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1. Hung  WC, Tseng  SP, Chen  HJ, Tsai  JC, Chang  CH, Lee  TF, Hsueh  PR, Teng  LJ,     ( 2010 )

Use of groESL as a target for identification of Abiotrophia, Granulicatella, and Gemella species.

Journal of clinical microbiology 48 (10)
PMID : 20686088  :   DOI  :   10.1128/JCM.00787-10     PMC  :   PMC2953133    
Abstract >>
We determined the groESL sequences of three species of nutritionally variant streptococci (Abiotrophia defectiva, Granulicatella adiacens, and Granulicatella elegans) and three Gemella species (Gemella morbillorum, Gemella haemolysans, and Gemella sanguinis). The nucleotide sequence similarities between the groES and groEL genes of the above genera were 41.7 to 85.9% and 63.7 to 84.3%, respectively. The intraspecies similarities of groESL sequences for the isolates of Abiotrophia and Granulicatella species were 94.4 to 97.8% for groES and 94.0 to 98.2% for groEL. For Ge. morbillorum and Ge. sanguinis, all strains showed the same groESL spacer length (8 bp), and sequence identities within species were >97.8% for groES and >96.1% for groEL. However, higher intraspecies heterogeneity was observed in Ge. haemolysans. Phylogenetic analysis of groEL sequences separated the 6 isolates of Ge. haemolysans into two subgroups. Among these isolates, three isolates with the same groESL spacer region length (45 bp) clustered together but were distant from the ATCC reference strain (with a spacer length of 8 bp). The remaining three isolates, with a spacer length of 50 or 8 bp, clustered together. Although 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis did not provide enough discrimination for the 6 Ge. haemolysans isolates, rpoB gene sequence analysis supported the subgrouping. Based on the obtained groESL sequences, we developed a multiplex PCR that enables simple, rapid, and accurate identification of Abiotrophia, Granulicatella, and Gemella at the genus level. This assay would be helpful for identifying these fastidious and slow-growing organisms in clinical laboratories.
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2. Hung  WC, Chen  HJ, Tsai  JC, Tseng  SP, Lee  TF, Hsueh  PR, Shieh  WY, Teng  LJ,     ( 2014 )

Gemella parahaemolysans sp. nov. and Gemella taiwanensis sp. nov., isolated from human clinical specimens.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 64 (Pt 6)
PMID : 24664577  :   DOI  :   10.1099/ijs.0.052795-0     DOI  :   10.1099/ijs.0.052795-0    
Abstract >>
Four Gram-staining-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid isolates, designated NTUH_1465(T), NTUH_2196, NTUH_4957 and NTUH_5572(T), were isolated from human specimens. The four isolates displayed more than 99.6% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Gemella haemolysans ATCC 10379(T), and 96.7 to 98.6% similarity with Gemella sanguinis ATCC 700632(T), Gemella morbillorum ATCC 27824(T) or Gemella cuniculi CCUG 42726(T). However, phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of three housekeeping genes, groEL, rpoB and recA, suggested that the four isolates were distinct from G. haemolysans ATCC 10379(T) and other species. Isolates NTUH_2196, NTUH_4957 and NTUH_5572(T) clustered together and formed a stable monophyletic clade. DNA-DNA hybridization values among strains NTUH_1465(T) and NTUH_5572(T) and their phylogenetically related neighbours were all lower than 49%. The four isolates could be distinguished from G. haemolysans and other species by phenotypic characteristics. Based on the phylogenetic and phenotypic results, two novel species Gemella parahaemolysans sp. nov. (type strain NTUH_1465(T) = BCRC 80365(T) = JCM 18067(T)) and Gemella taiwanensis sp. nov. (type strain NTUH_5572(T) = BCRC 80366(T) = JCM 18066(T)) are proposed.
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