( 2003 )
Alicyclobacillus pomorum sp. nov., a novel thermo-acidophilic, endospore-forming bacterium that does not possess omega-alicyclic fatty acids, and emended description of the genus Alicyclobacillus.
PMID : 13130044 : DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.02546-0
A thermo-acidophilic endospore-forming bacterium was isolated from a mixed fruit juice. The organism, strain 3A(T), was rod-shaped, grew aerobically at 30-60 degrees C (optimum 45-50 degrees C), pH 3.0-6.0 (optimum pH 4.0-4.5) and produced acid from various sugars. It contained menaquinone-7 as the major isoprenoid quinone. The G+C content of the DNA was 53.1 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids of the strain were iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0), but omega-alicyclic fatty acids, which are characteristic of the genus Alicyclobacillus, were not found in the strain. Phylogenetic analyses based on both 16S rRNA and gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit gene) gene sequences showed that strain 3A(T) falls into the Alicyclobacillus cluster, validated by significant bootstrap values. However, strain 3A(T) did not show a close relationship to the other species of the cluster. The level of 16S rDNA similarity between strain 3A(T) and other strains of the cluster was between 92.5 and 95.5 %. The level of gyrB sequence similarity between strain 3A(T) and other strains of the cluster was between 68.5 and 74.4 %. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain 3A(T) and phylogenetically related strains of the genera Alicyclobacillus, Bacillus and Sulfobacillus were under 13 %, indicating that strain 3A(T) represents a distinct species. On the basis of these results, strain 3A(T) should be classified as a novel Alicyclobacillus species. The name Alicyclobacillus pomorum is proposed for this organism. The type strain of Alicyclobacillus pomorum is strain 3A(T) (=DSM 14955(T)=IAM 14988(T)).
( 2014 )
Comparison of environmental and isolate Sulfobacillus genomes reveals diverse carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and hydrogen metabolisms.
PMID : 25511286 : DOI : 10.1186/1471-2164-15-1107 PMC : PMC4378227
Bacteria of the genus Sulfobacillus are found worldwide as members of microbial communities that accelerate sulfide mineral dissolution in acid mine drainage environments (AMD), acid-rock drainage environments (ARD), as well as in industrial bioleaching operations. Despite their frequent identification in these environments, their role in biogeochemical cycling is poorly understood. Here we report draft genomes of five species of the Sulfobacillus genus (AMDSBA1-5) reconstructed by cultivation-independent sequencing of biofilms sampled from the Richmond Mine (Iron Mountain, CA). Three of these species (AMDSBA2, AMDSBA3, and AMDSBA4) have no cultured representatives while AMDSBA1 is a strain of S. benefaciens, and AMDSBA5 a strain of S. thermosulfidooxidans. We analyzed the diversity of energy conservation and central carbon metabolisms for these genomes and previously published Sulfobacillus genomes. Pathways of sulfur oxidation vary considerably across the genus, including the number and type of subunits of putative heterodisulfide reductase complexes likely involved in sulfur oxidation. The number and type of nickel-iron hydrogenase proteins varied across the genus, as does the presence of different central carbon pathways. Only the AMDSBA3 genome encodes a dissimilatory nitrate reducatase and only the AMDSBA5 and S. thermosulfidooxidans genomes encode assimilatory nitrate reductases. Within the genus, AMDSBA4 is unusual in that its electron transport chain includes a cytochrome bc type complex, a unique cytochrome c oxidase, and two distinct succinate dehydrogenase complexes. Overall, the results significantly expand our understanding of carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and hydrogen metabolism within the Sulfobacillus genus.