( 2007 )
Degradation of alkyl methyl ketones by Pseudomonas veronii MEK700.
PMID : 17351032 : DOI : 10.1128/JB.01279-06 PMC : PMC1913341
Pseudomonas veronii MEK700 was isolated from a biotrickling filter cleaning 2-butanone-loaded waste air. The strain is able to grow on 2-butanone and 2-hexanol. The genes for degradation of short chain alkyl methyl ketones were identified by transposon mutagenesis using a newly designed transposon, mini-Tn5495, and cloned in Escherichia coli. DNA sequence analysis of a 15-kb fragment revealed three genes involved in methyl ketone degradation. The deduced amino acid sequence of the first gene, mekA, had high similarity to Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases; the protein of the second gene, mekB, had similarity to homoserine acetyltransferases; the third gene, mekR, encoded a putative transcriptional activator of the AraC/XylS family. The three genes were located between two gene groups: one comprising a putative phosphoenolpyruvate synthase and glycogen synthase, and the other eight genes for the subunits of an ATPase. Inactivation of mekA and mekB by insertion of the mini-transposon abolished growth of P. veronii MEK700 on 2-butanone and 2-hexanol. The involvement of mekR in methyl ketone degradation was observed by heterologous expression of mekA and mekB in Pseudomonas putida. A fragment containing mekA and mekB on a plasmid was not sufficient to allow P. putida KT2440 to grow on 2-butanone. Not until all three genes were assembled in the recombinant P. putida was it able to use 2-butanone as carbon source. The Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase activity of MekA was clearly demonstrated by incubating a mekB transposon insertion mutant of P. veronii with 2-butanone. Hereby, ethyl acetate was accumulated. To our knowledge, this is the first time that ethyl acetate by gas chromatographic analysis has been definitely demonstrated to be an intermediate of MEK degradation. The mekB-encoded protein was heterologously expressed in E. coli and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The protein exhibited high esterase activity towards short chain esters like ethyl acetate and 4-nitrophenyl acetate.
Ait Tayeb L,
( N/A )
Molecular phylogeny of the genus Pseudomonas based on rpoB sequences and application for the identification of isolates.
PMID : 15950132 : DOI : 10.1016/j.resmic.2005.02.009
Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Pseudomonas were examined by comparing partial (about 1000 nucleotides) rpoB gene sequences. A total of 186 strains belonging to 75 species of Pseudomonas sensu stricto and related species were studied. The phylogenetic resolution of the rpoB tree was approximately three times higher than that of the rrs tree. Ribogroups published earlier correlated well with rpoB sequence clusters. The rpoB sequence database generated by this study was used for identification. A total of 89 isolates (79.5%) were identified to a named species, while 16 isolates (14.3%) corresponded to unnamed species, and 7 isolates (6.2%) had uncertain affiliation. rpoB sequencing is now being used for routine identification of Pseudomonas isolates in our laboratory.
( 2006 )
Alternative primer sets for PCR detection of genotypes involved in bacterial aerobic BTEX degradation: distribution of the genes in BTEX degrading isolates and in subsurface soils of a BTEX contaminated industrial site.
PMID : 15949858 : DOI : 10.1016/j.mimet.2005.04.018
Eight new primer sets were designed for PCR detection of (i) mono-oxygenase and dioxygenase gene sequences involved in initial attack of bacterial aerobic BTEX degradation and of (ii) catechol 2,3-dioxygenase gene sequences responsible for meta-cleavage of the aromatic ring. The new primer sets allowed detection of the corresponding genotypes in soil with a detection limit of 10(3)-10(4) or 10(5)-10(6) gene copies g(-1) soil, assuming one copy of the gene per cell. The primer sets were used in PCR to assess the distribution of the catabolic genes in BTEX degrading bacterial strains and DNA extracts isolated from soils sampled from different locations and depths (vadose, capillary fringe and saturated zone) within a BTEX contaminated site. In both soil DNA and the isolates, tmoA-, xylM- and xylE1-like genes were the most frequently recovered BTEX catabolic genes. xylM and xylE1 were only recovered from material from the contaminated samples while tmoA was detected in material from both the contaminated and non-contaminated samples. The isolates, mainly obtained from the contaminated locations, belonged to the Actinobacteria or Proteobacteria (mainly Pseudomonas). The ability to degrade benzene was the most common BTEX degradation phenotype among them and its distribution was largely congruent with the distribution of the tmoA-like genotype. The presence of tmoA and xylM genes in phylogenetically distant strains indicated the occurrence of horizontal transfer of BTEX catabolic genes in the aquifer. Overall, these results show spatial variation in the composition of the BTEX degradation genes and hence in the type of BTEX degradation activity and pathway, at the examined site. They indicate that bacteria carrying specific pathways and primarily carrying tmoA/xylM/xylE1 genotypes, are being selected upon BTEX contamination.
( 2004 )
Microorganisms degrading chlorobenzene via a meta-cleavage pathway harbor highly similar chlorocatechol 2,3-dioxygenase-encoding gene clusters.
PMID : 15340793 : DOI : 10.1007/s00203-004-0681-5
Pseudomonas putida GJ31 harbors a degradative pathway for chlorobenzene via meta-cleavage of 3-chlorocatechol. Pseudomonads using this route for chlorobenzene degradation, which was previously thought to be generally unproductive, were isolated from various contaminated environments of distant locations. The new isolates, Pseudomonas fluorescens SK1 (DSM16274), Pseudomonas veronii 16-6A (DSM16273), Pseudomonas sp. strain MG61 (DSM16272), harbor a chlorocatechol 2,3-dioxygenase (CbzE). The cbzE-like genes were cloned, sequenced, and expressed from the isolates and a mixed culture. The chlorocatechol 2,3-dioxygenases shared 97% identical amino acids with CbzE from strain GJ31, forming a distinct family of catechol 2,3-dioxygenases. The chlorocatechol 2,3-dioxygenase, purified from chlorobenzene-grown cells of strain SK1, showed an identical N-terminal sequence with the amino acid sequence deduced from cloned cbzE. In all investigated chlorobenzene-degrading strains, cbzT-like genes encoding ferredoxins are located upstream of cbzE. The sequence data indicate that the ferredoxins are identical (one amino acid difference in CbzT of strain 16-6A compared to the others). In addition, the structure of the operon downstream of cbzE is identical in strains GJ31, 16-6A, and SK1 with genes cbzX (unknown function) and the known part of cbzG (2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase) and share 100% nucleotide sequence identity with the entire downstream region. The current study suggests that meta-cleavage of 3-chlorocatechol is not an atypical pathway for the degradation of chlorobenzene.
De Vos P,
( 2016 )
Description of Pseudomonas gregormendelii sp. nov., a Novel Psychrotrophic Bacterium from James Ross Island, Antarctica.
PMID : 27032403 : DOI : 10.1007/s00284-016-1029-5
During the microbiological research performed within the scope of activities of Czech expeditions based at the Johann Gregor Mendel Station at James Ross Island, Antarctica, two psychrotrophic gram-stain negative non-fluorescent strains CCM 8506T and CCM 8507 from soil were extensively characterized using genotypic and phenotypic methods. Initial characterization using ribotyping with HindIII restriction endonuclease and phenotyping implies that both isolates belong to a single Pseudomonas species. Sequencing of rrs, rpoB, rpoD and glnA genes of strain CCM 8506(T) confirmed affiliation of investigated strains within the genus Pseudomonas. Further investigation using automated ribotyping with EcoRI (RiboPrinter(?) Microbial Characterisation System), whole-cell protein profiling using the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer system, extensive biochemical testing and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed that both investigated strains are members of a single taxon which is clearly separated from all hitherto described Pseudomonas spp. Based on all findings, we describe a novel species Pseudomonas gregormendelii sp. nov. with the type strain CCM 8506(T) (=LMG 28632T).
( 2016 )
A novel esterase subfamily with �\/�]-hydrolase fold suggested by structures of two bacterial enzymes homologous to L-homoserine O-acetyl transferases.
PMID : 26787467 : DOI : 10.1002/1873-3468.12031
MekB from Pseudomonas veronii and CgHle from Corynebacteriumglutamicum belong to the superfamily of �\/�]-hydrolase fold proteins. Based on sequence comparisons, they are annotated as homoserine transacetylases in popular databases like UNIPROT, PFAM or ESTHER. However, experimentally, MekB and CgHle were shown to be esterases that hydrolyse preferentially acetic acid esters. We describe the x-ray structures of these enzymes solved to high resolution. The overall structures confirm the close relatedness to experimentally validated homoserine acetyl transferases, but simultaneously the structures exclude the ability of MekB and CgHle to bind homoserine and acetyl-CoA. Insofar the MekB and CgHle structures suggest dividing the homoserine transacetylase family into subfamilies, namely genuine acetyl transferases and acetyl esterases with MekB and CgHle as constituting members of the latter.
( 2015 )
Pseudomonads Rule Degradation of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons in Aerated Sediment.
PMID : 26635740 : DOI : 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01268 PMC : PMC4652016
Given that the degradation of aromatic pollutants in anaerobic environments such as sediment is generally very slow, aeration could be an efficient bioremediation option. Using stable isotope probing (SIP) coupled with pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes, we identified naphthalene-utilizing populations in aerated polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-polluted sediment. The results showed that naphthalene was metabolized at both 10 and 20�XC following oxygen delivery, with increased degradation at 20�XC as compared to 10�XC-a temperature more similar to that found in situ. Naphthalene-derived (13)C was primarily assimilated by pseudomonads. Additionally, Stenotrophomonas, Acidovorax, Comamonas, and other minor taxa were determined to incorporate (13)C throughout the measured time course. The majority of SIP-detected bacteria were also isolated in pure cultures, which facilitated more reliable identification of naphthalene-utilizing populations as well as proper differentiation between primary consumers and cross-feeders. The pseudomonads acquiring the majority of carbon were identified as Pseudomonas veronii and Pseudomonas gessardii. Stenotrophomonads and Acidovorax defluvii, however, were identified as cross-feeders unable to directly utilize naphthalene as a growth substrate. PAH degradation assays with the isolated bacteria revealed that all pseudomonads as well as Comamonas testosteroni degraded acenaphthene, fluorene, and phenanthrene in addition to naphthalene. Furthermore, P. veronii and C. testosteroni were capable of transforming anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Screening of isolates for naphthalene dioxygenase genes using a set of in-house designed primers for Gram-negative bacteria revealed the presence of such genes in pseudomonads and C. testosteroni. Overall, our results indicated an apparent dominance of pseudomonads in the sequestration of carbon from naphthalene and potential degradation of other PAHs upon aeration of the sediment at both 20 and 10�XC.
( 2014 )
Tracking the blue: a MLST approach to characterise the Pseudomonas fluorescens group.
PMID : 24387861 : DOI : 10.1016/j.fm.2013.11.012
The Pseudomonas fluorescens group comprises several closely related species that are involved in food contamination and spoilage. Specifically, the interest in P. fluorescens as a spoiler of dairy products increased after the cases of "blue mozzarella" that occurred in Italy in 2010. A Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) scheme was developed and applied to characterise 136 isolates (reference strains and food borne isolates) at strain level, to reveal the genetic relationships among them and to disclose any possible genetic clustering of phenotypic markers involved in food spoilage (protease, lipase, lecithinase activities and pigmented or fluorescent molecule production). The production of dark blue diffusible pigment was evaluated on several bacterial culture media and directly on mozzarella cheese. The MLST scheme provided precise genotyping at the strain level, and the population analyses of the concatenated sequences allowed major taxa to be defined. This approach was revealed to be suitable for tracking the strains according to their origin, such as dairy plants or food matrices. The genetic analysis revealed the presence of a connection between the blue pigment production and a specific phylogenetic cluster. The development of the online database specific to the P. fluorescens group (http://pubmlst.org/pfluorescens) will facilitate the application of the scheme and the sharing of the data.
( 2012 )
Diversity and antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas spp. from drinking water.
PMID : 22521167 : DOI : 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.03.046
Pseudomonas spp. are common inhabitants of aquatic environments, including drinking water. Multi-antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa is widely reported and deeply characterized. However, the information regarding other species and environmental isolates of this genus is scant. This study was designed based on the hypothesis that members of the genus Pseudomonas given their high prevalence, wide distribution in waters and genetic plasticity can be important reservoirs of antibiotic resistance in drinking water. With this aim, the diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of Pseudomonas isolated from different drinking water sources were evaluated. The genotypic diversity analyses were based on six housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, rpoD, rpoB, gyrB, recA and ITS) and on pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Susceptibility to 21 antibiotics of eight classes was tested using the ATB PSE EU (08) and disk diffusion methods. Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from 14 of the 32 sampled sites. A total of 55 non-repetitive isolates were affiliated to twenty species. Although the same species were isolated from different sampling sites, identical genotypes were never observed in distinct types of water (water treatment plant/distribution system, tap water, cup fillers, biofilm, and mineral water). In general, the prevalence of antibiotic resistance was low and often the resistance patterns were related with the species and/or the strain genotype. Resistance to ticarcillin, ticarcillin with clavulanic acid, fosfomycin and cotrimoxazol were the most prevalent (69-84%). No resistance to piperacillin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, imipenem or meropenem was observed. This study demonstrates that Pseudomonas spp. are not so widespread in drinking water as commonly assumed. Nevertheless, it suggests that water Pseudomonas can spread acquired antibiotic resistance, preferentially via vertical transmission.
( 2012 )
Prokaryotic taxonomy in the sequencing era--the polyphasic approach revisited.
PMID : 22040009 : DOI : 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02615.x
The ultimate goal of taxonomy is to establish a system that mirrors the 'order in nature'. In prokaryote microbiology, almost all taxonomic concepts try to mirror the whole evolutionary order back to the origin of life with the cell as basic unit. The introduction of the 16S rRNA gene as molecular marker allowed for the first time the creation of a hierarchical taxonomic system based on one practical molecular marker. With the development of new and rapid sequencing technologies a wealth of new data can and will be used for critical evaluation of the taxonomic system. Comprehensive analyses of other molecular markers as well as total or partial genome comparisons confirmed the 16S rRNA based hierarchical system as 'backbone of prokaryote taxonomy' at least at the genus level and above. A tendency is visible to classify novel taxa more and more based on the genotype, i.e. comparative analyses of 16S rRNA and/or other gene sequence data (in multilocus sequence analysis, MLSA) at the genus and the species level, sometimes contrary to the indications of other (often phenotypic) data. The understanding of all the information behind these data is lagging far behind their accumulation. Genes and genomes do not function on its own and can only display their potential within the cell as the basic unit of evolution (and hence taxonomy). It is the phenotype and the natural selection that 'drive' evolution in a given environment. In this context, the 'polyphasic taxonomic approach' should be revisited again, taking into account the novel insights into genomes and other 'omic' sciences in a more strict and detailed context with the phenotype. This approach allows a more holistic view and provides a sound basis for describing the diversity of prokaryotes and has the potential to become the foundation of a more stable, in-depth taxonomy of the prokaryotes.
( 2013 )
Evaluation of oprI and oprL genes as molecular markers for the genus Pseudomonas and their use in studying the biodiversity of a small Belgian River.
PMID : 23246592 : DOI : 10.1016/j.resmic.2012.12.001
A multiplex PCR based on oprI and oprL, coding for the outer membrane lipoprotein I and the peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein OprL, respectively, was developed for the detection of Pseudomonas strains from a bacterial collection isolated from a small river. To study the diversity of these Pseudomonas isolates, an oprI-oprL gene sequence database of 94 Pseudomonas type strains was constructed. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated oprI and oprL gene sequences of the Pseudomonas type strains showed that they were largely congruent with the classification based on the MLSA approach based on 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD gene sequences of Mulet et al. in 2010. Identification of the isolates demonstrated a high diversity of Pseudomonas isolates at the source of the river located in a forest of which most isolates belonged to the Pseudomonas fluorescens lineage. On the other hand, the Pseudomonas population isolated at an anthropized site at the mouth of the river, receiving waste water from both households and industry, was very different and contained many Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates.