( 1997 )
The presence of a dnaK (HSP70) multigene family in members of the orders Planctomycetales and Verrucomicrobiales.
PMID : 9335284 : DOI : 10.1128/jb.179.20.6360-6366.1997 PMC : PMC179551
Sequences of the dnaK gene, coding for the 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), were determined for six members of the order Planctomycetales, including representatives of three genera, and for the only cultivated member of the order Verrucomicrobiales, Verrucomicrobium spinosum. A fragment of the dnaK gene was amplified from these strains by PCR with oligonucleotide primers targeting regions of the dnaK gene that are conserved at the amino acid level, and the resulting PCR products were cloned into a plasmid vector. Sequence analysis of the cloned dnaK fragments revealed the presence of two different types of dnaK sequence in one of the planctomycete strains, Planctomyces maris, and in V. spinosum. Only one type of dnaK sequence was found for each of the remaining strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial sequence data suggested that the majority of planctomycete strains, including one of the Planctomyces maris sequences, form a coherent phylogenetic group branching adjacent to other main lines of descent within the domain Bacteria, as has been shown previously by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. One of the two V. spinosum dnaK sequences also appears to constitute a separate lineage within the gram-negative bacteria. Each of the remaining sequences from P. maris and V. spinosum, together with the single sequence obtained from Planctomyces limnophilus, appeared to be unrelated to the other planctomycete sequences and to occupy a position distant from that of other gram-negative bacteria. The phylogenetic diversity of dnaK sequences exhibited by P. maris and V. spinosum was comparable to that found in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC7942 and Escherichia coli, the only other prokaryotes for which a dnaK multigene family has been demonstrated.
( 2018 )
A standardized bacterial taxonomy based on genome phylogeny substantially revises the tree of life.
PMID : 30148503 : DOI : 10.1038/nbt.4229
Taxonomy is an organizing principle of biology and is ideally based on evolutionary relationships among organisms. Development of a robust bacterial taxonomy has been hindered by an inability to obtain most bacteria in pure culture and, to a lesser extent, by the historical use of phenotypes to guide classification. Culture-independent sequencing technologies have matured sufficiently that a comprehensive genome-based taxonomy is now possible. We used a concatenated protein phylogeny as the basis for a bacterial taxonomy that conservatively removes polyphyletic groups and normalizes taxonomic ranks on the basis of relative evolutionary divergence. Under this approach, 58% of the 94,759 genomes comprising the Genome Taxonomy Database had changes to their existing taxonomy. This result includes the description of 99 phyla, including six major monophyletic units from the subdivision of the Proteobacteria, and amalgamation of the Candidate Phyla Radiation into a single phylum. Our taxonomy should enable improved classification of uncultured bacteria and provide a sound basis for ecological and evolutionary studies.