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1. Ishida  T, Sugano  Y, Nakai  T, Shoda  M,     ( 2002 )

Effects of acetan on production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum.

Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry 66 (8)
PMID : 12353627  :   DOI  :   10.1271/bbb.66.1677    
Abstract >>
Acetan is a water-soluble polysaccharide produced by a bacterial cellulose (BC) producer, Acetobacter xylinum. An acetan-nonproducing mutant, EP1, was generated from wild-type A. xylinum BPR2001 by the disruption of aceA, which may act to catalyze the first step of the acetan biosynthetic pathway in this bacterium. EP1 produced less BC than the wild-type strain. However, when EP1 was cultured in a medium containing acetan, BC production was stimulated and the final yield of BC was equivalent to that of BPR2001. The culture broth containing acetan was more viscous and the free cell number was higher than that of the broth without the polysaccharide, so acetan may hinder the coagulation of BC in the broth. The addition of 1.5 g/l agar also increased BC production; we concluded that acetan and BC syntheses were not directly related on the genetic level.
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2. Ishida  T, Sugano  Y, Shoda  M,     ( 2002 )

Novel glycosyltransferase genes involved in the acetan biosynthesis of Acetobacter xylinum.

Biochemical and biophysical research communications 295 (2)
PMID : 12150936  :   DOI  :   10.1016/s0006-291x(02)00663-0    
Abstract >>
Novel aceQ and aceR genes involved in the acetan biosynthesis of Acetobacter xylinum were newly isolated. The homology search with DNA Data Bank of Japan indicated that aceQ and aceR were glycosyltransferases. Their gene-disrupted mutants were obtained by homologous recombination using the tetracycline resistance gene and the electroporation method. By NMR and ESI-MS analyses, aceQ-disrupted mutant DQ was found to secrete a water-soluble polysaccharide harboring the -Man-GlcUA side chain and the aceR-disrupted mutant DR was found to secrete an acetan analog, lacking the terminal Rha residue. These results suggested that aceQ and aceR encode a glucosyltransferase and a rhamnosyltransferase, respectively. It was indicated that acetan analogs harboring various side chains can be generated easily by genetic engineering.
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3. Shigematsu  T, Takamine  K, Kitazato  M, Morita  T, Naritomi  T, Morimura  S, Kida  K,     ( 2005 )

Cellulose production from glucose using a glucose dehydrogenase gene (gdh)-deficient mutant of Gluconacetobacter xylinus and its use for bioconversion of sweet potato pulp.

Journal of bioscience and bioengineering 99 (4)
PMID : 16233811  :   DOI  :   10.1263/jbb.99.415    
Abstract >>
A gene fragment encoding a putative pyrroloquinoline quinone glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ GDH) was cloned from a bacterial cellulose (BC)-forming acetic acid bacterium, Gluconacetobacter xylinus (=Acetobacter xylinum) strain BPR 2001, which was isolated as a high BC producer when using fructose as the carbon source. A GDH-deficient mutant of strain BPR 2001, namely GD-I, was then generated via gene disruption using the cloned gene fragment. Strain GD-I produced no gluconic acid but produced 4.1 g.l(-1) of BC aerobically in medium containing glucose as the carbon source. The ability of strain GD-I to convert glucose to BC was approximately 1.7-fold higher than that of the wild type. Strain GD-I was also able to produce 5.0 g.l(-1) of BC from a saccharified solution, which was derived from sweet potato pulp by enzymatic saccharification. Supplementation of ethanol during aerobic cultivation further increased the concentration of BC produced by strain GD-I to 7.0 g.l(-1). The rate of conversion from glucose to BC under these cultivation conditions was equivalent to that of strain BPR 2001 cultivated with fructose as the carbon source.
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4.     ( 1997 )

A beta-glucosidase gene downstream of the cellulose synthase operon in cellulose-producing Acetobacter.

Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry 61 (10)
PMID : 9362130  :   DOI  :   10.1271/bbb.61.1789    
Abstract >>
An open reading frame was found 214 bp downstream of the cellulose synthase operon of Acetobacter. The encoded amino acid sequence was found to be similar to some beta-glucosidases (G3ases). We detected G3ase activity in the culture medium and analysis of the N-terminal amino acid sequence showed that this gene encodes the enzyme. Therefore, it is possible that this region is a gene cluster for cellulose synthesis.
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5.     ( 1998 )

Control of expression by the cellulose synthase (bcsA) promoter region from Acetobacter xylinum BPR 2001.

Gene 213 (1��2��)
PMID : 9630539  :   DOI  :   10.1016/s0378-1119(98)00191-7    
Abstract >>
The 5' upstream region (about 3.1kb) of the cellulose synthase operon (bcs operon) has been isolated by cloning from Acetobacter xylinum strain BPR 2001. The expression level of the upstream region was determined using sucrose synthase cDNA as a reporter gene in the shuttle vector pSA19. The expression occurred with the 1.1-kb upstream sequence from the ATG start codon of the bcs operon but not with the 241-bp upstream sequence in A. xylinum, although neither the 1.1-kb nor the 241-bp upstream sequence caused any expression as a promoter in Escherichia coli. The level of expression with the 1. 1-kb upstream sequence in A. aceti was 75% of that in A. xylinum. These results suggest that the upstream region functions as a specific promoter for the Acetobacter genus. The expression was reduced by the introduction of the 241-bp upstream region between the lac promoter and the reporter gene in E. coli and was not detected in A. xylinum. This suggests that the short upstream region composed of 241bp contains the site(s) which causes a negative regulation on the transcription for bcs operon. The production of recombinant protein with the ribosome-binding site (RBS) of A. xylinum obtained from the bcs operon, was reduced to about half in E. coli, and that with the site of the lac promoter was also reduced to about half in A. xylinum. This shows that a species-specific predominance occurs during interaction between mRNA and 16S rRNA in the RBS between A. xylinum and E. coli.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Arabidopsis Proteins
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial

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