, ISLdl3, ISLdl4, and ISL6, was observed in L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis strain ATCC 15808. Within this cluster, ISLdl4 was inserted into ISLdl1 between the left IR and the start codon of ORF455, encoding a putative transposase. Most of the integration sites of the IS elements were strain-specific. We have observed that IS elements can migrate from one strain to another as integral parts of bacterial DNA by using phage LL-H as a vehicle. We demonstrate for the first time that inverse PCR and vectorette PCR methods with primers based on sequences of the IS elements could be used for identification of L. delbrueckii strains.
( 2003 )
Evolution of the bacterial species Lactobacillus delbrueckii: a partial genomic study with reflections on prokaryotic species concept.
PMID : 12519911 : DOI : 10.1093/molbev/msg012
The species Lactobacillus delbrueckii consists at present of three subspecies, delbrueckii, lactis and bulgaricus, showing a high level of DNA-DNA hybridization similarity but presenting markedly different traits related to distinct ecological adaptation. The internal genetic heterogeneity of the bacterial species L. delbrueckii was analyzed. Phenotypic and several genetic traits were investigated for 61 strains belonging to this species. These included 16S rDNA sequence mutations, expression of beta-galactosidase and of the cell wall-anchored protease, the characterization of the lactose operon locus and of the sequence of lacR gene, galactose metabolism, and the distribution of insertion sequences. The high genetic heterogeneity of taxa was confirmed by every trait investigated: the lac operon was completely deleted in the subsp. delbrueckii, different mutation events in the repressor gene of the operon led to a constitutive expression of lacZ in the subsp. bulgaricus. Structural differences in the same genetic locus were probably due to the presence of different IS elements in the flanking regions. The different expression of the cell wall-anchored protease, constitutive in the subsp. bulgaricus, inducible in the subsp. lactis, and absent in the subsp. delbrueckii was also a consequence of mutations at the gene level. The galT gene for galactose metabolism was found only in the subsp. lactis, while no specific amplification product was detected in the other two subspecies. All these data, together with the absence of a specific IS element, ISL6, from the major number of strains belonging to the subsp. bulgaricus, confirmed a deep internal heterogeneity among the three subspecies. Moreover, this evidence and the directional mutations found in the 16S rDNA sequences suggested that, of the three subspecies, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis is the taxon closer to the ancestor. Limitations of the current prokaryotic species definition were also discussed, based on presented evidences. Our results indicate the need for an accurate investigation of internal heterogeneity of bacterial species. This study has consequences on the prokaryotic species concept, since genomic flexibility of prokaryotes collides with a stable classification, necessary from a scientific and applied point of view.
( 2002 )
Comparison of partial tuf gene sequences for the identification of lactobacilli.
PMID : 12480101 : DOI : 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2002.tb11472.x
Comparative analysis of partial tuf sequences was evaluated for the identification and differentiation of lactobacilli. Comparison of the amino acid sequences allowed differentiation between species and also between the subspecies of Lactobacillus delbrueckii. The nucleotide sequence comparison allowed differentiation between other subspecies and between some strains. Lactobacilli from several collections and isolates from dairy samples were clearly identified by comparison of short tuf sequences with those of the type strains. In evaluating the taxonomy of the Lactobacillus casei-related taxa, different tuf amino acid signatures are in favour of a classification into three distinct species. The type strain designation for the L. casei species is discussed.
( 2002 )
Crystal structure of the dinuclear zinc aminopeptidase PepV from Lactobacillus delbrueckii unravels its preference for dipeptides.
PMID : 12176387 :
PepV from Lactobacillus delbrueckii, a dinuclear zinc peptidase, has been characterized as an unspecific amino dipeptidase. The crystal structure of PepV in complex with the phosphinic inhibitor AspPsi[PO(2)CH(2)]AlaOH, a dipeptide substrate mimetic, reveals a "catalytic domain" and a "lid domain," which together form an internal active site cavity that traps the inhibitor. The catalytic domain is topologically similar to catalytic domains from amino- and carboxypeptidases. However, the lid domain is unique among the related enzymes. In contrast to the other related exopeptidases, PepV recognizes and fixes the dipeptide backbone, while the side chains are not specifically probed and can vary, rendering it a nonspecific dipeptidase. The cocrystallized inhibitor illustrates the two roles of the two catalytic zinc ions, namely stabilization of the tetrahedral intermediate and activation of the catalytic water molecule.
( 2002 )
Regulation and adaptive evolution of lactose operon expression in Lactobacillus delbrueckii.
PMID : 11807052 : DOI : 10.1128/jb.184.4.928-935.2002 PMC : PMC134810
Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis are both used in the dairy industry as homofermentative lactic acid bacteria in the production of fermented milk products. After selective pressure for the fast fermentation of milk in the manufacture of yogurts, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus loses its ability to regulate lac operon expression. A series of mutations led to the constitutive expression of the lac genes. A complex of insertion sequence (IS) elements (ISL4 inside ISL5), inserted at the border of the lac promoter, induced the loss of the palindromic structure of one of the operators likely involved in the binding of regulatory factors. A lac repressor gene was discovered downstream of the beta-galactosidase gene of L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis and was shown to be inactivated by several mutations in L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. Regulatory mechanisms of the lac gene expression of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis were compared by heterologous expression in Lactococcus lactis of the two lac promoters in front of a reporter gene (beta-glucuronidase) in the presence or absence of the lac repressor gene. Insertion of the complex of IS elements in the lac promoter of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus increased the promoter's activity but did not prevent repressor binding; rather, it increased the affinity of the repressor for the promoter. Inactivation of the lac repressor by mutations was then necessary to induce the constitutive expression of the lac genes in L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.
( 2002 )
DNA sequence and functional analysis of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis plasmids pN42 and pJBL2.
PMID : 11982337 : DOI : 10.1006/plas.2001.1560
The plasmids pN42 and pJBL2 were isolated from the Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis strains NCC88 and JCL414. DNA sequence determination and bioinformatic analysis revealed a strikingly conserved genetic organization containing five major, highly conserved open reading frames (ORFs). Transformation studies indicated that ORF2 (consisting of a primase fused to a replicative DNA helicase), ori, and ORF3 constitute the minimal requirements for replication of pN42 in the heterologous host Lactococcus lactis. The ORF1's are predicted to encode type I restriction-modification (R-M) system HsdS subunits with different specificities on either plasmid, suggesting that these plasmids may be involved in host defense by expanding their host R-M system repertoire. These plasmids constitute the basis for the construction of novel L. delbrueckii vectors.
( 2002 )
A new insertion sequence element, ISLdl1, in Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis ATCC 15808.
PMID : 12002399 : DOI : 10.1078/0944-5013-00135
A new insertion sequence element designated ISLdl1 has been isolated and characterized from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis ATCC 15808. It is the first IS element of L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis described. ISLdl1 is a 1508 bp element flanked by 26 bp imperfect inverted repeats, and generates an 8 bp AT-rich target duplication upon insertion. It contains one ORF encoding a protein of 455 amino acids. This protein shows significant homology to the transposases of the ISL3 family and to other bacterial transposases and putative transposases, and no homology to other proteins. Based on these structural features, ISLdl1 belongs to the ISL3 family. ISLdl1 is present in about 10-12 copies in the genome of ATCC 15808 based on Southern hybridization analysis. Location sites of eight ISLdl1 copies have been determined in more detail by cloning and sequencing one or both of the flanking regions of each ISLdl1 copy. ISLdl1 or ISLdl1-like IS elements were found exclusively in Lactobacillus delbrueckii species and in all strains of subsp. lactis tested. The nucleotide sequence of ISLdl1 is deposited under the accession number AJ302652.
( 2002 )
Sequence analysis of pLBB1, a cryptic plasmid from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.
PMID : 11958563 : DOI : 10.1139/w01-137
The first report of the complete nucleotide sequence of a cryptic plasmid from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (Lactobacillus bulgaricus) is presented. The plasmid pLBB1 consists of 6127 bp with a GC content of 44.8%. No ssDNA was detected by hybridization experiments, which is consistent with the notion that pLBB1 does not replicate by a rolling circle mechanism. A putative replication region of pLBB1 was cloned and found to be functional in Lactobacillus johnsonii and Lactococcus lactis. Plasmid pLBB1 showed significant DNA sequence identity with plasmid pLL1212 from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis (Lactobacillus lactis) CRL1212 (GenBank accession No. AF109691). Four open reading frames (ORFs) larger than 100 amino acids were identified. ORFA shared similarity with a putative primase-helicase system, and ORFB and ORFC exhibited limited identity with a mobilization protein and a transposase, respectively. Curing experiments did not allowed us to assign a function to the ORFs.
( 2001 )
Cloning and expression analysis of the 28 kDa protein from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis ATCC 4797 hypothesized to influence lactacin B production.
PMID : 11851815 :
A cell wall-associated lactacin B inducer protein (IP) was purified from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis ATCC 4797 (Lact. lactis) by chromatofocusing and gel filtration HPLC (Barefoot et al. 1994). N-terminal sequence of the purified IP was used to design an oligonucleotide (24-mer) for gene identification by Southern and colony hybridizations. Southern hybridization on Lact. lactis chromosomal DNA digested with EcoRI and PstI produced a single 4-5 kbp DNA fragment. Colony hybridizations with 6250 clones produced four positive recombinants for the proposed IP. Sequence of the DNA isolated from RU43e9 revealed a 4623 bp DNA fragment containing three open reading frames (ORF) potentially encoding enzymes that function in glycolysis. One ORF, coding for an active triosephosphate isomerase (Tpi), showed 98% homology to the N-terminal domain of the HPLC purified IP. PCR primers were designed to amplify the ORF encoding the proposed IP for subcloning, protein expression, purification and bacteriocin enhancing assays on pure cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus N2. The regions flanking the Tpi gene (data not shown) were also sequenced and it is concluded that the proposed IP reported by Barefoot et al. (1994) is located on an operon containing several glycolytic enzymes that function in glycolysis. The findings of this study do not support previously published research (Barefoot et al. 1994) hypothesizing that a purified IP from Lact. lactis, homologous to a Bacillus stearothermophilus Tpi, is capable of enhancing bacteriocin synthesis in Lact. acidophilus N2.
Gueneau de Novoa P,
( 2004 )
The tmRNA website: reductive evolution of tmRNA in plastids and other endosymbionts.
PMID : 14681369 : DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkh102 PMC : PMC308836
tmRNA combines tRNA- and mRNA-like properties and ameliorates problems arising from stalled ribosomes. Research on the mechanism, structure and biology of tmRNA is served by the tmRNA website (http://www.indiana.edu/~ tmrna), a collection of sequences, alignments, secondary structures and other information. Because many of these sequences are not in GenBank, a BLAST server has been added; another new feature is an abbreviated alignment for the tRNA-like domain only. Many tmRNA sequences from plastids have been added, five found in public sequence data and another 10 generated by direct sequencing; detection in early-branching members of the green plastid lineage brings coverage to all three primary plastid lineages. The new sequences include the shortest known tmRNA sequence. While bacterial tmRNAs usually have a lone pseudoknot upstream of the mRNA segment and a string of three or four pseudoknots downstream, plastid tmRNAs collectively show loss of pseudoknots at both postions. The pseudoknot-string region is also too short to contain the usual pseudoknot number in another new entry, the tmRNA sequence from a bacterial endosymbiont of insect cells, Tremblaya princeps. Pseudoknots may optimize tmRNA function in free-living bacteria, yet become dispensible when the endosymbiotic lifestyle relaxes selective pressure for fast growth.
( 2012 )
Lactobacillus gigeriorum sp. nov., isolated from chicken crop.
PMID : 21421927 : DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.028217-0
In the early 1980s, a facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, short rod, designated 202(T), was isolated from a chicken crop and identified as a homofermentative lactic acid bacterium. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain was affiliated with the genus Lactobacillus, clustering within the Lactobacillus acidophilus-delbrueckii group. In this analysis, strain 202(T) appeared to be most closely related to the type strains of Lactobacillus intestinalis and Lactobacillus amylolyticus, with gene sequence similarities of 96.1 and 96.2 %, respectively. Strain 202(T) was found to differ from these two species, however, when investigated by multilocus sequence analysis, and it also differed in terms of some of its metabolic properties. On the basis of these observations, strain 202(T) is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus gigeriorum sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 202(T) (= CRBIP 24.85(T) = DSM 23908(T)).
( 2011 )
Multilocus sequence typing reveals a novel subspeciation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii.
PMID : 21178164 : DOI : 10.1099/mic.0.043240-0
Currently, the species Lactobacillus delbrueckii is divided into four subspecies, L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, L. delbrueckii subsp. indicus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis. These classifications were based mainly on phenotypic identification methods and few studies have used genotypic identification methods. As a result, these subspecies have not yet been reliably delineated. In this study, the four subspecies of L. delbrueckii were discriminated by phenotype and by genotypic identification [amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST)] methods. The MLST method developed here was based on the analysis of seven housekeeping genes (fusA, gyrB, hsp60, ileS, pyrG, recA and recG). The MLST method had good discriminatory ability: the 41 strains of L. delbrueckii examined were divided into 34 sequence types, with 29 sequence types represented by only a single strain. The sequence types were divided into eight groups. These groups could be discriminated as representing different subspecies. The results of the AFLP and MLST analyses were consistent. The type strain of L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, YIT 0080(T), was clearly discriminated from the other strains currently classified as members of this subspecies, which were located close to strains of L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis. The MLST scheme developed in this study should be a useful tool for the identification of strains of L. delbrueckii to the subspecies level.
( 2009 )
Evidence for the presence of restriction/modification systems in Lactobacillus delbrueckii.
PMID : 19640327 : DOI : 10.1017/S0022029909990112
The bacteriophages Cb1/204 and Cb1/342 were obtained by induction from the commercial strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis Cb1, and propagated on Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis 204 (Lb.l 204) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 342 (Lb.b 342), respectively. By cross sensitivity, it was possible to detect a delay in the lysis of Lb.l 204 with Cb1/342 phage, while the adsorption rate was high (99.5%). Modified and unmodified phages were isolated using phage Cb1/342 and strain Lb.l 204. The EOP (Efficiency of Plaquing) values for the four phages (Cb1/204, Cb1/342, Cb1/342modified and Cb1/342unmodified) suggested that an R/M system modified the original temperate phage, and the BglII-DNA restriction patterns of these phages might point out the presence of a Type II R/M system. Also, the existence of a Type I R/M system was demonstrated by PCR and nucleotide sequence, being the percentages of alignment homology with Type I R/M systems reported previously higher than 95%. In this study it was possible to demonstrate that the native phage resistant mechanisms and the occurrence of prophages in commercial host strains, contribute strongly to diversify the phage population in a factory environment.
( 2007 )
Integration of the group c phage JCL1032 of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis and complex phage resistance of the host.
PMID : 18045432 : DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2007.03479.x
Sequences related to Lactobacillus delbrueckii phage JCL1032 genome integration, the maintenance of lysogeny and putative immunity genes were characterized. Phenotypic changes of the JCL1032 lysogens were investigated. Integration of JCL1032 DNA into the host genome and the location of phage and bacterial attachment sites were studied by standard molecular methods. The frequency of lysogenization was 10(-7), and stable lysogeny was an even rarer phenomenon. JCL1032 integrates its genome into two distinct host genes of unknown functions. According to EOP (efficiency of plating) and adsorption tests JCL1032 lysogens showed resistance against several virulent and temperate Lactobacillus phages at different steps of phage infection. Temperate JCL1032 integrates its genome into bacterial DNA with exceptionally low frequency. JCL1032 lysogens express a complex phage resistance against several Lact. delbrueckii phages. An antagonistic arms race between the temperate phage and its host is proposed. This is the first time that the genome integration of a group c Lact. delbrueckii phage has been described. The characterized lysogens could facilitate studies on Lact. delbrueckii phage receptors and phage resistance mechanisms. The genetic information gained from this study benefits the development of integration vectors and phage resistant starters.
( 2007 )
Identification of lactobacilli by pheS and rpoA gene sequence analyses.
PMID : 18048724 : DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.64711-0
The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase alpha subunit (pheS) and the RNA polymerase alpha subunit (rpoA) partial gene sequences for species identification of members of the genus Lactobacillus. Two hundred and one strains representing the 98 species and 17 subspecies were examined. The pheS gene sequence analysis provided an interspecies gap, which in most cases exceeded 10 % divergence, and an intraspecies variation of up to 3 %. The rpoA gene sequences revealed a somewhat lower resolution, with an interspecies gap normally exceeding 5 % and an intraspecies variation of up to 2 %. The combined use of pheS and rpoA gene sequences offers a reliable identification system for nearly all species of the genus Lactobacillus. The pheS and rpoA gene sequences provide a powerful tool for the detection of potential novel Lactobacillus species and synonymous taxa. In conclusion, the pheS and rpoA gene sequences can be used as alternative genomic markers to 16S rRNA gene sequences and have a higher discriminatory power for reliable identification of species of the genus Lactobacillus.
( 2008 )
Lactobacillus strain diversity based on partial hsp60 gene sequences and design of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assays for species identification and differentiation.
PMID : 17993558 : DOI : 10.1128/AEM.01711-07 PMC : PMC2223197
A phylogenetic tree showing diversities among 116 partial (499-bp) Lactobacillus hsp60 (groEL, encoding a 60-kDa heat shock protein) nucleotide sequences was obtained and compared to those previously described for 16S rRNA and tuf gene sequences. The topology of the tree produced in this study showed a Lactobacillus species distribution similar, but not identical, to those previously reported. However, according to the most recent systematic studies, a clear differentiation of 43 single-species clusters was detected/identified among the sequences analyzed. The slightly higher variability of the hsp60 nucleotide sequences than of the 16S rRNA sequences offers better opportunities to design or develop molecular assays allowing identification and differentiation of either distant or very closely related Lactobacillus species. Therefore, our results suggest that hsp60 can be considered an excellent molecular marker for inferring the taxonomy and phylogeny of members of the genus Lactobacillus and that the chosen primers can be used in a simple PCR procedure allowing the direct sequencing of the hsp60 fragments. Moreover, in this study we performed a computer-aided restriction endonuclease analysis of all 499-bp hsp60 partial sequences and we showed that the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns obtainable by using both endonucleases AluI and TacI (in separate reactions) can allow identification and differentiation of all 43 Lactobacillus species considered, with the exception of the pair L. plantarum/L. pentosus. However, the latter species can be differentiated by further analysis with Sau3AI or MseI. The hsp60 PCR-RFLP approach was efficiently applied to identify and to differentiate a total of 110 wild Lactobacillus strains (including closely related species, such as L. casei and L. rhamnosus or L. plantarum and L. pentosus) isolated from cheese and dry-fermented sausages.
( 2012 )
Discrimination of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group using sequencing, species-specific PCR and SNaPshot mini-sequencing technology based on the recA gene.
PMID : 22555934 : DOI : 10.1002/jsfa.5692
To clearly identify specific species and subspecies of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group using phenotypic and genotypic (16S rDNA sequence analysis) techniques alone is difficult. The aim of this study was to use the recA gene for species discrimination in the L. acidophilus group, as well as to develop a species-specific primer and single nucleotide polymorphism primer based on the recA gene sequence for species and subspecies identification. The average sequence similarity for the recA gene among type strains was 80.0%, and most members of the L. acidophilus group could be clearly distinguished. The species-specific primer was designed according to the recA gene sequencing, which was employed for polymerase chain reaction with the template DNA of Lactobacillus strains. A single 231-bp species-specific band was found only in L. delbrueckii. A SNaPshot mini-sequencing assay using recA as a target gene was also developed. The specificity of the mini-sequencing assay was evaluated using 31 strains of L. delbrueckii species and was able to unambiguously discriminate strains belonging to the subspecies L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The phylogenetic relationships of most strains in the L. acidophilus group can be resolved using recA gene sequencing, and a novel method to identify the species and subspecies of the L. delbrueckii and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was developed by species-specific polymerase chain reaction combined with SNaPshot mini-sequencing.
( 1997 )
Replication regions of two pairs of incompatible lactococcal theta-replicating plasmids.
PMID : 9339469 :
Incompatibility tests were performed employing 12 replicons belonging to a family of homologous lactococcal theta-replicating plasmids. Two pairs of incompatible plasmids were found, namely, pFV1001 and pFV1201, and pJW565 and pFW094. The replicons of plasmids pFV1001, pFV1201, pJW565, pJW566, and pFW094 were sequenced. Alignments were made of the replicational origins (repA) and putative replication proteins (RepB) of these and 11 related plasmid sequences. Comparison of the alignments with the incompatibility data indicated that the incompatibility determinant could be contained within the 22-bp tandem repeats DRII and/or the inverted repeat IR1 in repA. In support, the incompatibility determinant of pJW563 was localized to a 743-bp fragment encompassing repA. A stretch of 13 amino acids of RepB was proposed to be responsible for the plasmid-specific initiation of replication. This stretch is part of a domain containing features that are highly conserved within the proposed DNA binding regions of the initiation proteins from several well-characterized plasmids from Gram-negative bacteria, including pSC101, R6K, and mini-F.
( 1997 )
Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis DSM7290 pepG gene encodes a novel cysteine aminopeptidase.
PMID : 9043129 : DOI : 10.1099/00221287-143-2-527
A number of Escherichia coli clones were isolated from a Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis gene library capable of hydrolysing the chromogenic substrate Gly-Ala-beta-naphthylamide (Gly-Ala-beta NA). Some of the recombinant plasmids carried by these clones have been shown to encode the cysteine aminopeptidase gene pepC. Nucleotide sequence analyses of the plasmid inserts of the remaining clones resulted in the identification of two adjacent ORFs encoding proteins exhibiting a high degree of similarity between themselves (72.6%) and with PepC. One gene, designated pepG, was overexpressed in E. coli and the crude extracts obtained were shown to be peptidolytically active both against chromogenic substrates and peptides, and in a Salmonella typhimurium growth test. PepC and PepG activities were compared using chromogenic beta NA and p-nitroanilide substrates and leucine or proline-containing peptides were applied in growth experiments of recombinant Sal. typhimurium. The results indicate that the enzymes, although structurally related, have different substrate preferences. No enzyme activity could be ascribed to the second ORF (orfW), despite the production of a visible protein using a T7 RNA polymerase system. Primer extension analysis, using mRNA isolated from Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis DSM7290 did establish that orfW was transcribed.
( 1995 )
Cloning and characterization of brnQ, a gene encoding a low-affinity, branched-chain amino acid carrier in Lactobacillus delbr?ckii subsp. lactis DSM7290.
PMID : 8544834 : DOI : 10.1007/bf00418038
A gene (brnQ), encoding a carrier for branched-chain amino acids in Lactobacillus delbr?ckii subsp. lactis DSM7290 was cloned in the low-copy-number vector pLG339 by complementation of a transport-deficient Escherichia coli strain. The plasmid carrying the cloned gene restored growth of an E. coli strain mutated in 4 different branched-chain amino acid transport genes at low concentrations of isoleucine, and increased its sensitivity to valine. Transport assays showed that leucine, isoleucine and valine are transported by this carrier and that transport is driven by the proton motive force. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 1338 bp encoding a hydrophobic protein of 446 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 47864 Daltons. The start site of brnQ transcription was determined by primer extension analysis using mRNA from Lactobacillus delbr?ckii subsp. lactis DSM7290. The hydropathy profile suggests the existence of at least 12 hydrophobic domains that probably form membrane-associated alpha-helices. Comparisons of the nucleotide sequence of brnQ from Lactobacillus delbr?ckii subsp. lactis DSM7290, the amino acid sequence of its product and the topology of the hydrophobic domains with those of the respective carrier genes and proteins of Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa revealed extensive homology.
( 1993 )
Cloning, DNA sequence analysis and partial characterization of pepN, a lysyl aminopeptidase from Lactobacillus delbr?ckii ssp. lactis DSM7290.
PMID : 8223547 : DOI : 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1993.tb18224.x
In cell extracts of Lactobacillus delbr?ckii ssp. lactis DSM7290 a peptidase with the ability to hydrolyse Phe-beta-naphthylamide (Phe-beta-NA) and His-beta-NA could be detected. Escherichia coli lacking the enzyme activity in an enzymic plate assay was used to screen high-copy-number and low-copy-number plasmid libraries of size-fractionated Lactobacillus DNA. Clones with the desired phenotype were detected, and the gene, designated pepN, was further subcloned and sequenced. A large open reading frame of 2529 nucleotides is predicted to encode a protein of 843 amino acids (95358 Da). Comparison of the pepN gene from Lb. delbr?ckii ssp. lactis DSM7290 indicates that it is homologous to genes of the family of Zn(2+)-metallohydrolases and PepN shows identity with the active centre Zn(2+)-binding motif of these enzymes. The substrate Lys-beta-NA is more effectively cleaved than Phe-beta-NA or His-beta-NA which were used for screening in E. coli. The cloned pepN gene was efficiently overexpressed in E. coli and subcloning of the gene in Lactobacillus casei resulted in a moderate overexpression of approximately 20-fold. The pepN gene product was purified from the pepN-deficient E. coli strain CM89, using the substrate Lys-p-nitroanilide (Lys-NH-Ph) in the assay procedure. In a four-step procedure including streptomycin sulfate precipitation, anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration the peptidase was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity.
( 1995 )
Cloning and DNA sequence analysis of pepQ, a prolidase gene from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis DSM7290 and partial characterization of its product.
PMID : 7770058 : DOI : 10.1007/bf00293152
From a genomic library of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis (DSM7290) DNA, in the low-copy-number vector pLG339, a recombinant clone was selected, which complemented a mutation in the prolidase gene (pepQ) of Escherichia coli UK173. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 1104 nucleotides corresponding to a protein of 368 amino acids with a calculated pI of 4.64 and a molecular mass of 41,087 Da. The start site of pepQ transcription was determined by primer extension analysis with mRNA prepared from L. delbrueckii. Based on homology of the gene product to various peptidases and on the substrate specificity determined, the peptidase was designated PepQ. The influence of various protease inhibitors and cations on peptidase activity indicated that PepQ is a metalloprotease. The absence of a membrane-spanning domain and a signal peptide sequence argues for a cytoplasmic localization of the enzyme.
( 1993 )
Cloning and sequence analysis of the X-prolyl-dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase gene (pepX) from Lactobacillus delbr?ckii ssp. lactis DSM7290.
PMID : 7765315 :
Lactobacillus delbr?ckii ssp. lactis DSM7290 possesses an X-prolyl-dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase, designated PepX, which catalyses the hydrolytic removal of N-terminal dipeptidyl residues from peptides containing proline in the penultimate position. Using the specific substrate L-Ala-L-Pro-p-nitroanilide, PepX was purified by a four-step procedure including ammonium sulphate fractionation, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, and affinity chromatography. The N-terminus of the purified protein was sequenced. Screening of a gene library of chromosomal Lactobacillus delbr?ckii ssp. lactis DSM7290 DNA in the low-copy-number vector pLG339 resulted in the identification of the pepX gene in Escherichia coli using a specific plate assay with Gly-L-Pro-beta-naphthylamide as substrate. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 2376 bp, coding for a protein of 792 amino acids with a molecular mass of 88449 Da.
( 1994 )
Cloning, heterologous expression, and sequencing of a novel proline iminopeptidase gene, pepI, from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis DSM 7290.
PMID : 8025678 : DOI : 10.1099/13500872-140-5-1133
The gene for proline iminopeptidase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis DSM 7290 coding for an enzyme that hydrolyses the synthetic substrate L-prolyl-beta-naphthylamide (Pro-beta NA) was cloned in Escherichia coli. An enzymic plate assay was used to screen for positive clones. The gene, designated pepI, was subcloned into vector pUC18 and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence revealed an 882 bp open reading frame encoding 294 amino acids, coding for an enzyme with a calculated molecular mass of 32883 Da. By cloning under control of the lac promoter the peptidase was highly expressed. Sequence analysis showed that pepI is of a new sequence type, distinct from all peptidases so far sequenced. Amino acid homology to the active site of a Pseudomonas putida esterase and inhibitor studies of the enzyme imply involvement of a serine residue in catalysis.
( 1994 )
Cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis of the Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis DSM7290 cysteine aminopeptidase gene pepC.
PMID : 7851736 : DOI : 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1994.tb07299.x
A genomic library of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis DSM7290 in the low copy number vector pLG339, was screened for the presence of peptidase genes. Using the chromogenic substrate gly-ala-beta-naphthylamide, which is not a substrate for any of the recently cloned peptidases of DSM7290, and the multiple peptidase deficient Escherichia coli strain CM89, allowed the isolation of clones, which contained the equivalent hydrolytic activity. To identify genes encoding the conserved catalytic active site of cysteine proteases, partial nucleotide sequencing with a degenerate oligonucleotide was performed on recombinant plasmids isolated from such clones. This allowed to identify two out of nine clones to carry the Lactobacillus pepC gene. A total of 2026 nucleotides were determined, and sequence analysis revealed a gene with strong homology to the recently cloned Lb. helveticus (73.2%) and Lactococcus lactis (51.03%) pepC genes, and the derived protein showed homology with the active site of a large number of cysteine proteases. The predicted open reading frame consists of 449 codons, coding for a protein of 50,909 Da. The enzyme is functional and extremely overexpressed in E. coli.
( 1994 )
Cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis of pepV, a carnosinase gene from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis DSM 7290, and partial characterization of the enzyme.
PMID : 7528082 : DOI : 10.1099/00221287-140-10-2591
Cell extracts of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis DSM 7290 were found to exhibit unique peptolytic ability against unusual beta-alanyl-dipeptides. In order to clone the gene encoding this activity, designated pepV, a gene library of strain DSM 7290 genomic DNA, prepared in the low-copy-number plasmid pLG339, was screened for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. Recombinant clones harbouring pepV were identified by their ability to allow the utilization of carnosine (beta-alanyl-histidine) as a source of histidine by the E. coli mutant strain UK197 (pepD, hisG). Complementation was observed in a colony harbouring a recombinant plasmid (pKV101), carrying pepV. A 2.4 kb fragment containing pepV was subcloned and its nucleotide sequence revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 1413 nucleotides, corresponding to a protein with predicted molecular mass of 51998 Da. A single transcription initiation site 71 bp upstream of the ATG translational start codon was identified by primer extension. No significant homology was detected between pepV or its deduced amino acid sequence with any entry in the databases. The only similarity was found in a region conserved in the ArgE/DapE/CPG2/YscS family of proteins. This observation, and protease inhibitor studies, indicated that pepV is of the metalloprotease type. A second ORF present in the sequenced fragment showed extensive homology to a variety of amino acid permeases from E. coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.