( 2014 )
Genotypic and phenotypic applications for the differentiation and species-level identification of achromobacter for clinical diagnoses.
PMID : 25474264 : DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0114356 PMC : PMC4256396
The Achromobacter is a genus in the family Alcaligenaceae, comprising fifteen species isolated from different sources, including clinical samples. The ability to detect and correctly identify Achromobacter species, particularly A. xylosoxidans, and differentiate them from other phenotypically similar and genotypically related Gram-negative, aerobic, non-fermenting species is important for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), as well as for nosocomial and other opportunistic infections. Traditional phenotypic profile-based analyses have been demonstrated to be inadequate for reliable identifications of isolates of Achromobacter species and genotypic-based assays, relying upon comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses are not able to insure definitive identifications of Achromobacter species, due to the inherently conserved nature of the gene. The uses of alternative methodologies to enable high-resolution differentiation between the species in the genus are needed. A comparative multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) of four selected 'house-keeping' genes (atpD, gyrB, recA, and rpoB) assessed the individual gene sequences for their potential in developing a reliable, rapid and cost-effective diagnostic protocol for Achromobacter species identifications. The analysis of the type strains of the species of the genus and 46 strains of Achromobacter species showed congruence between the cluster analyses derived from the individual genes. The MLSA gene sequences exhibited different levels of resolution in delineating the validly published Achromobacter species and elucidated strains that represent new genotypes and probable new species of the genus. Our results also suggested that the recently described A. spritinus is a later heterotypic synonym of A. marplatensis. Strains were analyzed, using whole-cell Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), as an alternative phenotypic profile-based method with the potential to support the identifications determined by the genotypic DNA sequence-based MLSA. The MALDI-TOF MS data showed good accordance in strain groupings and identifications by the MLSA data.
( 2012 )
Multilocus sequence analysis of isolates of Achromobacter from patients with cystic fibrosis reveals infecting species other than Achromobacter xylosoxidans.
PMID : 22675125 : DOI : 10.1128/JCM.00728-12 PMC : PMC3421494
A multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme was developed for characterization of strains and species from the genus Achromobacter, which are increasingly recovered from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Five conserved housekeeping genes were selected for the MLSA, which was applied to a diverse collection of 77 strains originating from Europe, Asia, and South America and including type strains of the seven recognized Achromobacter species, six environmental strains, eight non-CF clinical strains, and 56 CF clinical strains. The discriminatory power of MLSA, based on 2,098 nucleotides (nt), was much superior to a 16S rRNA gene comparison based on 1,309 nt. Congruence was observed between single-gene trees and a concatenated gene tree. MLSA differentiated all seven current Achromobacter species and also demonstrated the presence of at least four novel potential species within the genus. CF isolates were predominantly Achromobacter xylosoxidans (64%), an undescribed Achromobacter species (18%), and Achromobacter ruhlandii (7%). A clone of Achromobacter, which has spread among patients from Danish CF centers in Aarhus and Copenhagen, was identified as Achromobacter ruhlandii. MLSA facilitates the specific identification of isolates of Achromobacter necessary for describing their role in clinical infections.