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1. Jiang  X, Hall  AB, Arthur  TD, Plichta  DR, Covington  CT, Poyet  M, Crothers  J, Moses  PL, Tolonen  AC, Vlamakis  H, Alm  EJ, Xavier  RJ,     ( 2019 )

Invertible promoters mediate bacterial phase variation, antibiotic resistance, and host adaptation in the gut.

Science (New York, N.Y.) 363 (6423)
PMID : 30630933  :   DOI  :   10.1126/science.aau5238     PMC  :   PMC6543533    
Abstract >>
Phase variation, the reversible alternation between genetic states, enables infection by pathogens and colonization by commensals. However, the diversity of phase variation remains underexplored. We developed the PhaseFinder algorithm to quantify DNA inversion-mediated phase variation. A systematic search of 54,875 bacterial genomes identified 4686 intergenic invertible DNA regions (invertons), revealing an enrichment in host-associated bacteria. Invertons containing promoters often regulate extracellular products, underscoring the importance of surface diversity for gut colonization. We found invertons containing promoters regulating antibiotic resistance genes that shift to the ON orientation after antibiotic treatment in human metagenomic data and in vitro, thereby mitigating the cost of antibiotic resistance. We observed that the orientations of some invertons diverge after fecal microbiota transplant, potentially as a result of individual-specific selective forces.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Gastrointestinal Microbiome
Promoter Regions, Genetic
2. Guo  X, Li  S, Zhang  J, Wu  F, Li  X, Wu  D, Zhang  M, Ou  Z, Jie  Z, Yan  Q, Li  P, Yi  J, Peng  Y,     ( 2017 )

Genome sequencing of 39 Akkermansia muciniphila isolates reveals its population structure, genomic and functional diverisity, and global distribution in mammalian gut microbiotas.

BMC genomics 18 (1)
PMID : 29047329  :   DOI  :   10.1186/s12864-017-4195-3     PMC  :   PMC5648452    
Abstract >>
Akkermansia muciniphila is one of the most dominant bacteria that resides on the mucus layer of intestinal tract and plays key role in human health, however, little is known about its genomic content. Herein, we for the first time characterized the genomic architecture of A. muciniphila based on whole-genome sequencing, assembling, and annotating of 39 isolates derived from human and mouse feces. We revealed a flexible open pangenome of A. muciniphila currently consisting of 5644 unique proteins. Phylogenetic analysis identified three species-level A. muciniphila phylogroups exhibiting distinct metabolic and functional features. Based on the comprehensive genome catalogue, we reconstructed 106 newly A. muciniphila metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) from available metagenomic datasets of human, mouse and pig gut microbiomes, revealing a transcontinental distribution of A. muciniphila phylogroups across mammalian gut microbiotas. Accurate quantitative analysis of A. muciniphila phylogroups in human subjects further demonstrated its strong correlation with body mass index and anti-diabetic drug usage. Furthermore, we found that, during their mammalian gut evolution history, A. muciniphila acquired extra genes, especially antibiotic resistance genes, from symbiotic microbes via recent lateral gene transfer. The genome repertoire of A. muciniphila provided insights into population structure, evolutionary and functional specificity of this significant bacterium.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Akkermansia muciniphila
Antibiotic resistance
Genome diversity
Mammalian gut microbiota
Population structure
Whole Genome Sequencing

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