( 2015 )
Cellulose production and cellulose synthase gene detection in acetic acid bacteria.
PMID : 25381910 : DOI : 10.1007/s00253-014-6198-1
The ability of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) to produce cellulose has gained much industrial interest due to the physical and chemical characteristics of bacterial cellulose. The production of cellulose occurs in the presence of oxygen and in a glucose-containing medium, but it can also occur during vinegar elaboration by the traditional method. The vinegar biofilm produced by AAB on the air-liquid interface is primarily composed of cellulose and maintains the cells in close contact with oxygen. In this study, we screened for the ability of AAB to produce cellulose using different carbon sources in the presence or absence of ethanol. The presence of cellulose in biofilms was confirmed using the fluorochrome Calcofluor by microscopy. Moreover, the process of biofilm formation was monitored under epifluorescence microscopy using the Live/Dead BacLight Kit. A total of 77 AAB strains belonging to 35 species of Acetobacter, Komagataeibacter, Gluconacetobacter, and Gluconobacter were analysed, and 30 strains were able to produce a cellulose biofilm in at least one condition. This cellulose production was correlated with the PCR amplification of the bcsA gene that encodes cellulose synthase. A total of eight degenerated primers were designed, resulting in one primer pair that was able to detect the presence of this gene in 27 AAB strains, 26 of which formed cellulose.
Van Landschoot A,
De Vuyst L,
( 2014 )
Gluconobacter cerevisiae sp. nov., isolated from the brewery environment.
PMID : 24368694 : DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.059311-0
Three strains, LMG 27748(T), LMG 27749 and LMG 27882 with identical MALDI-TOF mass spectra were isolated from samples taken from the brewery environment. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain LMG 27748(T) revealed that the taxon it represents was closely related to type strains of the species Gluconobacter albidus (100 % sequence similarity), Gluconobacter kondonii (99.9 %), Gluconobacter sphaericus (99.9 %) and Gluconobacter kanchanaburiensis (99.5 %). DNA-DNA hybridization experiments on the type strains of these species revealed moderate DNA relatedness values (39-65 %). The three strains used d-fructose, d-sorbitol, meso-erythritol, glycerol, l-sorbose, ethanol (weakly), sucrose and raffinose as a sole carbon source for growth (weak growth on the latter two carbon sources was obtained for strains LMG 27748(T) and LMG 27882). The strains were unable to grow on glucose-yeast extract medium at 37 �XC. They produced acid from meso-erythritol and sucrose, but not from raffinose. d-Gluconic acid, 2-keto-d-gluconic acid and 5-keto-d-gluconic acid were produced from d-glucose, but not 2,5-diketo-d-gluconic acid. These genotypic and phenotypic characteristics distinguish strains LMG 27748(T), LMG 27749 and LMG 27882 from species of the genus Gluconobacter with validly published names and, therefore, we propose classifying them formally as representatives of a novel species, Gluconobacter cerevisiae sp. nov., with LMG 27748(T) (= DSM 27644(T)) as the type strain.
( 2013 )
Rapid identification of sequences for orphan enzymes to power accurate protein annotation.
PMID : 24386392 : DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0084508 PMC : PMC3875567
The power of genome sequencing depends on the ability to understand what those genes and their proteins products actually do. The automated methods used to assign functions to putative proteins in newly sequenced organisms are limited by the size of our library of proteins with both known function and sequence. Unfortunately this library grows slowly, lagging well behind the rapid increase in novel protein sequences produced by modern genome sequencing methods. One potential source for rapidly expanding this functional library is the "back catalog" of enzymology--"orphan enzymes," those enzymes that have been characterized and yet lack any associated sequence. There are hundreds of orphan enzymes in the Enzyme Commission (EC) database alone. In this study, we demonstrate how this orphan enzyme "back catalog" is a fertile source for rapidly advancing the state of protein annotation. Starting from three orphan enzyme samples, we applied mass-spectrometry based analysis and computational methods (including sequence similarity networks, sequence and structural alignments, and operon context analysis) to rapidly identify the specific sequence for each orphan while avoiding the most time- and labor-intensive aspects of typical sequence identifications. We then used these three new sequences to more accurately predict the catalytic function of 385 previously uncharacterized or misannotated proteins. We expect that this kind of rapid sequence identification could be efficiently applied on a larger scale to make enzymology's "back catalog" another powerful tool to drive accurate genome annotation.
( 1981 )
D-fructose dehydrogenase of Gluconobacter industrius: purification, characterization, and application to enzymatic microdetermination of D-fructose.
PMID : 7462161 : PMC : PMC217184
D-Fructose dehydrogenase was solubilized and purified from the membrane fraction of glycerol-grown Gluconobacter industrius IFO 3260 by a procedure involving solubilization of the enzyme with Triton X-100 and subsequent fractionation on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose and hydroxylapatite columns. The purified enzyme was tightly bound to a c-type cytochrome and another peptide existing as a dehydrogenase-cytochrome complex. The purified enzyme was deemed pure by analytical ultracentrifugation as well as by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-200 column. The molecular weight of the enzyme complex was determined to be about 140,000, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed the presence of three components having molecular weights of 67,000 (dehydrogenase), 50,800 (cytochrome c), and 19,700 (unknown function). Only D-fructose was readily oxidized by the enzyme in the presence of dyes such as ferricyanide, 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol, or phenazine methosulfate. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, and oxygen did not function as electron acceptors. The optimum pH of D-fructose oxidation was 4.0. The enzyme was stable at pH 4.5 to 6.0 Stability of the purified enzyme was much enhanced by the presence of detergent in the enzyme solution. Removal of detergent from the enzyme solution facilitated the aggregation of the enzyme and caused its inactivation. An apparent Michaelis constant for D-fructose was observed to be 10(-2) M with the purified enzyme. D-Fructose dehydrogenase was shown to be a satisfactory reagent for microdetermination of D-fructose.
( 2013 )
Heterologous overexpression and characterization of a flavoprotein-cytochrome c complex fructose dehydrogenase of Gluconobacter japonicus NBRC3260.
PMID : 23275508 : DOI : 10.1128/AEM.03152-12 PMC : PMC3591945
A heterotrimeric flavoprotein-cytochrome c complex fructose dehydrogenase (FDH) of Gluconobacter japonicus NBRC3260 catalyzes the oxidation of d-fructose to produce 5-keto-d-fructose and is used for diagnosis and basic research purposes as a direct electron transfer-type bioelectrocatalysis. The fdhSCL genes encoding the FDH complex of G. japonicus NBRC3260 were isolated by a PCR-based gene amplification method with degenerate primers designed from the amino-terminal amino acid sequence of the large subunit and sequenced. Three open reading frames for fdhSCL encoding the small, cytochrome c, and large subunits, respectively, were found and were presumably in a polycistronic transcriptional unit. Heterologous overexpression of fdhSCL was conducted using a broad-host-range plasmid vector, pBBR1MCS-4, carrying a DNA fragment containing the putative promoter region of the membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase gene of Gluconobacter oxydans and a G. oxydans strain as the expression host. We also constructed derivatives modified in the translational initiation codon to ATG from TTG, designated (TTG)FDH and (ATG)FDH. Membranes of the cells producing recombinant (TTG)FDH and (ATG)FDH showed approximately 20 times and 100 times higher specific activity than those of G. japonicus NBRC3260, respectively. The cells producing only FdhS and FdhL had no fructose-oxidizing activity, but showed significantly high d-fructose:ferricyanide oxidoreductase activity in the soluble fraction of cell extracts, whereas the cells producing the FDH complex showed activity in the membrane fraction. It is reasonable to conclude that the cytochrome c subunit is responsible not only for membrane anchoring but also for ubiquinone reduction.