( 2006 )
Molecular nature of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus derived from explosive nosocomial outbreaks of the 1980s in Japan.
PMID : 16580669 : DOI : 10.1016/j.febslet.2006.03.049
Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) with Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes is increasing worldwide. Nosocomial outbreak-derived (hospital-acquired) MRSA (HA-MRSA) in Japan in the 1980s was also largely PVL(+). PVL(+) HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA shared the same multi-locus sequence type (ST30) and methicillin resistance cassette (SCCmecIV), but were divergent in oxacillin resistance, spa typing, PFGE analysis or clfA gene analysis. PVL(+) HA-MRSA, which probably originated in PVL(+)S. aureus ST30, was highly adhesive (carrying cna and bbp genes), highly-toxic (carrying luk(PV) and sea genes) and highly drug-resistant. PVL(+) HA-MRSA was once replaced by other PVL(-) HA-MRSA (e.g., ST5), and is re-emerging as CA-MRSA.
Gueneau de Novoa P,
( 2004 )
The tmRNA website: reductive evolution of tmRNA in plastids and other endosymbionts.
PMID : 14681369 : DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkh102 PMC : PMC308836
tmRNA combines tRNA- and mRNA-like properties and ameliorates problems arising from stalled ribosomes. Research on the mechanism, structure and biology of tmRNA is served by the tmRNA website (http://www.indiana.edu/~ tmrna), a collection of sequences, alignments, secondary structures and other information. Because many of these sequences are not in GenBank, a BLAST server has been added; another new feature is an abbreviated alignment for the tRNA-like domain only. Many tmRNA sequences from plastids have been added, five found in public sequence data and another 10 generated by direct sequencing; detection in early-branching members of the green plastid lineage brings coverage to all three primary plastid lineages. The new sequences include the shortest known tmRNA sequence. While bacterial tmRNAs usually have a lone pseudoknot upstream of the mRNA segment and a string of three or four pseudoknots downstream, plastid tmRNAs collectively show loss of pseudoknots at both postions. The pseudoknot-string region is also too short to contain the usual pseudoknot number in another new entry, the tmRNA sequence from a bacterial endosymbiont of insect cells, Tremblaya princeps. Pseudoknots may optimize tmRNA function in free-living bacteria, yet become dispensible when the endosymbiotic lifestyle relaxes selective pressure for fast growth.
( 2010 )
Characterisation of Australian MRSA strains ST75- and ST883-MRSA-IV and analysis of their accessory gene regulator locus.
PMID : 21103340 : DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0014025 PMC : PMC2984443
Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus have become a major problem in Australia. These strains have now been isolated throughout Australia including remote Indigenous communities that have had minimal exposure to healthcare facilities. Some of these strains, belonging to sequence types ST75 and ST883, have previously been reported to harbour highly divergent alleles of the housekeeping genes used in multilocus sequence typing. ST75-MRSA-IV and ST883-MRSA-IV isolates were characterised in detail. Morphological features as well as 16S sequences were identical to other S. aureus strains. Although a partial rnpB gene sequence was not identical to previously known S. aureus sequences, it was found to be more closely related to S. aureus than to other staphylococci. Isolates also were screened using diagnostic DNA microarrays. These isolates yielded hybridisation results atypical for S. aureus. Primer directed amplification assays failed to detect species markers (femA, katA, sbi, spa). However, arbitrarily primed amplification indicated the presence of unknown alleles of these genes. Isolates could not be assigned to capsule types 1, 5 or 8. The allelic group of the accessory gene regulator (agr) locus was not determinable. Sequencing of a region of agrB, agrC and agrD (approximately 2,100 bp) revealed a divergent sequence. However, this sequence is more related to S. aureus agr alleles I and IV than to agr sequences from other Staphylococcus species. The predicted auto-inducing peptide (AIP) sequence of ST75 was identical to that of agr group I, while the predicted AIP sequence of ST883 was identical to agr group IV. The genetic properties of ST75/ST883-MRSA may be due to a series of evolutionary events in ancient insulated S. aureus strains including a convergent evolution leading to agr group I- or IV-like AIP sequences and a recent acquisition of SCCmec IV elements.
de Mendonça R,
( 2016 )
Low occurrence of the new species Staphylococcus argenteus in a Staphylococcus aureus collection of human isolates from Belgium.
PMID : 27044019 : DOI : 10.1007/s10096-016-2632-x
Staphylococcus argenteus is a novel Staphylococcus species closely related to Staphylococcus aureus that has been recently described. In this study, we investigated the proportion and the characteristics of S. argenteus recovered from humans in Belgium. S. aureus. human isolates collected in Belgium from 2006 to 2015 (n = 1,903) were retrospectively characterised via the presence of non-pigmented colonies on chocolate agar, spa typing and rpoB sequencing to determine if some of them were in fact S. argenteus. Out of 73 strains non-pigmented on chocolate plates, 3 isolates (0.16 %) showed rpoB sequences, in addition to spa and sequence types (ST2250/t5787, ST2250/t6675, ST3240/t6675), related to S. argenteus. Two of them were methicillin-resistant, harbouring a SCCmec type IV. The three S. argenteus isolates carried genes (sak, scn) of the immune evasion cluster. This first Belgian nationwide analysis showed a low occurrence of S. argenteus. Further studies should be conducted to identify the distribution range and the clinical impact of this new species.
( 2017 )
Prevalence and Genetic Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus argenteus Isolates Harboring Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, Enterotoxins, and TSST-1 Genes from Food Handlers in Myanmar.
PMID : 28777321 : DOI : 10.3390/toxins9080241 PMC : PMC5577575
Asymptomatic carriers of toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus are potential source of diseases, including food poisoning. Toxigenic potential and genetic traits of colonizing S. aureus were investigated for 563 healthy food handlers in Myanmar. Carriage of S. aureus was found in 110 individuals (19.5%), and a total of 144 S. aureus isolates were recovered from nasal cavities (110 isolates) and hands (34 isolates). Panton-Valentine leucocidin genes (pvl) were detected in 18 isolates (12.5%), among which 11 isolates were classified into coa-VIa, agr type III, and ST1930 (CC96) that had been also detected in pvl-positive clinical isolates in Myanmar. A pvl-positive, ST2250 nasal isolate was identified as S. argenteus, a novel coagulase-positive staphylococcus species. Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) gene was detected in five pvl-negative isolates. All of the 144 isolates harbored at least one of the 21 enterotoxin(-like) gene(s). The most prevalent enterotoxin(-like) gene was selw (98%), followed by selx (97%), sei (28%), sely (28%), sem (26%), sel (24%), and sea and sec (22% each). Considerable genetic diversity with five groups was detected for selw. The present study revealed the relatively high rate of pvl, as well as the wide distribution of enterotoxin(-like) genes among colonizing S. aureus in Myanmar.
( 2018 )
Staphylococcal food poisoning caused by Staphylococcus argenteus harboring staphylococcal enterotoxin genes.
PMID : 29112896 : DOI : 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2017.10.022
Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is caused by staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) preformed in food materials. SE genes are encoded on mobile genetic elements and are widely found across Staphylococcus species including S. argenteus, although most SFP cases are caused by S. aureus. S. argenteus, recently discriminated from S. aureus as a novel species, are non-pigmented staphylococci phenotypically related to S. aureus. In 2014 and 2015, two independent food poisoning cases occurred in Osaka, Japan, in which non-pigmented staphylococci were predominantly isolated. Several enterotoxin genes (seb, seg, sei, sem, sen, seo, and selu2) were found in their genome and the production of SEB was confirmed by reverse passive agglutination tests. The non-pigmented isolates from patients, food handlers, food, and cooking utensils all produced the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. These non-pigmented isolates were coagulase-positive and biochemically identical to S. aureus. We performed further genetic analysis using nucA sequencing and multi-locus sequence typing, and identified these isolates as S. argenteus. We also found that seb was encoded on the Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity island, while seg, sei, sem, sen, seo, and selu2 were encoded on the enterotoxin gene cluster. From these results, we concluded that the two food poisoning outbreaks were SFP cases caused by S. argenteus harboring SE genes.
( 2013 )
A novel comprehensive analysis method for Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands.
PMID : 23252668 : DOI : 10.1111/1348-0421.12007
Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) form a growing family of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in Staphylococci. Horizontal genetic transfer by MGEs plays an important role in the evolution of S. aureus. Several SaPIs carry staphylococcal enterotoxin and SE-like toxin genes. To comprehensively investigate the diversity of SaPIs, a series of primers corresponding to sequences flanking six SaPI insertion sites in S. aureus genome were designed and a long and accurate (LA)-PCR analysis method established. LA-PCR products of 13-17 kbp were observed in strains with seb, selk or selq genes. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis showed that the products have different RFLP characteristics than do previously described SaPIs; they were therefore predicted to include new SaPIs. Nucleotide sequencing analysis revealed seven novel SaPIs: seb-harboring SaPIivm10, SaPishikawa11, SaPIivm60, SaPIno10 and SaPIhirosaki4, selk and selq-harboring SaPIj11 and non-superantigen-harboring SaPIhhms2. These SaPIs have mosaic structures containing components of known SaPIs and other unknown genes. Strains carrying different SaPIs were found to have significantly different production of superantigen toxins. The present results show that the LA-PCR approach can comprehensively identify SaPI diversity and is useful for investigating the evolution of S. aureus pathogenicity.