( 1986 )
Tetanus toxin: primary structure, expression in E. coli, and homology with botulinum toxins.
PMID : 3536478 : PMC : PMC1167145
A pool of synthetic oligonucleotides was used to identify the gene encoding tetanus toxin on a 75-kbp plasmid from a toxigenic non-sporulating strain of Clostridium tetani. The nucleotide sequence contained a single open reading frame coding for 1315 amino acids corresponding to a polypeptide with a mol. wt of 150,700. In the mature toxin molecule, proline (2) and serine (458) formed the N termini of the 52,288 mol. wt light chain and the 98,300 mol. wt heavy chain, respectively. Cysteine (467) was involved in the disulfide linkage between the two subchains. The amino acid sequences of the tetanus toxin revealed striking homologies with the partial amino acid sequences of botulinum toxins A, B, and E, indicating that the neurotoxins from C. tetani and C. botulinum are derived from a common ancestral gene. Overlapping peptides together covering the entire tetanus toxin molecule were synthesized in Escherichia coli and identified by monoclonal antibodies. The promoter of the toxin gene was localized in a region extending 322 bp upstream from the ATG codon and was shown to be functional in E. coli.
( N/A )
Identification of methionine �^-lyase in genomes of some pathogenic bacteria.
PMID : 22941100 : DOI : 10.1134/S1607672912040023
( 1998 )
TetR is a positive regulator of the tetanus toxin gene in Clostridium tetani and is homologous to botR.
PMID : 9826344 : PMC : PMC108720
The TetR gene immediately upstream from the tetanus toxin (TeTx) gene was characterized. It encodes a 21,562-Da protein which is related (50 to 65% identity) to the equivalent genes (botR) in Clostridium botulinum. TetR has the feature of a DNA binding protein with a basic pI (9.53). It contains a helix-turn-helix motif and shows 29% identity with other putative regulatory genes in Clostridium, i.e., uviA from C. perfringens and txeR from C. difficile. We report for the first time the transformation of C. tetani by electroporation, which permitted us to investigate the function of tetR. Overexpression of tetR in C. tetani induced an increase in TeTx production and in the level of the corresponding mRNA. This indicates that TetR is a transcriptional activator of the TeTx gene. Overexpression of botR/A (60% identity with TetR at the amino acid level) in C. tetani induced an increase in TeTx production comparable to that for overexpression of tetR. However, botR/C (50% identity with TetR at the amino acid level) was less efficient. This supports that TetR positively regulates the TeTx gene in C. tetani and that a conserved mechanism of regulation of the neurotoxin genes is involved in C. tetani and C. botulinum.