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1. Bittel  C, Tabares  LC, Armesto  M, Carrillo  N, Cortez  N,     ( 2003 )

The oxidant-responsive diaphorase of Rhodobacter capsulatus is a ferredoxin (flavodoxin)-NADP(H) reductase.

FEBS letters 553 (3)
PMID : 14572660  :   DOI  :   10.1016/s0014-5793(03)01075-5    
Abstract >>
Challenge of Rhodobacter capsulatus cells with the superoxide propagator methyl viologen resulted in the induction of a diaphorase activity identified as a member of the ferredoxin (flavodoxin)-(reduced) nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(H)) reductase (FPR) family by N-terminal sequencing. The gene coding for Rhodobacter FPR was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Both native and recombinant forms of the enzyme were purified to homogeneity rendering monomeric products of approximately 30 kDa with essentially the same spectroscopic and kinetic properties. They were able to bind and reduce Rhodobacter flavodoxin (NifF) and to mediate typical FPR activities such as the NADPH-driven diaphorase and cytochrome c reductase.
KeywordMeSH Terms
2. Weiss  MS, Schulz  GE,     ( 1992 )

Structure of porin refined at 1.8 A resolution.

Journal of molecular biology 227 (2)
PMID : 1328651  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0022-2836(92)90903-w    
Abstract >>
The crystal structure of porin from Rhodobacter capsulatus has been refined using the simulated annealing method. The final model consists of all 301 amino acid residues well obeying standard geometry, three calcium ions, 274 solvent molecules, three detergent molecules and one unknown ligand modeled as a detergent molecule. The final crystallographic R-factor is 18.6% based on 42,851 independent reflections in the resolution range 10 to 1.8 A. The model is described in detail.
KeywordMeSH Terms
3. Preker  P, Hübner  P, Schmehl  M, Klipp  W, Bickle  TA,     ( 1992 )

Mapping and characterization of the promoter elements of the regulatory nif genes rpoN, nifA1 and nifA2 in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Molecular microbiology 6 (8)
PMID : 1374827  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1365-2958.1992.tb02169.x    
Abstract >>
The promoter elements responsible for the expression of the regulatory nif genes rpoN, nifA1 and nifA2 of Rhodobacter capsulatus were mapped by exonuclease-III-mediated deletions and by primer extension analysis. The rpoN promoter maps 600 bp upstream of rpoN and has the characteristic features of a -24/-12 promoter. The upstream activator sequence (UAS) displays two mismatches with the NIFA consensus sequence and is located 37 bp upstream of a perfect -24/-12 promoter element. The spacing and/or the helical phasing of these two promotor elements was found to be important for promoter function. In addition, an UAS half-site may contribute to optimal promoter function. The rpoN UAS can partially substitute for the UAS of the nifE promoter. An open reading frame with homology to Klebsiella pneumoniae NIFU was identified between the rpoN promoter and rpoN and termed nifU2 since another nifU-like gene (nifU1) is located in a conventional nifUSVW operon in nif region A. Thus, rpoN, encoding an alternative sigma factor for RNA polymerase, is cotranscribed with a nifU analogous gene from an rpoN-dependent promoter. Mapping of the promoter elements involved in the expression of nifA copy 1 and copy 2 identified a novel promoter type. A conserved distal promoter element is likely to represent the binding site of NTRC in R. capsulatus. The DNA region preceding the mapped 5' ends of the nifA transcripts displays much less homology. The distance between the distal and proximal elements is about 100 bp.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
4. Davidson  E, Ohnishi  T, Atta-Asafo-Adjei  E, Daldal  F,     ( 1992 )

Potential ligands to the [2Fe-2S] Rieske cluster of the cytochrome bc1 complex of Rhodobacter capsulatus probed by site-directed mutagenesis.

Biochemistry 31 (13)
PMID : 1313292  :   DOI  :   10.1021/bi00128a006    
Abstract >>
The Rieske protein of the ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase (bc1 complex or b6f complex) contains a [2Fe-2S] cluster which is thought to be bound to the protein via two nitrogen and two sulfur ligands [Britt, R. D., Sauer, K., Klein, M. P., Knaff, D. B., Kriauciunas, A., Yu, C.-A., Yu, L., & Malkin, R. (1991) Biochemistry 30, 1892-1901; Gurbiel, R. J., Ohnishi, T., Robertson, D. E., Daldal, F., & Hoffman, B. M. (1991) Biochemistry 30, 11579-11584]. All available Rieske amino acid sequences have carboxyl termini featuring two conserved regions containing four cysteine (Cys) and two or three histidine (His) residues. Site-directed mutagenesis was applied to the Rieske protein of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus, and the mutants obtained were studied biochemically in order to identify which of these conserved residues are the ligands of the [2Fe-2S] cluster. It was found that His159 (in the R. capsulatus numbering) is not a ligand and that the presence of the Rieske protein in the intracytoplasmic membrane is greatly decreased by alteration of any of the remaining six His or Cys residues. Among these mutations, only the substitution Cys155 to Ser resulted in the synthesis of Rieske protein (in a small amount) which contained a [2Fe-2S] cluster with altered biophysical properties. This finding suggested that Cys155 is not a ligand to the cluster. A comparison of the conserved regions of the Rieske proteins with bacterial aromatic dioxygenases (which contain a spectrally and electrochemically similar [2Fe-2S] cluster) indicated that Cys133, His135, Cys153, and His156 are conserved in both groups of enzymes, possibly as ligands to their [2Fe-2S] clusters. These findings led to the proposal that Cys138 and Cys155, which are not conserved in bacterial dioxygenases, may form an internal disulfide bond which is important for the structure of the Rieske protein and the conformation of the quinol oxidation (Qo) site of the bc1 complex.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Mutagenesis, Site-Directed
5. Kranz  RG, Beckman  DL, Foster-Hartnett  D,     ( 1992 )

DNA gyrase activities from Rhodobacter capsulatus: analysis of target(s) of coumarins and cloning of the gyrB locus.

FEMS microbiology letters 72 (1)
PMID : 1319375  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0378-1097(92)90484-6    
Abstract >>
Bacterial DNA gyrase is composed of two subunits, gyrase A and B, and is responsible for negatively supercoiling DNA in an ATP-dependent manner. The coumarin antibiotics novobiocin and coumermycin are known inhibitors of bacterial DNA gyrase in vivo and in vitro. We have cloned, mapped, and partially sequenced Rhodobacter capsulatus gyrB which encodes the gyrase B subunit that is presumably involved in binding to coumarins. DNA gyrase activities from crude extracts of R. capsulatus were detected and it was shown that the R. capsulatus activity is (1) inhibited by novobiocin and coumermycin, (2) ATP-dependent and, (3) present in highly aerated and anaerobically grown cells. We previously observed that when R. capsulatus coumermycin-resistant strains are continuously recultured on media containing coumermycin they sometimes acquired mutations in hel genes (i.e., cytochromes c biogenesis mutations). We discuss the possibility that coumarins may inhibit cytochromes c biogenesis as a second target in R. capsulatus via hel (i.e., a putative ATP-dependent heme exporter).
KeywordMeSH Terms
6. Celis  H, Franco  B, Escobedo  S, Romero  I,     ( 2003 )

Rhodobacter sphaeroides has a family II pyrophosphatase: comparison with other species of photosynthetic bacteria.

Archives of microbiology 179 (5)
PMID : 12669192  :   DOI  :   10.1007/s00203-003-0539-2    
Abstract >>
The cytoplasmic pyrophosphatase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides was purified and characterized. The enzyme is a homodimer of 64 kDa. The N-terminus was sequenced and used to obtain the complete pyrophosphatase sequence from the preliminary genome sequence of Rba. sphaeroides, showing extensive sequence similarity to family II or class C pyrophosphatases. The enzyme hydrolyzes only Mg-PP(i) and Mn-PP(i) with a K(m) of 0.35 mM for both substrates. It is not activated by free Mg (2+), in contrast to the cytoplasmic pyrophosphatase from Rhodospirillum rubrum, and it is not inhibited by NaF, methylendiphosphate, or imidodiphosphate. This work shows that Rba. sphaeroides and Rhodobacter capsulatus cytoplasmic pyrophosphatases belong to family II, in contrast to Rsp. rubrum, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Rhodopseudomonas gelatinosa, and Rhodomicrobium vannielii cytoplasmic pyrophosphatases which should be classified as members of family I. This is the first report of family II cytoplasmic pyrophosphatases in photosynthetic bacteria and in a gram-negative organism.
KeywordMeSH Terms
7. Pinta  V, Ouchane  S, Picaud  M, Takaichi  S, Astier  C, Reiss-Husson  F,     ( 2003 )

Characterization of unusual hydroxy- and ketocarotenoids in Rubrivivax gelatinosus: involvement of enzyme CrtF or CrtA.

Archives of microbiology 179 (5)
PMID : 12664193  :   DOI  :   10.1007/s00203-003-0538-3    
Abstract >>
Carotenoids are widely spread terpenoids found in photosynthetic organisms and a number of non-photosynthetic fungi and bacteria. The photosynthetic non-sulfur purple bacterium Rubrivivax gelatinosus produces carotenoids by both the spheroidene and the normal spirilloxanthin pathways. The characteristics of two carotenogenesis enzymes, spheroidene monooxygenase CrtA and O-methyltransferase CrtF, were investigated. Disruption of the corresponding genes by insertional mutagenesis affected carotenoid species in both pathways, and the genetic evidence indicated that both genes are involved in the two pathways. In these mutants, several unusual hydroxy- and ketocarotenoids were identified by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Moreover, the carotenoid analyses demonstrated that a large number of different carotenoid intermediates are accepted as substrates by the CrtA enzyme. The combined manipulation of crtF and crtA allowed new carotenoids to be produced and broadened the diversity of structurally different carotenoids synthesized by Rvi. gelatinosus. Methylated carotenoids, such as spheroidene and spirilloxanthin, are known to function as accessory pigments in the light-harvesting and reaction-center complexes of purple bacteria; the demethylated carotenoids described here were able to fulfill the same functions in the mutants.
KeywordMeSH Terms
8. Cantera  JJ, Kawasaki  H, Seki  T,     ( 2002 )

Farnesyl diphosphate synthase gene of three phototrophic bacteria and its use as a phylogenetic marker.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 52 (Pt 6)
PMID : 12508853  :   DOI  :   10.1099/00207713-52-6-1953    
Abstract >>
Farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase is essential not only for phototrophic bacteria in carotenoid biosynthesis, but also for non-phototrophic bacteria in the biosynthesis of physiologically important compounds. The gene encoding FPP synthase was assessed as a molecular marker to investigate the intermingled relationship between the phototropic and non-phototropic bacteria in the alpha-Proteobacteria based on 16S rRNA analysis. The FPP synthase amino acid sequences from three phototropic bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides ATCC 11167(T), Rhodobacter capsulatus ATCC 11166(T) and Rhodovulum sulfidophilum W4(T), were determined and used in conjunction with sequences of other representative members of the alpha-, gamma- and epsilon-Proteobacteria and the low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria for phylogenetic analyses by the neighbour-joining and maximum-likelihood methods. The overall topology of the FPP synthase gene tree is consistent with that of the 16S rRNA tree, producing a distinct cluster of the three phototropic bacteria. A minor discordance between the two trees was observed in the cluster of the non-phototrophic Bradyrhizobiumjaponicum USDA 110 and Mesorhizobium loti MAFF 303099; the FPP synthase genes of these two rhizobial species are highly homologous as compared with their respective 16S rRNA. The results suggest that the FPP synthase and 16S rRNA genes have the same evolutionary pattern, evolving vertically from each common ancestral gene; the FPP synthase gene, therefore, could possibly be used for further study on the molecular systematics of photosynthetic bacteria.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
9. Amiri  H, Alsmark  CM, Andersson  SG,     ( 2002 )

Proliferation and deterioration of Rickettsia palindromic elements.

Molecular biology and evolution 19 (8)
PMID : 12140235  :   DOI  :   10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a004184    
Abstract >>
It has been suggested that Rickettsia Palindromic Elements (RPEs) have evolved as selfish DNA that mediate protein sequence evolution by being targeted to genes that code for RNA and proteins. Here, we have examined the phylogenetic depth of two RPEs that are located close to the genes encoding elongation factors Tu (tuf) and G (fus) in Rickettsia. An exceptional organization of the elongation factor genes was found in all 11 species examined, with complete or partial RPEs identified downstream of the tuf gene (RPE-tuf) in six species and of the fus gene (RPE-fus) in 10 species. A phylogenetic reconstruction shows that both RPE-tuf and RPE-fus have evolved in a manner that is consistent with the expected species divergence. The analysis provides evidence for independent loss of RPE-tuf in several species, possibly mediated by short repetitive sequences flanking the site of excision. The remaining RPE-tuf sequences evolve as neutral sequences in different stages of deterioration. Likewise, highly fragmented remnants of the RPE-fus sequence were identified in two species. This suggests that genome-specific differences in the content of RPEs are the result of recent loss rather than recent proliferation.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Interspersed Repetitive Sequences
10. Truglio  JJ, Theis  K, Leimkühler  S, Rappa  R, Rajagopalan  KV, Kisker  C,     ( 2002 )

Crystal structures of the active and alloxanthine-inhibited forms of xanthine dehydrogenase from Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Structure (London, England : 1993) 10 (1)
PMID : 11796116  :  
Abstract >>
Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), a complex molybdo/iron-sulfur/flavoprotein, catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine followed by oxidation of xanthine to uric acid with concomitant reduction of NAD+. The 2.7 A resolution structure of Rhodobacter capsulatus XDH reveals that the bacterial and bovine XDH have highly similar folds despite differences in subunit composition. The NAD+ binding pocket of the bacterial XDH resembles that of the dehydrogenase form of the bovine enzyme rather than that of the oxidase form, which reduces O(2) instead of NAD+. The drug allopurinol is used to treat XDH-catalyzed uric acid build-up occurring in gout or during cancer chemotherapy. As a hypoxanthine analog, it is oxidized to alloxanthine, which cannot be further oxidized but acts as a tight binding inhibitor of XDH. The 3.0 A resolution structure of the XDH-alloxanthine complex shows direct coordination of alloxanthine to the molybdenum via a nitrogen atom. These results provide a starting point for the rational design of new XDH inhibitors.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Protein Structure, Quaternary
11. Cobessi  D, Huang  LS, Ban  M, Pon  NG, Daldal  F, Berry  EA,     ( 2002 )

The 2.6 A resolution structure of Rhodobacter capsulatus bacterioferritin with metal-free dinuclear site and heme iron in a crystallographic 'special position'.

Acta crystallographica. Section D, Biological crystallography 58 (Pt 1)
PMID : 11752777  :   DOI  :   10.1107/s0907444901017267     PMC  :   PMC4615704    
Abstract >>
Bacterioferritin from Rhodobacter capsulatus was crystallized and its structure was solved at 2.6 A resolution. This first structure of a bacterioferritin from a photosynthetic organism is a spherical particle of 24 subunits displaying 432 point-group symmetry like ferritin and bacterioferritin from Escherichia coli. Crystallized in the I422 space group, its structural analysis reveals for the first time the non-symmetric heme molecule located on a twofold crystallographic symmetry axis. Other hemes of the protomer are situated on twofold noncrystallographic axes. Apparently, both types of sites bind heme in two orientations, leading to an average structure consisting of a symmetric 50:50 mixture, thus satisfying the crystallographic and noncrystallographic symmetry of the crystal. Five water molecules are situated close to the heme, which is bound in a hydrophobic pocket and axially coordinated by two crystallographic or noncrystallographically related methionine residues. Its ferroxidase center, in which Fe(II) is oxidized to Fe(III), is empty or fractionally occupied by a metal ion. Two positions are observed for the coordinating Glu18 side chain instead of one in the E. coli enzyme in which the site is occupied. This result suggests that the orientation of the Glu18 side chain could be constrained by this interaction.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
12. Bray  RC, Adams  B, Smith  AT, Richards  RL, Lowe  DJ, Bailey  S,     ( 2001 )

Reactions of dimethylsulfoxide reductase in the presence of dimethyl sulfide and the structure of the dimethyl sulfide-modified enzyme.

Biochemistry 40 (33)
PMID : 11502174  :   DOI  :   10.1021/bi010559r    
Abstract >>
The bis-molybdopterin enzyme dimethylsulfoxide reductase (DMSOR) from Rhodobacter capsulatus catalyzes the conversion of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to dimethyl sulfide (DMS), reversibly, in the presence of suitable e(-)-donors or e(-)-acceptors. The catalytically significant intermediate formed by reaction of DMSOR with DMS ('the DMS species') and a damaged enzyme form derived by reaction of the latter with O(2) (DMS-modified enzyme, DMSOR(mod)D) have been investigated. Evidence is presented that Mo in the DMS species is not, as widely assumed, Mo(IV). Formation of the DMS species is reversed on removing DMS or by addition of an excess of DMSO. Equilibrium constants for the competing reactions of DMS and DMSO with the oxidized enzyme (K(d) = 0.07 +/- 0.01 and 21 +/- 5 mM, respectively) that control these processes indicate formation of the DMS species occurs at a redox potential that is 80 mV higher than that required, according to the literature, for reduction of Mo(VI) to Mo(IV) in the free enzyme. Specificity studies show that with dimethyl selenide, DMSOR yields a species analogous to the DMS species but with the 550 nm peak blue-shifted by 27 nm. It is concluded from published redox potential data that this band is due to metal-to-ligand charge transfer from Mo(V) to the chalcogenide. Since the DMS species gives no EPR signal in the normal or parallel mode, a free radical is presumed to be in close proximity to the metal, most likely on the S. The species is thus formulated as Mo(V)-O-S(*)Me(2). Existing X-ray crystallographic and Raman data are consistent with this structure. Furthermore, 1e(-) oxidation of the DMS species with phenazine ethosulfate yields a Mo(V) form without an -OH ligand, since its EPR signal shows no proton splittings. This form presumably arises via dissociation of DMSO. The structure of DMSOR(mod)D has been determined by X-ray crystallography. All four thiolate ligands and Ogamma of serine-147 remain coordinated to Mo, but there are no terminal oxygen ligands and Mo is Mo(VI). Thus, it is a dead-end species, neither oxo group acceptance nor e(-)-donation being possible. O(2)-dependent formation of DMSOR(mod)D represents noncatalytic breakdown of the DMS species by a pathway alternative to that in turnover, with oxidation to Mo(VI) presumably preceding product release. Steps in the forward and backward catalytic cycles are discussed in relation to earlier stopped-flow data. The finding that in the back-assay the Mo(IV) state may at least in part be by-passed via two successive 1e(-) reactions of the DMS species with the e(-)-acceptor, may have implications in relation to the existence of separate molybdopterin enzymes catalyzing DMSO reduction and DMS oxidation, respectively.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Iron-Sulfur Proteins
13. Armengaud  J, Sainz  G, Jouanneau  Y, Sieker  LC,     ( 2001 )

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin (FdVI) from Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Acta crystallographica. Section D, Biological crystallography 57 (Pt 2)
PMID : 11173487  :   DOI  :   10.1107/s0907444900017832    
Abstract >>
A [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin found in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus has been purified in recombinant form from Escherichia coli. This protein, called FdVI, resembles ferredoxins involved in iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis in various prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Purified recombinant FdVI was recovered in high yields and appeared to be indistinguishable from the genuine R. capsulatus ferredoxin based on UV-visible absorption and EPR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. FdVI has been crystallized in the oxidized state by a sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique using sodium formate as precipitant. Seeding larger drops from a previous hanging-drop-grown small crystal resulted in the formation of long red-brown prismatic needles. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that FdVI crystals are orthorhombic and belong to the space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 45.87, b = 49.83, c = 54.29 A.
KeywordMeSH Terms
14. Roth  R, Hägerhäll  C,     ( 2001 )

Transmembrane orientation and topology of the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase putative quinone binding subunit NuoH.

Biochimica et biophysica acta 1504 (2��3��)
PMID : 11245799  :   DOI  :   10.1016/s0005-2728(00)00265-6    
Abstract >>
NADH:quinone oxidoreductase, or Complex I, is a multi-subunit membrane-bound enzyme in the respiratory chain of many pro- and eukaryotes. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of NADH and donates electrons to the quinone pool, coupled to proton translocation across the membrane, but the mechanism of energy transduction is not understood. In bacteria the enzyme consists of 14 subunits, seven membrane spanning and seven protruding from the membrane. The hydrophobic NuoH (NQO8, ND1, NAD1, NdhA) subunit is seemingly involved in quinone binding. A homologous, structurally and most likely functionally similar subunit is also found in F(420)H2 oxidoreductases and in complex membrane-bound hydrogenases. We have made theoretical analyses of NuoH and NuoH-like polypeptides and experimentally analyzed the transmembrane topology of the NuoH subunit from Rhodobacter capsulatus by constructing and analyzing alkaline phosphatase fusion proteins. This demonstrated that the NuoH polypeptide has eight transmembrane segments, and four highly conserved hydrophilic sequence motifs facing the inside, bacterial cytoplasm. The N-terminal and C-terminal ends are located on the outside of the membrane. A topology model of NuoH based on these results is presented, and implications from the model are discussed.
KeywordMeSH Terms
15. Wyborn  NR, Alderson  J, Andrews  SC, Kelly  DJ,     ( 2001 )

Topological analysis of DctQ, the small integral membrane protein of the C4-dicarboxylate TRAP transporter of Rhodobacter capsulatus.

FEMS microbiology letters 194 (1)
PMID : 11150659  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1574-6968.2001.tb09439.x    
Abstract >>
Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic ('TRAP') transporters are a novel group of bacterial and archaeal secondary solute uptake systems which possess a periplasmic binding protein, but which are unrelated to ATP-binding cassette (ABC) systems. In addition to the binding protein, TRAP transporters contain two integral membrane proteins or domains, one of which is 40-50 kDa with 12 predicted transmembrane (TM) helices, thought to be the solute import protein, while the other is 20-30 kDa and of unknown function. Using a series of plasmid-encoded beta-lactamase fusions, we have determined the topology of DctQ, the smaller integral membrane protein from the high-affinity C4-dicarboxylate transporter of Rhodobacter capsulatus, which to date is the most extensively characterised TRAP transporter. DctQ was predicted by several topology prediction programmes to have four TM helices with the N- and C-termini located in the cytoplasm. The levels of ampicillin resistance conferred by the fusions when expressed in Escherichia coli were found to correlate with this predicted topology. The data have provided a topological model which can be used to test hypotheses concerning the function of the different regions of DctQ and which can be applied to other members of the DctQ family.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Membrane Transport Proteins
16. Charnock  JM, Bennett  B, Bailey  S, Stewart  LJ,     ( 2000 )

Dimethylsulfoxide reductase: an enzyme capable of catalysis with either molybdenum or tungsten at the active site.

Journal of molecular biology 299 (3)
PMID : 10835270  :   DOI  :   10.1006/jmbi.2000.3702    
Abstract >>
DMSO reductase (DMSOR) from Rhodobacter capsulatus, well-characterised as a molybdoenzyme, will bind tungsten. Protein crystallography has shown that tungsten in W-DMSOR is ligated by the dithiolene group of the two pyranopterins, the oxygen atom of Ser147 plus another oxygen atom, and is located in a very similar site to that of molybdenum in Mo-DMSOR. These conclusions are consistent with W L(III)-edge X-ray absorption, EPR and UV/visible spectroscopic data. W-DMSOR is significantly more active than Mo-DMSOR in catalysing the reduction of DMSO but, in contrast to the latter, shows no significant ability to catalyse the oxidation of DMS.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Iron-Sulfur Proteins
17. Bray  RC, Adams  B, Smith  AT, Bennett  B, Bailey  S,     ( 2000 )

Reversible dissociation of thiolate ligands from molybdenum in an enzyme of the dimethyl sulfoxide reductase family.

Biochemistry 39 (37)
PMID : 10985771  :   DOI  :   10.1021/bi0000521    
Abstract >>
Much is unknown concerning the role of thiolate ligands of molybdenum in molybdopterin enzymes. It has been suggested that thiolate dissociation from molybdenum is part of the catalytic mechanism of bis-molybdopterin enzymes of the dimethyl sulfoxide reductase (DMSOR) family. For DMSOR from Rhodobacter capsulatus, thiolate dissociation has therefore been investigated crystallographically, by UV/visible spectroscopy, and by enzyme assays. When crystallized from sodium citrate, all four thiolates of DMSOR are within bonding distance of Mo, but after extended exposure to Na(+)-Hepes, a pair of thiolates dissociates, a mixture of structures being indicated after shorter exposures to this buffer. DMSOR is stable in sodium citrate and other buffers but unstable aerobically although not anaerobically in Na(+)-Hepes. Aerobically in Na(+)-Hepes, a first-order reaction (k = 0.032 hr(-)(1) at 37 degrees C) leads to loss of activity in the backward but not the forward (dimethyl sulfoxide reduction) assay and loss of absorption at lambda > approximately 450 nm. This reaction can be reversed by a cycle of reduction and reoxidation ("redox-cycling"). Slower irreversible loss of activity in the forward assay and cofactor dissociation follow. Spectral analogy with a mono-molybdopterin enzyme supports the conclusion that in the Hepes-modified DMSOR form, only two cofactor dithiolene sulfur atoms are coordinated to molybdenum. Loss of activity provides the first clear evidence that sulfur ligand dissociation is an artifact, not part of the catalytic cycle. Clearly, structural data on DMSOR samples extensively exposed to Hepes is not directly relevant to the native enzyme. The nature of the oxygen ligands detected crystallographically is discussed, as is the specificity of Hepes and the mechanism whereby its effects are achieved. DMSOR forms complexes with Na(+)-Hepes and other buffer ions. For DMSOR crystallized from Hepes, electron density in the substrate binding channel suggests that buffers bind in this site. Like the as-prepared enzyme, the modified form (DMSOR(mod)D), known to arise on extended aerobic exposure to dimethyl sulfide, is susceptible to a further degradative reaction, although this is not buffer-dependent. It involves loss of absorption at lambda > approximately 450 nm and, presumably, dissociation of thiolate ligands. Evidence is presented that, as a result of O(2) damage, DMSOR samples not submitted to redox-cycling may be contaminated with DMSOR(mod)D and with material absorbing in the region of 400 nm, analogous to the Hepes-modified enzyme. Since the latter lacks absorption at lambda > approximately 450 nm, its presence may escape detection.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Coenzymes
Iron-Sulfur Proteins
18. Brasseur  G, Deshmukh  M,     ( 2000 )

Novel Rhodobacter capsulatus genes required for the biogenesis of various c-type cytochromes.

Molecular microbiology 35 (1)
PMID : 10632883  :   DOI  :   10.1046/j.1365-2958.2000.01683.x    
Abstract >>
Following chemical mutagenesis and screening for the inability to grow by photosynthesis and the absence of cyt cbb3 oxidase activity, two c-type cytochrome (cyt)-deficient mutants, 771 and K2, of Rhodobacter capsulatus were isolated. Both mutants were completely deficient in all known c-type cyts, and could not be complemented by the previously known cyt c biogenesis genes of R. capsulatus. Complementation of 771 and K2 with a wild-type chromosomal library led to the identification of two novel genes, cycJ and ccdA respectively. The cycJ is highly homologous to ccmE/cycJ, encountered in various Gram-negative species. Unlike in other species, where cycJ is a part of an operon essential for cyt c biogenesis, in R. capsulatus, it is located immediately downstream from argC, involved in arginine biosynthesis. Mutation of its universally conserved histidine residue, which is critical for its proposed haem chaperoning role, to an alanine led to loss of its function. All R. capsulatus cycJ mutants studied so far excrete copious amounts of coproporphyrin and protoporphyrin when grown on enriched media, suggesting that its product is also a component of the haem delivery branch of cyt c biogenesis in this species. In contrast, the R. capsulatus ccdA was homologous to the cyt c biogenesis gene ccdA, found in the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, and to the central region of dipZ, encoding a protein disulphide reductase required for cyt c biogenesis in Escherichia coli. Membrane topology of CcdA was established in R. capsulatus using ccdA:phoA and ccdA :lacZ gene fusions. The deduced topology revealed that the two conserved cysteine residues of CcdA are, as predicted, membrane embedded. Mutagenesis of these cysteines showed that both are required for the function of CcdA in cyt c biogenesis. This study demonstrated for the first time that CcdA homologues are also required for cyt c biogenesis in some gram-negative bacteria such as R. capsulatus.
KeywordMeSH Terms
19. Jäger  A, Chen  W,     ( 2000 )

Correction of the DNA sequence of the regB gene of Rhodobacter capsulatus with implications for the membrane topology of the sensor kinase regB.

Journal of bacteriology 182 (3)
PMID : 10633119  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.182.3.818-820.2000     PMC  :   PMC94348    
Abstract >>
We corrected the previously published sequence for the regB gene, which encodes a histidine sensor kinase in Rhodobacter capsulatus. The deduced RegB amino acid sequence has an additional putative transmembrane domain at the N terminus. Analysis of RegB-PhoA and RegB-LacZ fusion proteins supports a topology model for RegB with six membrane-spanning domains.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
Protein Kinases
20. Lang  AS,     ( 2000 )

Genetic analysis of a bacterial genetic exchange element: the gene transfer agent of Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97 (2)
PMID : 10639170  :   DOI  :   10.1073/pnas.97.2.859     PMC  :   PMC15421    
Abstract >>
An unusual system of genetic exchange exists in the purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. DNA transmission is mediated by a small bacteriophage-like particle called the gene transfer agent (GTA) that transfers random 4.5-kb segments of the producing cell's genome to recipient cells, where allelic replacement occurs. This paper presents the results of gene cloning, analysis, and mutagenesis experiments that show that GTA resembles a defective prophage related to bacteriophages from diverse genera of bacteria, which has been adopted by R. capsulatus for genetic exchange. A pair of cellular proteins, CckA and CtrA, appear to constitute part of a sensor kinase/response regulator signaling pathway that is required for expression of GTA structural genes. This signaling pathway controls growth-phase-dependent regulation of GTA gene messages, yielding maximal gene expression in the stationary phase. We suggest that GTA is an ancient prophage remnant that has evolved in concert with the bacterial genome, resulting in a genetic exchange process controlled by the bacterial cell.
KeywordMeSH Terms
DNA-Binding Proteins
Transcription Factors
Transduction, Genetic
21. Aish  J, Paston  SJ, Cross  R,     ( 2000 )

Cytochrome c' from Rhodobacter capsulatus confers increased resistance to nitric oxide.

Journal of bacteriology 182 (5)
PMID : 10671472  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.182.5.1442-1447.2000     PMC  :   PMC94437    
Abstract >>
We report the cloning and sequencing of the gene containing cytochrome c' (cycP) from the photosynthetic purple bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus and the regions flanking that gene. Mutant strains unable to synthesize cytochrome c' had increased sensitivity to nitrosothiols and to nitric oxide (which binds to the heme moiety of cytochrome c').
KeywordMeSH Terms
22. Nickel  CM, Garcia  AF, Katsiou  E,     ( 1999 )

Molecular analysis and identification of the radC gene from the phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus B10.

Microbiological research 154 (3)
PMID : 10652786  :   DOI  :   10.1016/S0944-5013(99)80020-2    
Abstract >>
The radC gene, whose product plays a role in the prokaryotic repair of DNA damage after UV and X-ray irradiation, was cloned and sequenced from the phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus B10. The gene codes for a protein of 214 amino acids with a molecular mass of 23,792 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence showed significant homology with the RadC proteins of Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Haemophilus influenzae. Northern blot analysis indicated that under both chemotrophic and phototrophic growth conditions the radC gene was relatively highly expressed and was induced about five-fold after UV-irradiation. Primer extension analysis revealed that transcription was initiated from the same position before and after UV treatment. Mutants (radC negative) have a low survival rate and a slower growth rate than the wild type.
KeywordMeSH Terms
DNA-Binding Proteins
Escherichia coli Proteins
Genes, Bacterial
23. Angermüller  S, Schwarz  G, Leimkühler  S,     ( 1999 )

Activity of the molybdopterin-containing xanthine dehydrogenase of Rhodobacter capsulatus can be restored by high molybdenum concentrations in a moeA mutant defective in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis.

Journal of bacteriology 181 (19)
PMID : 10498704  :   PMC  :   PMC103619    
Abstract >>
During the screening for Rhodobacter capsulatus mutants defective in xanthine degradation, one Tn5 mutant which was able to grow with xanthine as a sole nitrogen source only in the presence of high molybdate concentrations (1 mM), a phenotype resembling Escherichia coli mogA mutants, was identified. Unexpectedly, the corresponding Tn5 insertion was located within the moeA gene. Partial DNA sequence analysis and interposon mutagenesis of regions flanking R. capsulatus moeA revealed that no further genes essential for molybdopterin biosynthesis are located in the vicinity of moeA and revealed that moeA forms a monocistronic transcriptional unit in R. capsulatus. Amino acid sequence alignments of R. capsulatus MoeA (414 amino acids [aa]) with E. coli MogA (195 aa) showed that MoeA contains an internal domain homologous to MogA, suggesting similar functions of these proteins in the biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor. Interposon mutants defective in moeA did not exhibit dimethyl sulfoxide reductase or nitrate reductase activity, which both require the molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide (MGD) cofactor, even after addition of 1 mM molybdate to the medium. In contrast, the activity of xanthine dehydrogenase, which binds the molybdopterin (MPT) cofactor, was restored to wild-type levels after the addition of 1 mM molybdate to the growth medium. Analysis of fluorescent derivatives of the molybdenum cofactor of purified xanthine dehydrogenase isolated from moeA and modA mutant strains, respectively, revealed that MPT is inserted into the enzyme only after molybdenum chelation, and both metal chelation and Mo-MPT insertion can occur only under high molybdate concentrations in the absence of MoeA. These data support a model for the biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor in which the biosynthesis of MPT and MGD are split at a stage when the molybdenum atom is added to MPT.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Coenzymes
Escherichia coli Proteins
Iron-Sulfur Proteins
24. Maldener  I, Schütz  M,     ( 1999 )

Sulfide-quinone reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus: requirement for growth, periplasmic localization, and extension of gene sequence analysis.

Journal of bacteriology 181 (20)
PMID : 10515944  :   PMC  :   PMC103789    
Abstract >>
The entire sequence of the 3.5-kb fragment of genomic DNA from Rhodobacter capsulatus which contains the sqr gene and a second complete and two further partial open reading frames has been determined. A correction of the previously published sqr gene sequence (M. Sch?tz, Y. Shahak, E. Padan, and G. Hauska, J. Biol. Chem. 272:9890-9894, 1997) which in the deduced primary structure of the sulfide-quinone reductase changes four positive into four negative charges and the number of amino acids from 425 to 427 was necessary. The correction has no further bearing on the former sequence analysis. Deletion and interruption strains document that sulfide-quinone reductase is essential for photoautotrophic growth on sulfide. The sulfide-oxidizing enzyme is involved in energy conversion, not in detoxification. Studies with an alkaline phosphatase fusion protein reveal a periplasmic localization of the enzyme. Exonuclease treatment of the fusion construct demonstrated that the C-terminal 38 amino acids of sulfide-quinone reductase were required for translocation. An N-terminal signal peptide for translocation was not found in the primary structure of the enzyme. The possibility that the neighboring open reading frame, which contains a double arginine motif, may be involved in translocation has been excluded by gene deletion (rather, the product of this gene functions in an ATP-binding cassette transporter system, together with the product of one of the other open reading frames). The results lead to the conclusion that the sulfide-quinone reductase of R. capsulatus functions at the periplasmic surface of the cytoplasmic membrane and that this flavoprotein is translocated by a hitherto-unknown mechanism.
KeywordMeSH Terms
25. Karakas-Sen  A, Richardson  DJ, Carter  JP, Gregory  LG, Flanagan  DA,     ( 1999 )

Detection of genes for periplasmic nitrate reductase in nitrate respiring bacteria and in community DNA.

FEMS microbiology letters 177 (2)
PMID : 10474192  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1574-6968.1999.tb13742.x    
Abstract >>
A nested PCR primed by four degenerate oligonucleotides was developed for the specific amplification of sequences from the napA gene encoding the periplasmic nitrate reductase. This approach was used to amplify fragments of the napA gene from 10 Pseudomonas species and one Moraxella sp., previously shown to be able to express the periplasmic nitrate reductase activity, from Rhodobacter capsulatus and from community DNA extracted from a fresh-water sediment. Amino acid sequences encoded by the napA fragments were compared to one another and to the corresponding regions of related enzymes. This comparison indicates that the amplification protocol is specific for its intended target. The napA sequences amplified from community DNA were tightly clustered, which may indicate a degree of homogeneity in the sediment community. All tested Gram-negative strains capable of aerobic nitrate respiration were found to have periplasmic nitrate reductase genes. However, some strains which have and express the genes are incapable of aerobic nitrate respiration. The PCR primers and amplification protocols described will be useful in future studies of nitrate respiring populations.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
26. Palmer  T, Hanson  GR, Shaw  AL, Lane  I,     ( 1999 )

Characterization of a molybdenum cofactor biosynthetic gene cluster in Rhodobacter capsulatus which is specific for the biogenesis of dimethylsulfoxide reductase.

Microbiology (Reading, England) 145 (Pt 6) (N/A)
PMID : 10411269  :   DOI  :   10.1099/13500872-145-6-1421    
Abstract >>
The DMSO reductase of Rhodobacter capsulatus contains a pterin molybdenum cofactor (Moco) and is located in the periplasm. DNA sequence analysis identified four genes involved in the biosynthesis of the Moco (moaA, moaD, moeB and moaC) immediately downstream of the dor (DMSO respiratory) gene cluster. Rhodobacter capsulatus MoaA was expressed in Escherichia coli as a His6-tagged protein. Although, the expressed protein formed inclusion bodies, EPR spectroscopy showed that MoaA contains a [3Fe-4S] cluster. A moaA mutant was constructed and its phenotype indicates that the Moco biosynthetic gene cluster downstream of the dor operon is specific for the biogenesis of DMSO reductase. Two forms of DMSO reductase were purified by immunoaffinity chromatography from the moaA mutant. A mature form of DMSO reductase was located in the periplasm and a precursor form was found in the cytoplasm.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Coenzymes
Iron-Sulfur Proteins
Molybdenum
Multigene Family
27. Klipp  W,     ( 1999 )

The molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein MobA from Rhodobacter capsulatus is required for the activity of molybdenum enzymes containing MGD, but not for xanthine dehydrogenase harboring the MPT cofactor.

FEMS microbiology letters 174 (2)
PMID : 10339814  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1574-6968.1999.tb13574.x    
Abstract >>
The requirement of MobA for molybdoenzymes with different molybdenum cofactors was analyzed in Rhodobacter capsulatus. MobA is essential for DMSO reductase and nitrate reductase activity, both enzymes containing the molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide cofactor (MGD), but not for active xanthine dehydrogenase, harboring the molybdopterin cofactor. In contrast to the mob locus of Escherichia coli and R. sphaeroides, the mobB gene is not located downstream of mobA in R. capsulatus. The mobA gene is expressed constitutively at low levels and no increase in mobA expression could be observed even under conditions of high MGD demand.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Escherichia coli Proteins
Iron-Sulfur Proteins
28. Leimkühler  S,     ( 1999 )

Role of XDHC in Molybdenum cofactor insertion into xanthine dehydrogenase of Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Journal of bacteriology 181 (9)
PMID : 10217763  :   PMC  :   PMC93714    
Abstract >>
Rhodobacter capsulatus xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is composed of two subunits, XDHA and XDHB. Immediately downstream of xdhB, a third gene was identified, designated xdhC, which is cotranscribed with xdhAB. Interposon mutagenesis revealed that the xdhC gene product is required for XDH activity. However, XDHC is not a subunit of active XDH, which forms an alpha2beta2 heterotetramer in R. capsulatus. It was shown that XDHC neither is a transcriptional regulator for xdh gene expression nor influences XDH stability. To analyze the function of XDHC for XDH in R. capsulatus, inactive XDH was purified from an xdhC mutant strain. Analysis of the molybdenum cofactor content of this enzyme demonstrated that in the absence of XDHC, no molybdopterin cofactor MPT is present in the XDHAB tetramer. In contrast, absorption spectra of inactive XDH isolated from the xdhC mutant revealed the presence of iron-sulfur clusters and flavin adenine dinucleotide, demonstrating that XDHC is not required for the insertion of these cofactors. The absence of MPT from XDH isolated from an xdhC mutant indicates that XDHC either acts as a specific MPT insertase or might be a specific chaperone facilitating the insertion of MPT and/or folding of XDH during or after cofactor insertion.
KeywordMeSH Terms
29. Liu  X, Wu  H, Ye  J, Yuan  Q, Zhang  H,     ( 2006 )

Cloning and characterization of the ddsA gene encoding decaprenyl diphosphate synthase from Rhodobacter capsulatus B10.

Canadian journal of microbiology 52 (12)
PMID : 17473883  :   DOI  :   10.1139/w06-080    
Abstract >>
A decaprenyl diphosphate synthase gene (ddsA, GenBank accession No. DQ191802) was cloned from Rhodobacter capsulatus B10 by constructing and screening the genome library. An open reading frame of 1002 bp was revealed from sequence analysis. The deduced polypeptide consisted of 333 amino acids residues with an molecular mass of about 37 kDa. The DdsA protein contained the conserved amino acid sequence (DDXXD) of E-type polyprenyl diphosphate synthase and showed high similarity to others. In contrast, DdsA showed only 39% identity to a solanesyl diphosphate synthase cloned from R. capsulatus SB1003. DdsA was expressed successfully in Escherichia coli. Assaying the enzyme in vivo found it made E.coli synthesize UQ-10 in addition to the endogenous production UQ-8.
KeywordMeSH Terms
30. Lang  AS, Beatty  JT,     ( 2007 )

Importance of widespread gene transfer agent genes in alpha-proteobacteria.

Trends in microbiology 15 (2)
PMID : 17184993  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.tim.2006.12.001    
Abstract >>
The gene transfer agent produced by Rhodobacter capsulatus (RcGTA) is a model for several virus-like elements that seem to function solely for mediating gene exchange. Several genes that encode RcGTA are clearly related to bacteriophage genes but the cellular regulatory mechanisms that control RcGTA production indicate that RcGTA is more than just a defective prophage. Genome sequencing projects show that seemingly functional RcGTA-like structural gene clusters are present in many other species of alpha-proteobacteria, which might also produce RcGTA-like particles. Here, we use the genomic sequence data that are currently available to identify candidate GTA-producing species and propose an evolutionary scheme for RcGTA-like elements in the alpha-proteobacteria.
KeywordMeSH Terms
31. Nomata  J, Kitashima  M, Inoue  K, Fujita  Y,     ( 2006 )

Nitrogenase Fe protein-like Fe-S cluster is conserved in L-protein (BchL) of dark-operative protochlorophyllide reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus.

FEBS letters 580 (26)
PMID : 17064695  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.febslet.2006.10.014    
Abstract >>
Dark-operative protochlorophyllide reductase (DPOR) in bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis is a nitrogenase-like enzyme consisting of L-protein (BchL-dimer) as a reductase component and NB-protein (BchN-BchB-heterotetramer) as a catalytic component. Metallocenters of DPOR have not been identified. Here we report that L-protein has an oxygen-sensitive [4Fe-4S] cluster similar to nitrogenase Fe protein. Purified L-protein from Rhodobacter capsulatus showed absorption spectra and an electron paramagnetic resonance signal indicative of a [4Fe-4S] cluster. The activity quickly disappeared upon exposure to air with a half-life of 20s. These results suggest that the electron transfer mechanism is conserved in nitrogenase Fe protein and DPOR L-protein.
KeywordMeSH Terms
32. Tichy  HV, Albien  KU, Gad'on  N, Drews  G,     ( 1991 )

Analysis of the Rhodobacter capsulatus puc operon: the pucC gene plays a central role in the regulation of LHII (B800-850 complex) expression.

The EMBO journal 10 (10)
PMID : 1717257  :   PMC  :   PMC453009    
Abstract >>
Formation of the light harvesting complex B800-850 (LHII) of Rhodobacter capsulatus requires the expression of more than the three known genes specific for that complex (pucA, pucB and pucE) encoding the alpha, beta and gamma subunits of LHII, respectively. In this work evidence is presented that the product of the gene pucC, which is located downstream from pucA, is essential for high-level transcription of the pucBACDE operon and formation of LHII. Plasmids were constructed containing deletions in one or several puc genes and transferred to a pucC::Tn5 mutant in which the puc operon is not expressed. It was found that the LHII- phenotype of the mutant was due to the missing PucC protein and that all known puc genes are located in one operon. To dissect the pucC, pucD and pucE genes from pucB and pucA and independently regulate them, they were placed under control of the nifHDK promoter. Only under nitrogen-fixing growth conditions was the LHII- pucC::Tn5 mutant complemented by this construction. It is concluded that expression of pucC is essential for formation of the LHII complex in R.capsulatus. Analysis of the pucD and pucE genes led to the conclusion that the products of these genes stabilize the B800-850 complex.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Operon
33. Weiss  MS, Kreusch  A, Schiltz  E, Nestel  U, Welte  W, Weckesser  J, Schulz  GE,     ( 1991 )

The structure of porin from Rhodobacter capsulatus at 1.8 A resolution.

FEBS letters 280 (2)
PMID : 1707373  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0014-5793(91)80336-2    
Abstract >>
The structure of the porin from Rhodobacter capsulatus was determined at a resolution of 1.8 A. The analysis started from a closely related crystal structure that had been solved at a medium resolution of 3 A using multiple isomorphous replacement and solvent flattening. The new structure contains the complete sequence of 301 amino acid residues. Refinement of the model is under way; the present R-factor is 22% with good geometry. Except for the lengths of several loops, the resulting chain fold corresponds to the medium resolution model. The membrane channel is lined by a large number of ionogenic side chains with characteristic segregation of differently charged groups.
KeywordMeSH Terms
34. Guo  H, Xiong  J,     ( 2006 )

A specific and versatile genome walking technique.

Gene 381 (N/A)
PMID : 16914272  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.gene.2006.06.002    
Abstract >>
We describe here a nested PCR-based strategy for genome walking to extend a known sequence region to its uncharacterized flanking regions. This technique involves the use of a partially degenerate primer as a walker primer and a set of nested specific primers to perform two to three successive rounds of nested PCR. To increase the success rate of genome walking, four different walker primers were designed to allow the setup of parallel reactions. This technique was applied to amplify flanking sequences of known genomic loci of two highly divergent photosynthetic organisms, Rhodobacter capsulatus and Heliophilum fasciatum. Specific products were preferentially amplified using this strategy, which were verified using DNA sequencing. The extremely high success rate of extension of genomic regions in these two organisms suggests that this technique can be applied to a wide range of genomes.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Chromosome Walking
Genome, Bacterial
35. Youvan  DC, Ismail  S,     ( 1985 )

Light-harvesting II (B800-B850 complex) structural genes from Rhodopseudomonas capsulata.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 82 (1)
PMID : 16593533  :   DOI  :   10.1073/pnas.82.1.58     PMC  :   PMC396970    
Abstract >>
The light-harvesting II (LHII) structural genes coding for the (B800-B850 complex) beta- and alpha-polypeptides have been cloned and the nucleotide and deduced polypeptide sequences have been determined. This completes the sequencing of all seven structural genes coding for the structural polypeptides of the photosynthetic apparatus that bind the pigments and cofactors participating in the primary light reactions of photosynthesis. Unlike the structural genes coding for the reaction center L, M, and H subunits and the light-harvesting I (LHI) (B870 complex) structural polypeptides, the LHII structural genes are not within the 46-kilobase photosynthetic gene cluster carried by the R-prime plasmid pRPS404. Identical organization of the beta and alpha structural genes for both LHI and LHII and sequence homologies between the two beta-polypeptides and between the two alpha-polypeptides suggests that both complexes arose by gene duplication from a single ancestral light-harvesting complex and that the putative bacteriochlorophyll binding sequence Ala-X-X-X-His has been absolutely conserved.
KeywordMeSH Terms
36. Youvan  DC, Alberti  M, Begusch  H, Bylina  EJ, Hearst  JE,     ( 1984 )

Reaction center and light-harvesting I genes from Rhodopseudomonas capsulata.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 81 (1)
PMID : 16593406  :   DOI  :   10.1073/pnas.81.1.189     PMC  :   PMC344636    
Abstract >>
Five structural genes coding for the reaction center (RC) L, M, and H subunits and the two light-harvesting (LH) I polypeptides, B870alpha and B870beta, have been mapped on two restriction fragments from the R-prime plasmid pRPS404. It has been recently shown that enhanced near-infrared fluorescence mutants of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata typically lack RC or LH I polypeptides and that these lesions are marker-rescued by two restriction fragments from the R-prime plasmid: the 7.5-kilobase-pair EcoRI F fragment and the 4.75-kilobase-pair BamHI C-EcoRI fragment. We have now determined the nucleotide sequence of two restriction fragments and have found that the BamHI C-EcoRI B fragment carries the structural genes for the RC L and M subunits and both LH I polypeptides. Forty kilobase pairs away from this locus, the BamHI F fragment (within the EcoRI F fragment) carries the RC H subunit. The structural genes on the BamHI C-EcoRI B fragment are probably transcribed as part of a polycistronic mRNA. All of the structural genes begin with a consensus Shine-Dalgarno sequence and separate AUG start codons, indicating that the structural polypeptides are not cleaved from larger precursor polypeptides.
KeywordMeSH Terms
37. Schiltz  E, Kreusch  A, Nestel  U, Schulz  GE,     ( 1991 )

Primary structure of porin from Rhodobacter capsulatus.

European journal of biochemistry 199 (3)
PMID : 1651239  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1432-1033.1991.tb16158.x    
Abstract >>
The primary structure of the integral membrane protein porin from the purple bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus was determined. The protein was cleaved with trypsin, CNBr and Asp-N protease. The peptides were isolated, sequenced and aligned to a total length of 301 residues with an Mr of 31,536. The low isoelectric point of 3.9 is confirmed by the high excess of 34 Asp and 17 Glu (16.9%) over 10 Lys, 7 Arg and 2 His (6.3%). Overall sequence similarity to other porins is not evident when using sequence alignment programs. However, a partial relationship to Neisseria porins seems to exist. The established sequence has been used as the basis for a three-dimensional structure determination by X-ray diffraction at 0.18-nm resolution. The arrangement of the sequence in the 16-stranded beta-barrel of porin is given. Some sequence-structure correlations are discussed.
KeywordMeSH Terms
38. van Berkum  P, Leibold  JM, Eardly  BD,     ( 2006 )

Proposal for combining Bradyrhizobium spp. (Aeschynomene indica) with Blastobacter denitrificans and to transfer Blastobacter denitrificans (Hirsch and Muller, 1985) to the genus Bradyrhizobium as Bradyrhizobium denitrificans (comb. nov.).

Systematic and applied microbiology 29 (3)
PMID : 16564957  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.syapm.2005.07.014    
Abstract >>
The symbiotic bradyrhizobia of Aeschynomene indica and the aquatic budding bacterium Blastobacter denitrificans have much in common and this study broadens the characters that are shared between the two. The 23S rRNA gene sequences of the bradyrhizobial isolates were most similar to each other and to the sequence of Bl. denitrificans. Evidence for the presence of photosynthetic genes in the genome of Bl. denitrificans was obtained by PCR using primers to the conserved M subunit (pufM) of the photosynthetic reaction center present in purple sulfur and purple nonsulfur bacteria. The deduced amino acid sequences of the partial PufM protein of Bl. denitrificans and the corresponding sequences obtained from the bradyrhizobial isolates were identical. Both the bradyrhizobial isolates and the type strain of Bl. denitrificans shared the ability to propagate by budding, demonstrated by electron microscopy. Even though many interspecific characters were shared among the bradyrhizobial isolates including Bl. denitrificans, it was evident from Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis that genomic variation existed among the collection that was examined. Variation among bradyrhizobial isolates and Bl. denitrificans also was established in carbon and nitrogen source utilization and the ability to grow at elevated temperature. Based on these results and previously reported evidence it is suggested that the type strain for Bl. denitrificans and the bradyrhizobial isolates from nodules of A. indica belong to a common group of bacteria. Therefore, it is proposed that they be combined into the genus Bradyrhizobium and that LMG 8443 be transferred to this genus as the type strain for B. denitrificans.
KeywordMeSH Terms
39. Sainz  G, Jakoncic  J, Sieker  LC, Stojanoff  V, Sanishvili  N, Asso  M, Bertrand  P, Armengaud  J, Jouanneau  Y,     ( 2006 )

Structure of a [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin from Rhodobacter capsulatus likely involved in Fe-S cluster biogenesis and conformational changes observed upon reduction.

Journal of biological inorganic chemistry : JBIC : a publication of the Society of Biological Inorganic Chemistry 11 (2)
PMID : 16402206  :   DOI  :   10.1007/s00775-005-0069-2    
Abstract >>
FdVI from Rhodobacter capsulatus is structurally related to a group of [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins involved in iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis. Comparative genomics suggested that FdVI and orthologs found in alpha-Proteobacteria are involved in this process. Here, the crystal structure of FdVI has been determined for both the oxidized and the reduced protein. The [2Fe-2S] cluster lies 6 A below the protein surface in a hydrophobic pocket without access to the solvent. This particular cluster environment might explain why the FdVI midpoint redox potential (-306 mV at pH 8.0) did not show temperature or ionic strength dependence. Besides the four cysteines that bind the cluster, FdVI features an extra cysteine which is located close to the S1 atom of the cluster and is oriented in a position such that its thiol group points towards the solvent. Upon reduction, the general fold of the polypeptide chain was almost unchanged. The [2Fe-2S] cluster underwent a conformational change from a planar to a distorted lozenge. In the vicinity of the cluster, the side chain of Met24 was rotated by 180 degrees , bringing its S atom within hydrogen-bonding distance of the S2 atom of the cluster. The reduced molecule also featured a higher content of bound water molecules, and more extensive hydrogen-bonding networks compared with the oxidized molecule. The unique conformational changes observed in FdVI upon reduction are discussed in the light of structural studies performed on related ferredoxins.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Protein Conformation
40. Kulajta  C, Thumfart  JO, Haid  S, Daldal  F, Koch  HG,     ( 2006 )

Multi-step assembly pathway of the cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidase complex.

Journal of molecular biology 355 (5)
PMID : 16343536  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.jmb.2005.11.039    
Abstract >>
The cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidases as members of the heme-copper oxidase superfamily are involved in microaerobic respiration in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic proteobacteria. The biogenesis of these multisubunit enzymes, encoded by the ccoNOQP operon, depends on the ccoGHIS gene products, which are proposed to be specifically required for co-factor insertion and maturation of cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidases. Here, the assembly of the cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidase from the facultative photosynthetic model organism Rhodobacter capsulatus was investigated using blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This process involves the formation of a stable but inactive 210 kDa sub-complex consisting of the subunits CcoNOQ and the assembly proteins CcoH and CcoS. By recruiting monomeric CcoP, this sub-complex is converted into an active 230 kDa CcoNOQP complex. Formation of these complexes and the stability of the monomeric CcoP are impaired drastically upon deletion of ccoGHIS. In a ccoI deletion strain, the 230 kDa complex was absent, although monomeric CcoP was still detectable. In contrast, neither of the complexes nor the monomeric CcoP was found in a ccoH deletion strain. In the absence of CcoS, the 230 kDa complex was assembled. However, it exhibited no enzymatic activity, suggesting that CcoS might be involved in a late step of biogenesis. Based on these data, we propose that CcoN, CcoO and CcoQ assemble first into an inactive 210 kDa sub-complex, which is stabilized via its interactions with CcoH and CcoS. Binding of CcoP, and probably subsequent dissociation of CcoH and CcoS, then generates the active 230 kDa complex. The insertion of the heme cofactors into the c-type cytochromes CcoP and CcoO precedes sub-complex formation, while the cofactor insertion into CcoN could occur either before or after the 210 kDa sub-complex formation during the assembly of the cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidase.
KeywordMeSH Terms
41. Hochman  A, Figueredo  A, Wall  JD,     ( 1992 )

Physiological functions of hydroperoxidases in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Journal of bacteriology 174 (1��10��)
PMID : 1577703  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.174.10.3386-3391.1992     PMC  :   PMC206009    
Abstract >>
Rhodobacter capsulatus J1 has two hydroperoxidases: a catalase-peroxidase and a peroxidase. A mutant strain, AH18, that had no catalase-peroxidase was isolated. The growth rate under aerobic and photosynthetic conditions, respiration, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities, and pigment content of the mutant were similar to those of the wild type. AH18 was more susceptible to killing and to inhibition of nitrogenase by H2O2 but not by molecular oxygen. The incidences of spontaneous mutations were similar in both strains. Viable counts in aerobic but not anaerobic cultures of AH18 started to decline as soon as the cultures reached the stationary phase, and the rate of cell death was much higher in AH18 than in the wild type. It is inferred that the peroxidase provides protection against H2O2 in log-phase cells and that the catalase-peroxidase provides protection under the oxidative conditions that prevail in aging cultures. This protective function might be related to the dual activity of the latter as a catalase and a peroxidase or to its capacity to oxidize NADH, NADPH, and cytochrome c.
KeywordMeSH Terms
42. Nogués  I, Pérez-Dorado  I, Frago  S, Bittel  C, Mayhew  SG, Gómez-Moreno  C, Hermoso  JA, Medina  M, Cortez  N, Carrillo  N,     ( 2005 )

The ferredoxin-NADP(H) reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus: molecular structure and catalytic mechanism.

Biochemistry 44 (35)
PMID : 16128574  :   DOI  :   10.1021/bi0508183    
Abstract >>
The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus contains a ferredoxin (flavodoxin)-NADP(H) oxidoreductase (FPR) that catalyzes electron transfer between NADP(H) and ferredoxin or flavodoxin. The structure of the enzyme, determined by X-ray crystallography, contains two domains harboring the FAD and NADP(H) binding sites, as is typical of the FPR structural family. The FAD molecule is in a hairpin conformation in which stacking interactions can be established between the dimethylisoalloxazine and adenine moieties. The midpoint redox potentials of the various transitions undergone by R. capsulatus FPR were similar to those reported for their counterparts involved in oxygenic photosynthesis, but its catalytic activity is orders of magnitude lower (1-2 s(-)(1) versus 200-500 s(-)(1)) as is true for most of its prokaryotic homologues. To identify the mechanistic basis for the slow turnover in the bacterial enzymes, we dissected the R. capsulatus FPR reaction into hydride transfer and electron transfer steps, and determined their rates using stopped-flow methods. Hydride exchange between the enzyme and NADP(H) occurred at 30-150 s(-)(1), indicating that this half-reaction does not limit FPR activity. In contrast, electron transfer to flavodoxin proceeds at 2.7 s(-)(1), in the range of steady-state catalysis. Flavodoxin semiquinone was a better electron acceptor for FPR than oxidized flavodoxin under both single turnover and steady-state conditions. The results indicate that one-electron reduction of oxidized flavodoxin limits the enzyme activity in vitro, and support the notion that flavodoxin oscillates between the semiquinone and fully reduced states when FPR operates in vivo.
KeywordMeSH Terms
43. Richter  P, Brand  M, Drews  G,     ( 1992 )

Characterization of LHI- and LHI+ Rhodobacter capsulatus pufA mutants.

Journal of bacteriology 174 (9)
PMID : 1569029  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.174.9.3030-3041.1992     PMC  :   PMC205958    
Abstract >>
The NH2 termini of light-harvesting complex I (LHI) polypeptides alpha and beta of Rhodobacter capsulatus are thought to be involved in the assembly of the LHI complex. For a more detailed study of the role of the NH2-terminal segment of the LHI alpha protein in insertion into the intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM) of R. capsulatus, amino acids 6 to 8, 9 to 11, 12 and 13, or 14 and 15 of the LHI alpha protein were deleted. Additionally, the hydrophobic stretch of the amino acids 7 to 11 was lengthened by insertion of hydrophobic or hydrophilic amino acids. All mutations abolished the ability of the mutant strains to form a functional LHI antenna complex. All changes introduced into the LHI alpha protein strongly reduced the stability of its LHI beta partner protein in the ICM. The effects on the mutated protein itself, however, were different. Deletion of amino acids 6 to 8, 9 to 11, or 14 and 15 drastically reduced the amount of the LHI alpha protein inserted into the membrane or prevented its insertion. Deletion of amino acids 12 and 13 and lengthening of the stretch of amino acids 7 to 11 reduced the half-life of the mutated LHI alpha protein in the ICM in comparison with the wild-type LHI alpha protein. Under the selective pressure of low light, revertants which regained a functional LHI antenna complex were identified only for the mutant strain deleted of amino acids 9 to 11 of the LHI alpha polypeptide [U43 (pTPR15)]. The restoration of the LHI+ phenotype was due to an in-frame duplication of 9 bp in the pufA gene directly upstream of the site of deletion present in strain U43(pTPR15). The duplicated nucleotides code for the amino acids Lys, Ile, and Trp. Membranes purified from the revertants were different from that of the reaction center-positive LHI+ LHII- control strain U43(pTX35) in doubling of the carotenoid content and increase of the size of the photosynthetic unit. By separating the reaction center and LHI complexes of the revertants by native preparative gel electrophoresis, we confirmed that the higher amount of carotenoids was associated with the LHI proteins.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes
44. Dupuis  A,     ( 1992 )

Identification of two genes of Rhodobacter capsulatus coding for proteins homologous to the ND1 and 23 kDa subunits of the mitochondrial Complex I.

FEBS letters 301 (2)
PMID : 1568483  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0014-5793(92)81250-p    
Abstract >>
A region of the genome of Rhodobacter capsulatus has been sequenced and shown to encode proteins homologous to the ND1 subunit and the 23 kDa subunit of the mitochondrial NADH:CoQ oxidoreductase (Complex I). The association of these two open reading frames in the R. capsulatus genome parallels the organisation of the chloroplast genome. It suggests that genes encoding subunits of the NADH:CoQ oxidoreductase must be clustered in the genome of R. capsulatus.
KeywordMeSH Terms
45. Walmsley  AR, Shaw  JG, Kelly  DJ,     ( 1992 )

The mechanism of ligand binding to the periplasmic C4-dicarboxylate binding protein (DctP) from Rhodobacter capsulatus.

The Journal of biological chemistry 267 (12)
PMID : 1569065  :  
Abstract >>
The kinetics of ligand binding to the periplasmic C4-dicarboxylate binding protein (DctP) from Rhodobacter capsulatus were investigated by exploiting the changes in the intrinsic fluorescence of the protein upon binding ligands. Steady state measurements have shown that L-malate, succinate, and fumarate are all bound with sub-micromolar Kd values, whereas D-malate is bound 2 orders of magnitude more weakly. Stopped-flow studies have revealed that the binding process involves at least three steps. In the absence of ligand, the protein is in equilibrium between an essentially nonbinding form, BP1, and the binding form, BP2. Ligands bind to the BP2 form, shifting the equilibrium toward the BP2-L conformation, and also inducing a further isomerization of the protein, to the BP3-L form. The kinetic properties of the four different conformational states of the DctP protein identified in this study would be consistent with their identification as the closed-conformation, the open-conformation, an open-liganded conformation, and a closed-liganded conformation. The latter three states have been identified by x-ray crystallographic studies of binding proteins, but no kinetic or structural data have been presented previously to support the possibility of a closed but unliganded conformation.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
Dicarboxylic Acid Transporters
46. Meister  M, Saum  S, Alber  BE, Fuchs  G,     ( 2005 )

L-malyl-coenzyme A/beta-methylmalyl-coenzyme A lyase is involved in acetate assimilation of the isocitrate lyase-negative bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Journal of bacteriology 187 (4)
PMID : 15687206  :   DOI  :   10.1128/JB.187.4.1415-1425.2005     PMC  :   PMC545638    
Abstract >>
Cell extracts of Rhodobacter capsulatus grown on acetate contained an apparent malate synthase activity but lacked isocitrate lyase activity. Therefore, R. capsulatus cannot use the glyoxylate cycle for acetate assimilation, and a different pathway must exist. It is shown that the apparent malate synthase activity is due to the combination of a malyl-coenzyme A (CoA) lyase and a malyl-CoA-hydrolyzing enzyme. Malyl-CoA lyase activity was 20-fold up-regulated in acetate-grown cells versus glucose-grown cells. Malyl-CoA lyase was purified 250-fold with a recovery of 6%. The enzyme catalyzed not only the reversible condensation of glyoxylate and acetyl-CoA to L-malyl-CoA but also the reversible condensation of glyoxylate and propionyl-CoA to beta-methylmalyl-CoA. Enzyme activity was stimulated by divalent ions with preference for Mn(2+) and was inhibited by EDTA. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined, and a corresponding gene coding for a 34.2-kDa protein was identified and designated mcl1. The native molecular mass of the purified protein was 195 +/- 20 kDa, indicating a homohexameric composition. A homologous mcl1 gene was found in the genomes of the isocitrate lyase-negative bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodospirillum rubrum in similar genomic environments. For Streptomyces coelicolor and Methylobacterium extorquens, mcl1 homologs are located within gene clusters implicated in acetate metabolism. We therefore propose that L-malyl-CoA/beta-methylmalyl-CoA lyase encoded by mcl1 is involved in acetate assimilation by R. capsulatus and possibly other glyoxylate cycle-negative bacteria.
KeywordMeSH Terms
47. Bollivar  DW, Clauson  C, Lighthall  R, Forbes  S, Kokona  B, Fairman  R, Kundrat  L, Jaffe  EK,     ( 2004 )

Rhodobacter capsulatus porphobilinogen synthase, a high activity metal ion independent hexamer.

BMC biochemistry 5 (N/A)
PMID : 15555082  :   DOI  :   10.1186/1471-2091-5-17     PMC  :   PMC535902    
Abstract >>
The enzyme porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS), which is central to the biosynthesis of heme, chlorophyll and cobalamins, has long been known to use a variety of metal ions and has recently been shown able to exist in two very different quaternary forms that are related to metal ion usage. This paper reports new information on the metal ion independence and quaternary structure of PBGS from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. The gene for R. capsulatus PBGS was amplified from genomic DNA and sequencing revealed errors in the sequence database. R. capsulatus PBGS was heterologously expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. Analysis of an unusual phylogenetic variation in metal ion usage by PBGS enzymes predicts that R. capsulatus PBGS does not utilize metal ions such as Zn2+, or Mg2+, which have been shown to act in other PBGS at either catalytic or allosteric sites. Studies with these ions and chelators confirm the predictions. A broad pH optimum was determined to be independent of monovalent cations, approximately 8.5, and the Km value shows an acidic pKa of approximately 6. Because the metal ions of other PBGS affect the quaternary structure, gel permeation chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments were performed to examine the quaternary structure of metal ion independent R. capsulatus PBGS. The enzyme was found to be predominantly hexameric, in contrast with most other PBGS, which are octameric. A protein concentration dependence to the specific activity suggests that the hexameric R. capsulatus PBGS is very active and can dissociate to smaller, less active, species. A homology model of hexameric R. capsulatus PBGS is presented and discussed. The evidence presented in this paper supports the unusual position of the R. capsulatus PBGS as not requiring any metal ions for function. Unlike other wild-type PBGS, the R. capsulatus protein is a hexamer with an unusually high specific activity when compared to other octameric PBGS proteins.
KeywordMeSH Terms
48. Sganga  MW, Bauer  CE,     ( 1992 )

Regulatory factors controlling photosynthetic reaction center and light-harvesting gene expression in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Cell 68 (5)
PMID : 1547494  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0092-8674(92)90037-d    
Abstract >>
Most species of photosynthetic bacteria synthesize their photosynthetic apparatus only under conditions of reduced oxygen tension. To a large extent, this phenomenon is dependent upon anaerobic induction of photosynthesis gene expression. Here we report an example of a regulatory gene, regA, that is involved in transactivating anaerobic expression of the photosynthetic apparatus. We show that RegA is itself responsible for differential induction of light-harvesting and reaction center gene expression relative to operons for photopigment biosynthesis. Surprisingly, strains disrupted for regA were found to retain normal photosynthetic growth capabilities under high light intensities. We further show that photosynthetic growth in the absence of transactivating structural gene expression is a consequence of the superoperonal organization of the photosynthetic gene cluster.
KeywordMeSH Terms
49. Tahirov  TH, Misaki  S, Meyer  TE, Cusanovich  MA, Higuchi  Y, Yasuoka  N,     ( 1997 )

Structure of cytochrome c' from Rhodobacter capsulatus strain St Louis: an unusual molecular association induced by bridging Zn ions.

Acta crystallographica. Section D, Biological crystallography 53 (Pt 6)
PMID : 15299853  :   DOI  :   10.1107/S0907444997005805    
Abstract >>
Rhodobacter capsulatus strain St Louis cytochrome c' (RCCP-SL) has been crystallized and the structure solved by molecular replacement. It was refined at 2.1 A resolution to an R value of 18.4%, and compared with Rhodobacter capsulatus strain M110 cytochrome c' (RCCP-M110). Although these two proteins are very similar in sequence and structure, the intermolecular interaction is largely different. In RCCP-M110, the molecules dimerize through interaction of helix B to form an antiparallel arrangement. When crystallized in the presence of Zn ions, molecules of RCCP-SL were found to be arranged as linear polymers connected by the bridging Zn ions. The changes in conformation of the side chains induced by binding of the Zn ions, by the substitution of Glu90 for Asp90, and by the different arrangement of the molecules, are discussed in detail.
KeywordMeSH Terms
50. Cabello  P, Pino  C, Olmo-Mira  MF, Castillo  F, Roldán  MD, Moreno-Vivián  C,     ( 2004 )

Hydroxylamine assimilation by Rhodobacter capsulatus E1F1. requirement of the hcp gene (hybrid cluster protein) located in the nitrate assimilation nas gene region for hydroxylamine reduction.

The Journal of biological chemistry 279 (44)
PMID : 15322098  :   DOI  :   10.1074/jbc.M404417200    
Abstract >>
Rhodobacter capsulatus E1F1 grows phototrophically with nitrate as nitrogen source. Using primers designed for conserved motifs in bacterial assimilatory nitrate reductases, a 450-bp DNA was amplified by PCR and used for the screening of a genomic library. A cosmid carrying an insert with four SalI fragments of 2.8, 4.1, 4.5, and 5.8 kb was isolated, and DNA sequencing revealed that it contains a nitrate assimilation (nas) gene region, including the hcp gene coding for a hybrid cluster protein (HCP). Expression of hcp is probably regulated by a nitrite-sensitive repressor encoded by the adjacent nsrR gene. A His(6)-HCP was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified. HCP contained about 6 iron and 4 labile sulfide atoms per molecule, in agreement with the presence of both [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-2S-2O] clusters, and showed hydroxylamine reductase activity, forming ammonia in vitro with methyl viologen as reductant. The apparent K(m) values for NH(2)OH and methyl viologen were 1 mM and 7 microM, respectively, at the pH and temperature optima (9.3 and 40 degrees C). The activity was oxygen-sensitive and was inhibited by sulfide and iron reagents. R. capsulatus E1F1 grew phototrophically, but not heterotrophically, with 1 mM NH(2)OH as nitrogen source, and up to 10 mM NH(2)OH was taken up by anaerobic resting cells. Ammonium was transiently accumulated in the media, and its assimilation was prevented by L-methionine-D,L-sulfoximine, a glutamine synthetase inhibitor. In addition, hydroxylamine- or nitrite-grown cells showed the higher hydroxylamine reductase activities. However, R. capsulatus B10S, a strain lacking the whole hcp-nas region, did not grow with 1 mM NH(2)OH. Also, E. coli cells overproducing HCP tolerate hydroxyl-amine better during anaerobic growth. These results suggest that HCP is involved in assimilation of NH(2)OH, a toxic product that could be formed during nitrate assimilation, probably in the nitrite reduction step.
KeywordMeSH Terms
51. Kranz  RG, Pace  VM, Caldicott  IM,     ( 1990 )

Inactivation, sequence, and lacZ fusion analysis of a regulatory locus required for repression of nitrogen fixation genes in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Journal of bacteriology 172 (1)
PMID : 2152916  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.172.1.53-62.1990     PMC  :   PMC208400    
Abstract >>
Transcription of the genes that code for proteins involved in nitrogen fixation in free-living diazotrophs is typically repressed by high internal oxygen concentrations or exogenous fixed nitrogen. The DNA sequence of a regulatory locus required for repression of Rhodobacter capsulatus nitrogen fixation genes was determined. It was shown that this locus, defined by Tn5 insertions and by ethyl methanesulfonate-derived mutations, is homologous to the glnB gene of other organisms. The R. capsulatus glnB gene was upstream of glnA, the gene for glutamine synthetase, in a glnBA operon. beta-Galactosidase expression from an R. capsulatus glnBA-lacZ translational fusion was increased twofold in cells induced by nitrogen limitation relative to that in cells under nitrogen-sufficient conditions. R. capsulatus nifR1, a gene that was previously shown to be homologous to ntrC and that is required for transcription of nitrogen fixation genes, was responsible for approximately 50% of the transcriptional activation of this glnBA fusion in cells induced under nitrogen-limiting conditions. R. capsulatus GLNB, NIFR1, and NIFR2 (a protein homologous to NTRB) were proposed to transduce the nitrogen status in the cell into repression or activation of other R. capsulatus nif genes. Repression of nif genes in response to oxygen was still present in R. capsulatus glnB mutants and must have occurred at a different level of control in the regulatory circuit.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
Genes, Regulator
Lac Operon
52. Richaud  P, Vignais  PM, Colbeau  A, Uffen  RL, Cauvin  B,     ( 1990 )

Molecular biology studies of the uptake hydrogenase of Rhodobacter capsulatus and Rhodocyclus gelatinosus.

FEMS microbiology reviews 7 (3��4��)
PMID : 2094292  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0378-1097(90)90488-c    
Abstract >>
In the photosynthetic bacteria, as in other N2-fixing bacteria, two main enzymes are involved in H2 metabolism: nitrogenase, which catalyses the photoproduction of H2, and a membrane-bound (NiFe) hydrogenase, which functions as an H2-uptake enzyme. The structural genes for Rhodobacter capsulatus and Rhodocyclus gelatinosus uptake hydrogenases were isolated and sequenced. They present the same organization, with the gene encoding the small subunit (hupS) (molecular masses 34.2 and 34.6 kDa, respectively) preceding the gene encoding the large one (hupL) (molecular masses 65.8 and 68.5 kDa, respectively). The two hupSL genes apparently belong to the same operon. The deduced protein sequences of the small and of the large subunits share nearly 80% and maximally 70% identity, respectively, with their counterparts in uptake hydrogenases found in N2-fixing bacteria. However, unlike in Bradyrhizobium japonicum, R. gelatinosus or Azotobacter chroococcum, another open reading frame (ORFX) was found downstream and contiguous to the R. capsulatus hupSL whose transcription seemed to depend on the same hup promoter as hupSL. ORFX contained 786 nucleotides capable of encoding a hydrophobic polypeptide of 262 amino acids (30.2 kDa).
KeywordMeSH Terms
53. Saeki  K, Suetsugu  Y, Tokuda  K, Miyatake  Y, Young  DA, Marrs  BL, Matsubara  H,     ( 1991 )

Genetic analysis of functional differences among distinct ferredoxins in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

The Journal of biological chemistry 266 (20)
PMID : 2071578  :  
Abstract >>
Rhodobacter capsulatus has been known to possess two ferredoxins (I and II) with distinct physicochemical and structural properties: ferredoxin I is a 2[4Fe-4S] type and the other is a [3Fe-4S] [4Fe-4S] type. To analyze their possible functional differences, their genes (fdxN and fdxA) were cloned, sequenced, and subjected to interposon mutagenesis experiments. The former gene was adjacent to a gene encoding a chloroplast-type [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin (fdxC). Mutants with inactivated fdxN and/or fdxC were obtained, and they showed virtually no growth under nitrogen-fixing conditions. Complementation experiments confirmed that both fdxN and fdxC were required for nitrogen fixation. On the other hand, we have not been able to disrupt fdxA under the screening conditions surveyed, including conditions that do not require nitrogenase activity for growth, suggesting that ferredoxin II could have an unknown essential role(s). These indicate functional differences among multiple ferredoxins in one bacterium other than in cyanobacterial heterocysts and indispensability of certain ferredoxins in nitrogen fixation other than Rhizobium meliloti FdxN.
KeywordMeSH Terms
54. Xu  HW, Wall  JD,     ( 1991 )

Clustering of genes necessary for hydrogen oxidation in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Journal of bacteriology 173 (7)
PMID : 2007559  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.173.7.2401-2405.1991     PMC  :   PMC207794    
Abstract >>
Three cosmids previously shown to contain information necessary for the expression of uptake of hydrogenase in Rhodobacter capsulatus were found to be present in a cluster on the chromosome. Earlier genetic experiments suggested the presence of at least six genes essential for hydrogenase activity that are now shown to be in a region of approximately 18 kb that includes the structural genes for the enzyme. A potential response regulator gene was sequenced as a part of the hup gene region.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
55. McEwan  AG, Ferguson  SJ, Jackson  JB,     ( 1991 )

Purification and properties of dimethyl sulphoxide reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus. A periplasmic molybdoenzyme.

The Biochemical journal 274 (Pt 1) (N/A)
PMID : 2001248  :   DOI  :   10.1042/bj2740305     PMC  :   PMC1149954    
Abstract >>
Dimethyl sulphoxide reductase was purified from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. The enzyme is composed of a single polypeptide of Mr 82,000 and contains a pterin-type molybdenum cofactor as the only detectable prosthetic group. The oxidized molybdenum cofactor of dimethyl sulphoxide reductase is a weak chromophore and exhibits broad absorption bands in the u.v.-visible-absorption spectral region. A distinct spectrum was generated upon addition of dithionite.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Coenzymes
Iron-Sulfur Proteins
56. Toussaint  B, Bosc  C, Richaud  P, Colbeau  A, Vignais  PM,     ( 1991 )

A mutation in a Rhodobacter capsulatus gene encoding an integration host factor-like protein impairs in vivo hydrogenase expression.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 88 (23)
PMID : 1961742  :   DOI  :   10.1073/pnas.88.23.10749     PMC  :   PMC53008    
Abstract >>
A gene capable of encoding a protein sharing 45% identical amino acids with the alpha subunit of the integration host factor (IHF) of Escherichia coli was isolated from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus strain B10 by complementation of a hydrogenase-deficient (Hup-) mutant, IR4. A DNA fragment of 274 base pairs containing an IHF binding consensus sequence, isolated from the promoter region of the hydrogenase structural genes (hupSL), was shown by gel retardation assays to bind the IHF protein from E. coli. The product of the R. capsulatus gene was shown to bind specifically to the 274-base-pair DNA fragment from the hupSL promoter. By analogy to the E. coli himA gene, which encodes the alpha subunit of IHF, the gene complementing the IR4 mutant was named himA of R. capsulatus. The wild-type himA gene, cloned in plasmid pBO2, was introduced into the IR4 strain and shown to restore, in trans, hydrogenase activity and autotrophic growth in the mutant. In IR4, a C----T transition mutation had replaced Arg-8 by Cys-8. Gel mobility shifts of the 274-base-pair DNA fragment, not observed with the himA gene product of IR4, were restored with extracts from IR4(pBO2) cells, containing the himA gene on the recombinant plasmid pBO2.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
Mutagenesis, Insertional
Operon
57. Dietzel  U, Kuper  J, Doebbler  JA, Schulte  A, Truglio  JJ, Leimkühler  S, Kisker  C,     ( 2009 )

Mechanism of Substrate and Inhibitor Binding of Rhodobacter capsulatus Xanthine Dehydrogenase.

The Journal of biological chemistry 284 (13)
PMID : 19109249  :   DOI  :   10.1074/jbc.M808114200     PMC  :   PMC2659235    
Abstract >>
Rhodobacter capsulatus xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is an (alphabeta)(2) heterotetrameric cytoplasmic enzyme that resembles eukaryotic xanthine oxidoreductases in respect to both amino acid sequence and structural fold. To obtain a detailed understanding of the mechanism of substrate and inhibitor binding at the active site, we solved crystal structures of R. capsulatus XDH in the presence of its substrates hypoxanthine, xanthine, and the inhibitor pterin-6-aldehyde using either the inactive desulfo form of the enzyme or an active site mutant (E(B)232Q) to prevent substrate turnover. The hypoxanthine- and xanthine-bound structures reveal the orientation of both substrates at the active site and show the importance of residue Glu(B)-232 for substrate positioning. The oxygen atom at the C-6 position of both substrates is oriented toward Arg(B)-310 in the active site. Thus the substrates bind in an orientation opposite to the one seen in the structure of the reduced enzyme with the inhibitor oxypurinol. The tightness of the substrates in the active site suggests that the intermediate products must exit the binding pocket to allow first the attack of the C-2, followed by oxidation of the C-8 atom to form the final product uric acid. Structural studies of pterin-6-aldehyde, a potent inhibitor of R. capsulatus XDH, contribute further to the understanding of the relative positioning of inhibitors and substrates in the binding pocket. Steady state kinetics reveal a competitive inhibition pattern with a K(i) of 103.57 +/- 18.96 nm for pterin-6-aldehyde.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Protein Folding
58. Bortolotti  A, Pérez-Dorado  I, Goñi  G, Medina  M, Hermoso  JA, Carrillo  N, Cortez  N,     ( 2009 )

Coenzyme binding and hydride transfer in Rhodobacter capsulatus ferredoxin/flavodoxin NADP(H) oxidoreductase.

Biochimica et biophysica acta 1794 (2)
PMID : 18973834  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.bbapap.2008.09.013    
Abstract >>
Ferredoxin-NADP(H) reductases catalyse the reversible hydride/electron exchange between NADP(H) and ferredoxin/flavodoxin, comprising a structurally defined family of flavoenzymes with two distinct subclasses. Those present in Gram-negative bacteria (FPRs) display turnover numbers of 1-5 s(-1) while the homologues of cyanobacteria and plants (FNRs) developed a 100-fold activity increase. We investigated nucleotide interactions and hydride transfer in Rhodobacter capsulatus FPR comparing them to those reported for FNRs. NADP(H) binding proceeds as in FNRs with stacking of the nicotinamide on the flavin, which resulted in formation of charge-transfer complexes prior to hydride exchange. The affinity of FPR for both NADP(H) and 2'-P-AMP was 100-fold lower than that of FNRs. The crystal structure of FPR in complex with 2'-P-AMP and NADP(+) allowed modelling of the adenosine ring system bound to the protein, whereas the nicotinamide portion was either not visible or protruding toward solvent in different obtained crystals. Stabilising contacts with the active site residues are different in the two reductase classes. We conclude that evolution to higher activities in FNRs was partially favoured by modification of NADP(H) binding in the initial complexes through changes in the active site residues involved in stabilisation of the adenosine portion of the nucleotide and in the mobile C-terminus of FPR.
KeywordMeSH Terms
59. Bauer  CE, Buggy  JJ, Yang  ZM, Marrs  BL,     ( 1991 )

The superoperonal organization of genes for pigment biosynthesis and reaction center proteins is a conserved feature in Rhodobacter capsulatus: analysis of overlapping bchB and puhA transcripts.

Molecular & general genetics : MGG 228 (3)
PMID : 1896013  :   DOI  :   10.1007/bf00260637    
Abstract >>
Most of the essential biosynthetic and structural genes involved in bacterial photosynthesis are clustered in a 46 kb region of the Rhodobacter capsulatus genome. Previous analyses have demonstrated that the puf operon, which encodes light harvesting and reaction center structural genes as well as a regulatory gene for bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis, is expressed from a complex set of overlapping transcripts. Differential initiation and processing of these transcripts is thought to be involved in regulating expression of puf-encoded genes. In this study we demonstrate that the puh operon, which is located 39 kb away from the puf operon, also contains overlapping transcripts. One large 11 kb puhA transcript is shown to be a product of read-through from an upstream operon (bchB) which encodes numerous bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis genes. A second 1.1 kb mRNA is shown to be derived from the 11 kb bchB transcript by processing and a third, highly expressed, 0.95 kb transcript is shown to be initiated from a promoter located within the distal gene of the bchB operon. The occurrence of overlapping transcripts for the puf and puh operons was further shown to influence development of the photochemical apparatus during conditions of environmental shifts in oxygen tension. Evidence for the occurrence of a "superoperonal" organization of overlapping operons in several different species of purple photosynthetic bacteria is discussed.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
Genes, Bacterial
Operon
Transcription, Genetic
60. Richaud  P, Colbeau  A, Toussaint  B, Vignais  PM,     ( 1991 )

Identification and sequence analysis of the hupR1 gene, which encodes a response regulator of the NtrC family required for hydrogenase expression in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Journal of bacteriology 173 (18)
PMID : 1885559  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.173.18.5928-5932.1991     PMC  :   PMC208331    
Abstract >>
The hupR1 gene from Rhodobacter capsulatus was cloned and sequenced. It can encode a protein of 53,843 Da which shares significant similarity with several transcriptional regulators and activates transcription of the structural hupSL genes of [NiFe]hydrogenase, as shown by the use of a translational fusion of lacZ with the hupSL promoter. A Hup- mutant having a point mutation in the hupR1 gene is described.
KeywordMeSH Terms
DNA-Binding Proteins
Genes, Bacterial
61. Wu  LF, Reizer  A, Reizer  J, Cai  B, Tomich  JM, Saier  MH,     ( 1991 )

Nucleotide sequence of the Rhodobacter capsulatus fruK gene, which encodes fructose-1-phosphate kinase: evidence for a kinase superfamily including both phosphofructokinases of Escherichia coli.

Journal of bacteriology 173 (10)
PMID : 1850730  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.173.10.3117-3127.1991     PMC  :   PMC207905    
Abstract >>
The fruK gene encoding fructose-1-phosphate kinase (FruK), located within the fructose (fru)-catabolic operon of Rhodobacter capsulatus, was sequenced. FruK of R. capsulatus (316 amino acids; molecular weight = 31,232) is the same size as and is homologous to FruK of Escherichia coli, phosphofructokinase B (PfkB) of E. coli, phosphotagatokinase of Staphylococcus aureus, and ribokinase of E. coli. These proteins therefore make up a family of homologous proteins, termed the PfkB family. A phylogenetic tree for this new family was constructed. Sequence comparisons plus chemical inactivation studies suggested the lack of involvement of specific residues in catalysis. Although the Rhodobacter FruK differed markedly from the other enzymes within the PfkB family with respect to amino acid composition, these enzymes exhibited similar predicted secondary structural features. A large internal segment of the Rhodobacter FruK was found to be similar in sequence to the domain bearing the sugar bisphosphate-binding region of the large subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase of plants and bacteria. Proteins of the PfkB family did not exhibit statistically significant sequence identity with PfkA of E. coli. PfkA, however, is homologous to other prokaryotic and eukaryotic ATP- and PPi-dependent Pfks (the PfkA family). These eukaryotic, ATP-dependent enzymes each consist of a homotetramer (mammalian) or a heterooctamer (yeasts), with each subunit containing an internal duplication of the size of the entire PfkA protein of E. coli. In some of these enzymes, additional domains are present. A phylogenetic tree was constructed for the PfkA family and revealed that the bacterial enzymes closely resemble the N-terminal domains of the eukaryotic enzyme subunits whereas the C-terminal domains have diverged more extensively. The PPi-dependent Pfk of potato is only distantly related to the ATP-dependent enzymes. On the basis of their similar functions, sizes, predicted secondary structures, and sequences, we suggest that the PfkA and PfkB families share a common evolutionary origin.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Phosphofructokinase-1
62. Peters  A, Kulajta  C, Pawlik  G, Daldal  F, Koch  HG,     ( 2008 )

Stability of the cbb3-type cytochrome oxidase requires specific CcoQ-CcoP interactions.

Journal of bacteriology 190 (16)
PMID : 18556791  :   DOI  :   10.1128/JB.00534-08     PMC  :   PMC2519385     DOI  :   10.1128/JB.00534-08     PMC  :   PMC2519385    
Abstract >>
Cytochrome cbb(3)-type oxidases are members of the heme copper oxidase superfamily and are composed of four subunits. CcoN contains the heme b-Cu(B) binuclear center where oxygen is reduced, while CcoP and CcoO are membrane-bound c-type cytochromes thought to channel electrons from the donor cytochrome into the binuclear center. Like many other bacterial members of this superfamily, the cytochrome cbb(3)-type oxidase contains a fourth, non-cofactor-containing subunit, which is termed CcoQ. In the present study, we analyzed the role of CcoQ on the stability and activity of Rhodobacter capsulatus cbb(3)-type oxidase. Our data showed that CcoQ is a single-spanning membrane protein with a N(out)-C(in) topology. In the absence of CcoQ, cbb(3)-type oxidase activity is significantly reduced, irrespective of the growth conditions. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses revealed that the lack of CcoQ specifically impaired the stable recruitment of CcoP into the cbb(3)-type oxidase complex. This suggested a specific CcoQ-CcoP interaction, which was confirmed by chemical cross-linking. Collectively, our data demonstrated that in R. capsulatus CcoQ was required for optimal cbb(3)-type oxidase activity because it stabilized the interaction of CcoP with the CcoNO core complex, leading subsequently to the formation of the active 230-kDa cbb(3)-type oxidase complex.
KeywordMeSH Terms
63. Grabau  C, Schatt  E, Jouanneau  Y, Vignais  PM,     ( 1991 )

A new [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin from Rhodobacter capsulatus. Coexpression with a 2[4Fe-4S] ferredoxin in Escherichia coli.

The Journal of biological chemistry 266 (5)
PMID : 1847145  :  
Abstract >>
A 285-base pair open reading frame was found immediately upstream of the fdxN gene (encoding ferredoxin I) of Rhodobacter capsulatus and coded for a 95-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of 10,156. The deduced amino acid sequence contained 5 cysteines, 4 of which exhibited spacing characteristic of [2Fe-2S] plant and cyanobacterial ferredoxins. The amino acid sequence was found to share approximately 25% amino acid similarity with plant-type ferredoxins. The gene was named fdxC. Expression of the fdxC and fdxN genes together in Escherichia coli was accomplished by subcloning the genes in the vector pUC18 downstream of the lac promoter. Cells containing this plasmid produced a red and a brown protein corresponding to the fdxC and fdxN gene products, respectively. EPR and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy confirmed that the FdxC protein contained a [2Fe-2S] cluster and the FdxN protein contained two [4Fe-4S] clusters and that the centers were correctly assembled and inserted in the ferredoxins expressed in E. coli. Transcription (Northern blot) analysis showed that the genes were transcribed only under nitrogen-limiting (nif-derepressing) growth conditions.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
64. Shaw  JG, Hamblin  MJ, Kelly  DJ,     ( 1991 )

Purification, characterization and nucleotide sequence of the periplasmic C4-dicarboxylate-binding protein (DctP) from Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Molecular microbiology 5 (12)
PMID : 1809844  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1365-2958.1991.tb01865.x    
Abstract >>
A periplasmic binding protein essential for high-affinity transport of the C4-dicarboxylates malate, succinate and fumarate across the cytoplasmic membrane of the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus has been purified to homogeneity and some of its ligand-binding properties characterized. The protein was not produced in a Tn5 insertion mutant unable to transport C4-dicarboxylates under aerobic conditions in the dark. Wild-type DNA corresponding to the location of the transposon insertion site was subcloned and a 1.5 kb section sequenced. A complete open reading frame of 999 bp was identified that encoded a 333-residue protein (DctP) with a molecular weight of 36,128 with a 26-residue amino-terminal signal peptide. The identify of this protein with the purified dicarboxylate-binding protein and the position of the predicted signal peptide cleavage site was confirmed by N-terminal sequencing. No significant homology with other proteins was detected in database searches. A GC-rich region of dyad symmetry was located 7 bp downstream of the dctP translational stop codon. This structure may be of significance in regulating the relative abundance of DctP and other dct gene products which comprise the high-affinity dicarboxylate transport system in this bacterium.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
Dicarboxylic Acid Transporters
65. Cauvin  B, Colbeau  A, Vignais  PM,     ( 1991 )

The hydrogenase structural operon in Rhodobacter capsulatus contains a third gene, hupM, necessary for the formation of a physiologically competent hydrogenase.

Molecular microbiology 5 (10)
PMID : 1791762  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1365-2958.1991.tb02098.x    
Abstract >>
The hupM gene, previously called ORFX, found downstream from and contiguous with the structural hydrogenase genes hupS and hupL in Rhodobacter capsulatus, is shown here to form a single hupSLM transcription unit with the two other genes. The hupM gene was inactivated by interposon mutagenesis. The two selected mutants, BCX1 and BCX2, which contained the kanamycin-resistance gene in opposite orientation, still exhibited hydrogenase activity when assayed with the artificial electron acceptors benzylviologen and methylene blue. However, the hydrogenase was not physiologically active in these mutants, which could not grow autotrophically and were unable to recycle electrons to nitrogenase or to respire on H2. The hupM gene starts nine base pairs downstream from the TGA stop codon of hupL gene, which encodes the large subunit of the [NiFe]hydrogenase of Rhodobacter capsulatus. The three contiguous genes hupS, hupL and hupM were subcloned downstream from the promoter of hupSL, either with the promoter in the correct orientation (plasmid pBC8) or with the promoter in the opposite orientation (plasmid pBC9), then the constructs were introduced into the mutant strains. Only plasmid pBC8 could restore the formation of a competent hydrogenase in mutants BCX1 and BCX2, indicating that the hupM gene is expressed only from the hupSL promoter.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
66. Masepohl  B, Klipp  W, Pühler  A,     ( 1988 )

Genetic characterization and sequence analysis of the duplicated nifA/nifB gene region of Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Molecular & general genetics : MGG 212 (1)
PMID : 2836706  :   DOI  :   10.1007/bf00322441    
Abstract >>
A DNA region showing homology to Klebsiella pneumoniae nifA and nifB is duplicated in Rhodobacter capsulatus. The two copies of this region are called nifA/nifB copy I and nifA/nifB copy II. Deletion mutagenesis demonstrated that either of the two copies is sufficient for growth in nitrogen-free medium. In contrast, a double deletion mutant turned out to be deficient in nitrogen fixation. The complete nucleotide sequence of a 4838 bp fragment containing nifA/nifB copy I was determined. Two open reading frames coding for a 59,653 (NifA) and a 49,453 (NifB) dalton protein could be detected. Comparison of the amino acid sequences revealed that the R. capsulatus nifA and nifB gene products are more closely related to the NifA and NifB proteins of Rhizobium meliloti and Rhizobium leguminosarum than to those of K. pneumoniae. A rho-independent termination signal and a typical nif promoter region containing a putative NifA binding site and a consensus nif promoter are located within the region between the R. capsulatus nifA and nifB genes. The nifB sequence is followed by an open reading frame (ORF1) coding for a 27721 dalton protein in nifA/nifB copy I. DNA sequence analysis of nifA/nifB copy II showed that both copies differ in the DNA region downstream of nifB and in the noncoding sequence in front of nifA. All other regions compared, i.e. the 5' part of nifA, the intergenic region and the 3' part of nifB, are identical in both copies.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes
Genes, Bacterial
67. Bao  Z, Qi  X, Hong  S, Xu  K, He  F, Zhang  M, Chen  J, Chao  D, Zhao  W, Li  D, Wang  J, Zhang  P,     ( 2017 )

Structure and mechanism of a group-I cobalt energy coupling factor transporter.

Cell research 27 (5)
PMID : 28322252  :   DOI  :   10.1038/cr.2017.38     PMC  :   PMC5520853    
Abstract >>
Energy-coupling factor (ECF) transporters are a large family of ATP-binding cassette transporters recently identified in microorganisms. Responsible for micronutrient uptake from the environment, ECF transporters are modular transporters composed of a membrane substrate-binding component EcfS and an ECF module consisting of an integral membrane scaffold component EcfT and two cytoplasmic ATP binding/hydrolysis components EcfA/A'. ECF transporters are classified into groups I and II. Currently, the molecular understanding of group-I ECF transporters is very limited, partly due to a lack of transporter complex structural information. Here, we present structures and structure-based analyses of the group-I cobalt ECF transporter CbiMNQO, whose constituting subunits CbiM/CbiN, CbiQ, and CbiO correspond to the EcfS, EcfT, and EcfA components of group-II ECF transporters, respectively. Through reconstitution of different CbiMNQO subunits and determination of related ATPase and transporter activities, the substrate-binding subunit CbiM was found to stimulate CbiQO's basal ATPase activity. The structure of CbiMQO complex was determined in its inward-open conformation and that of CbiO in �], �^-methyleneadenosine 5'-triphosphate-bound closed conformation. Structure-based analyses revealed interactions between different components, substrate-gating function of the L1 loop of CbiM, and conformational changes of CbiO induced by ATP binding and product release within the CbiMNQO transporter complex. These findings enabled us to propose a working model of the CbiMNQO transporter, in which the transport process requires the rotation or toppling of both CbiQ and CbiM, and CbiN might function in coupling conformational changes between CbiQ and CbiM.
KeywordMeSH Terms
68. Campbell  JI, Scahill  S, Gibson  T, Ambler  RP,     ( 1989 )

The phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas capsulata sp108 encodes an indigenous class A beta-lactamase.

The Biochemical journal 260 (3)
PMID : 2788410  :   DOI  :   10.1042/bj2600803     PMC  :   PMC1138748    
Abstract >>
The nucleotide sequence of a 2.37 kb DNA fragment derived from cloning a total DNA digest of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata sp108 was determined. The DNA codes for a beta-lactamase, a protein showing sequence similarity to the ampR protein of Enterobacter cloacae and an unidentified open reading frame. Hybridization experiments with a probe carrying DNA from within the beta-lactamase gene suggests a chromosomal location for the coding sequences in strain sp108 and in sp109, a penicillin-sensitive revertant of sp108 in which the enzyme is not inducible. A protein-sequence comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the Rps. capsulata beta-lactamase indicates that it is a Class A enzyme and that its sequence can be aligned with those of the characterized beta-lactamases from Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus licheniformis and the Escherichia coli plasmid (R-TEM enzyme), with only a few insertions or deletions. The corresponding DNA sequence is, however, characteristically rhodopseudomonad, suggesting that it is not a recently transposed gene.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
69. Davidson  E, Daldal  F,     ( 1987 )

fbc operon, encoding the Rieske Fe-S protein cytochrome b, and cytochrome c1 apoproteins previously described from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides, is from Rhodopseudomonas capsulata.

Journal of molecular biology 195 (1)
PMID : 2821272  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0022-2836(87)90324-x    
Abstract >>
Detailed comparison of the 'Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides GA' strain used by Gabellini et al. (1985) with genuine R. sphaeroides and R. capsulata strains indicated that the previously reported fbc operon of R. sphaeroides (Gabellini and Sebald, 1986) encoding the structural genes for the Rieske Fe-S protein, cytochrome b and cytochrome c1 subunits of the ubiquinol:cytochrome c2 oxidoreductase, is not from R. sphaeroides, but is rather from a strain of R. capsulata. Consequently, the genuine bc1 genes from R. sphaeroides were cloned using corresponding R. capsulata genes as probes, and a partial nucleotide sequence for the Rieske Fe-S protein of R. sphaeroides was determined and compared with that of R. capsulata.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Electron Transport Complex III
Operon
70. Alias  A, Cejudo  FJ, Chabert  J, Willison  JC, Vignais  PM,     ( 1989 )

Nucleotide sequence of wild-type and mutant nifR4 (ntrA) genes of Rhodobacter capsulatus: identification of an essential glycine residue.

Nucleic acids research 17 (13)
PMID : 2762129  :   DOI  :   10.1093/nar/17.13.5377     PMC  :   PMC318117    
Abstract >>
N/A
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
Mutation
71. Moreno-Vivian  C, Schmehl  M, Masepohl  B, Arnold  W, Klipp  W,     ( 1989 )

DNA sequence and genetic analysis of the Rhodobacter capsulatus nifENX gene region: homology between NifX and NifB suggests involvement of NifX in processing of the iron-molybdenum cofactor.

Molecular & general genetics : MGG 216 (2��3��)
PMID : 2747620  :   DOI  :   10.1007/bf00334376    
Abstract >>
Rhodobacter capsulatus genes homologous to Klebsiella pneumoniae nifE, nifN and nifX were identified by DNA sequence analysis of a 4282 bp fragment of nif region A. Four open reading frames coding for a 51,188 (NifE), a 49,459 (NifN), a 17,459 (NifX) and a 17,472 (ORF4) dalton protein were detected. A typical NifA activated consensus promoter and two imperfect putative NifA binding sites were located in the 377 bp sequence in front of the nifE coding region. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of R. capsulatus NifE and NifN revealed homologies not only to analogous gene products of other organisms but also to the alpha and beta subunits of the nitrogenase iron-molybdenum protein. In addition, the R. capsulatus nifE and nifN proteins shared considerable homology with each other. The map position of nifX downstream of nifEN corresponded in R. capsulatus and K. pneumoniae and the deduced molecular weights of both proteins were nearly identical. Nevertheless, R. capsulatus NifX was more related to the C-terminal end of NifY from K. pneumoniae than to NifX. A small domain of approximately 33 amino acid residues showing the highest degree of homology between NifY and NifX was also present in all nifB proteins analyzed so far. This homology indicated an evolutionary relationship of nifX, nifY and nifB and also suggested that NifX and NifY might play a role in maturation and/or stability of the iron-molybdenum cofactor. The open reading frame (ORF4) downstream of nifX in R. capsulatus is also present in Azotobacter vinelandii but not in K. pneumoniae.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
72. Moreno-Vivian  C, Hennecke  S, Pühler  A, Klipp  W,     ( 1989 )

Open reading frame 5 (ORF5), encoding a ferredoxinlike protein, and nifQ are cotranscribed with nifE, nifN, nifX, and ORF4 in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Journal of bacteriology 171 (5)
PMID : 2708314  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.171.5.2591-2598.1989     PMC  :   PMC209938    
Abstract >>
DNA sequence analysis of a 1,600-base-pair fragment located downstream of nifENX in nif region A of Rhodobacter capsulatus revealed two additional open reading frames (ORFs): ORF5, encoding a ferredoxinlike protein, and nifQ. The ferredoxinlike gene product contained two cysteine motifs, typical of ferredoxins coordinating two 4Fe-4S clusters, but the distance between these two motifs was unusual for low-molecular-weight ferredoxins. The R. capsulatus nifQ gene product shared a high degree of homology with Klebsiella pneumoniae and Azotobacter vinelandii NifQ, including a typical cysteine motif located in the C-terminal part. nifQ insertion mutants and also an ORF5-nifQ double deletion mutant showed normal diazotrophic growth only in the presence of high concentrations of molybdate. This demonstrated that the gene encoding the ferredoxinlike protein is not essential for nitrogen fixation. No NifA-activated consensus promoter could be found in the intergenic region between nifENX-ORF4 and ORF5-nifQ. Analyses of a nifQ-lacZYA fusion revealed that transcription of nifQ was initiated at a promoter in front of nifE. In contrast to other nitrogen-fixing organisms, R. capsulatus nifE, nifN, nifX, ORF4, ORF5, and nifQ were organized in one transcriptional unit.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
73. Schatt  E, Jouanneau  Y, Vignais  PM,     ( 1989 )

Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the structural gene of ferredoxin I from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Journal of bacteriology 171 (11)
PMID : 2681157  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.171.11.6218-6226.1989     PMC  :   PMC210492    
Abstract >>
The structural gene (fdxN) encoding ferredoxin I (FdI) in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus was isolated from a cosmid library by using an oligonucleotide probe corresponding to the N-terminal amino acid sequence of FdI. The nucleotide sequences of the gene and of the 3'- and 5'-flanking regions were determined. The gene fdxN codes for a polypeptide of 64 mino acids having a calculated molecular weight of 6,728. Amino acid sequencing of the N- and C-terminal ends of FdI allowed the determination of 86% of the primary structure and confirmed that FdI is the fdxN gene product. Sequence comparisons indicate that FdI shares common structural features with ferredoxins containing two [4Fe-4S] clusters, including eight conserved cysteines. Maximal homology was found with a ferredoxin from Rhodo-pseudomonas palustris. Northern (RNA) hybridization using a 158-base-pair DNA fragment internal to the fdxN coding region revealed the existence of two mRNA transcripts of approximately 330 and 750 nucleotides. Neither of those transcripts was present under nif-repressing growth conditions. The 5' end of the smaller transcript was mapped by S1 nuclease protection and primer extension experiments. On the basis of Southern hybridization experiments, by using probes homologous to fdxN, nifE, and a fragment complementing a nif point mutation, fdxN was localized inside a cluster of nif genes.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Cloning, Molecular
Genes, Bacterial
74. Young  DA, Bauer  CE, Williams  JC, Marrs  BL,     ( 1989 )

Genetic evidence for superoperonal organization of genes for photosynthetic pigments and pigment-binding proteins in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Molecular & general genetics : MGG 218 (1)
PMID : 2550757  :   DOI  :   10.1007/bf00330558    
Abstract >>
Three adjacent operons, each concerned with photosynthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus, have been shown by genetic means to be cotranscribable. In the course of describing the characteristics of the bchCA operon, which encodes two enzymes essential for bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, we found that the expression of the bchCA genes is influenced by readthrough from the upstream crtE and crtF genes. The crtE and crtF genes encode enzymes required for carotenoid biosynthesis and function as an operon. Furthermore, the distal structural gene of the bchCA operon, bchA, contains within it both the major oxygen-regulated promotor (Ppuf1) and the constitutive (Ppuf2) promotor for the puf operon. Since these three operons, crtEF, bchCA, and puf, are all transcribed in the same direction, it appears that polymerases traversing the downstream regions may start at any of several promoters. This pattern of transcription, which is unusual among bacteria, demonstrates that the activities of individual operons in a superoperonal cluster may be affected by their positions within the cluster.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Multigene Family
Operon
Photosynthesis
75. Daldal  F, Tokito  MK, Davidson  E, Faham  M,     ( 1989 )

Mutations conferring resistance to quinol oxidation (Qz) inhibitors of the cyt bc1 complex of Rhodobacter capsulatus.

The EMBO journal 8 (13)
PMID : 2556259  :   PMC  :   PMC401570    
Abstract >>
Several spontaneous mutants of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus resistant to myxothiazol, stigmatellin and mucidin--inhibitors of the ubiquinol: cytochrome c oxidoreductase (cyt bc1 complex)--were isolated. They were grouped into eight different classes based on their genetic location, growth properties and inhibitor cross-resistance. The petABC (fbcFBC) cluster that encodes the structural genes for the Rieske FeS protein, cyt b and cyt c1 subunits of the cyt bc1 complex was cloned out of the representative isolates and the molecular basis of inhibitor-resistance was determined by DNA sequencing. These data indicated that while one group of mutations was located outside the petABC(fbcFBC) cluster, the remainder were single base pair changes in codons corresponding to phylogenetically conserved amino acid residues of cyt b. Of these substitutions, F144S conferred resistance to myxothiazol, T163A and V333A to stigmatellin, L106P and G152S to myxothiazol + mucidin and M140I and F144L to myxothiazol + stigmatellin. In addition, a mutation (aer126) which specifically impairs the quinol oxidase (Qz) activity of the cyt bc1 complex of a non-photosynthetic mutant (R126) was identified to be a glycine to an aspartic acid replacement at position 158 of cyt b. Six of these mutations were found between amino acid residues 140 and 163, in a region linking the putative third and fourth transmembrane helices of cyt b. The non-random clustering of several inhibitor-resistance mutations around the non-functional aer126 mutation suggests that this region may be involved in the formation of the Qz inhibitor binding/quinol oxidation domain(s) of the cyt bc1 complex. Of the two remaining mutations, the V333A replacement conferred resistance to stigmatellin exclusively and was located in another region toward the C terminus of cyt b. The L106P substitution, on the other hand, was situated in the transmembrane helix II that carries two conserved histidine residues (positions 97 and 111 in R. capsulatus) considered to be the axial ligands for the heme groups of cyt b. The structural and functional roles of the amino acid residues involved in the acquisition of Qz inhibitor resistance are discussed in terms of the primary structure of cyt b and in relation to the natural inhibitor-resistance of various phylogenetically related cyt bc/bf complexes.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
Mutation
76. Wellington  CL, Beatty  JT,     ( 1989 )

Promoter mapping and nucleotide sequence of the bchC bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis gene from Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Gene 83 (2)
PMID : 2555268  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0378-1119(89)90111-x    
Abstract >>
Because there are not yet direct assays for most of the proteins required for differentiation of Rhodobacter capsulatus cytoplasmic membrane into photosynthetically competent intracytoplasmic membrane, a molecular inquiry into the mechanism and regulation of this process is difficult. We have, therefore, chosen to isolate R. capsulatus photosynthesis genes by creating in-frame fusions to lac'Z vectors, and selecting for those that direct appropriately regulated levels of beta-galactosidase in R. capsulatus. One lacZ fusion isolate was used to identify an open reading frame (ORF) of unknown function and flanking sequences that promoted initiation of transcription. The chromosomal copy of this ORF was mutated by insertion of a kanamycin-resistant cartridge into the cloned fragment and substitution for the chromosomal copy by homologous recombination. The phenotype of the resultant mutant cells showed that the ORF encodes 2-desacetyl-2-hydroxyethyl bacteriochlorophyllide a dehydrogenase, an enzyme that catalyzes the penultimate step in bacteriochlorophyll a biosynthesis. The nucleotide sequence of this bchC gene and its 5' regulatory region were determined. The deduced amino acid sequence shows that the bchC gene encodes a 33-kDa protein that is less hydrophobic than integral membrane proteins of R. capsulatus, although there are hydrophobic segments that could in principle interact with a lipid membrane. Results of S1 nuclease protection and primer extension experiments show that a 5' mRNA end is positioned within the cloned segment, and that this 5' end maps to sequences with significant sequence similarity to the previously characterized puf operon promoter region.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
Promoter Regions, Genetic
77. Tichy  HV, Oberlé  B, Stiehle  H, Schiltz  E, Drews  G,     ( 1989 )

Genes downstream from pucB and pucA are essential for formation of the B800-850 complex of Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Journal of bacteriology 171 (9)
PMID : 2549005  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.171.9.4914-4922.1989     PMC  :   PMC210297    
Abstract >>
The formation of the light-harvesting complex B800-850 (LH-II) of Rhodobacter capsulatus requires, in addition to the synthesis of the polypeptides alpha and beta (the gene products of pucA and pucB), the synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoids and the expression of at least one gene localized downstream from the pucBA operon. This was concluded from the observation that a Tn5 insertion downstream from pucBA inhibited the formation of the LH-II complex and the formation of the pucBA mRNA. The Tn5 insertion point was mapped and found to be over 500 base pairs (bp) downstream from the end of the pucA gene, suggesting the presence of additional puc genes. A region of about 3,000 bp including the pucB and pucA genes and DNA downstream from pucA was sequenced and found to contain three open reading frames (ORFs C, D, and E). The polypeptide deduced from the first ORF (C) contains 403 amino acids with strongly hydrophobic stretches and one large and three small hydrophilic domains carrying many charged residues. The other two ORFs contain 113 (D) and 118 (E) codons. The amino acid sequences of the N terminus and two tryptic peptides of an alkaline-soluble Mr-14,000 subunit of the isolated LH-II complex were identical with the deduced amino acid sequence of ORF E.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes
Genes, Bacterial
Operon
78. Adams  CW, Forrest  ME, Cohen  SN, Beatty  JT,     ( 1989 )

Structural and functional analysis of transcriptional control of the Rhodobacter capsulatus puf operon.

Journal of bacteriology 171 (1)
PMID : 2492501  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.171.1.473-482.1989     PMC  :   PMC209611    
Abstract >>
We report data indicating that the Rhodobacter capsulatus puf operon promoter and the site for its oxygen regulation are located more than 700 base pairs upstream from the previously identified puf genes and have identified the nucleotide sequences that constitute these control signals. A model is proposed in which a polycistronic transcript at least 3.4 kilobases in length is initiated near the O2-regulated promoter and is processed posttranscriptionally by endonucleolytic cleavage at multiple sites, yielding discrete mRNA segments that are degraded at different rates. A newly identified gene (pufQ), which includes a hydrophobic domain having some similarity to domains of the products of the pufL and pufM genes, begins 313 nucleotides into the puf transcript and is located entirely within the most rapidly degraded segment of the transcript. A previously identified puf transcript segment encoding structural proteins for photosynthetic membrane complexes persists after degradation of the most 5' region of the transcript and is itself subject to segmentally specific degradation. Our results suggest a model in which differential expression of the multiple genes encoded by the puf operon is at least in part attributable to major differences in the rates of decay of the various segments of puf mRNA.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Operon
Transcription, Genetic
79. Duport  C, Jouanneau  Y, Vignais  PM,     ( 1990 )

Nucleotide sequence of fdxA encoding a 7Fe ferredoxin of Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Nucleic acids research 18 (15)
PMID : 2388848  :   DOI  :   10.1093/nar/18.15.4618     PMC  :   PMC331310    
Abstract >>
N/A
KeywordMeSH Terms
80. Jouanneau  Y, Richaud  P, Grabau  C,     ( 1990 )

The nucleotide sequence of a flavodoxin-like gene which precedes two ferredoxin genes in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Nucleic acids research 18 (17)
PMID : 2402451  :   DOI  :   10.1093/nar/18.17.5284     PMC  :   PMC332157    
Abstract >>
N/A
KeywordMeSH Terms
81. Wu  LF, Saier  MH,     ( 1990 )

Nucleotide sequence of the fruA gene, encoding the fructose permease of the Rhodobacter capsulatus phosphotransferase system, and analyses of the deduced protein sequence.

Journal of bacteriology 172 (12)
PMID : 2254279  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.172.12.7167-7178.1990     PMC  :   PMC210842    
Abstract >>
The nucleotide sequence of the fruA gene, the terminal gene in the fructose operon of Rhodobacter capsulatus, is reported. This gene codes for the fructose permease (molecular weight, 58,575; 578 aminoacyl residues), the fructose enzyme II (IIFru) of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system. The deduced aminoacyl sequence of the encoded gene product was found to be 55% identical throughout most of its length with the fructose enzyme II of Escherichia coli, with some regions strongly conserved and others weakly conserved. Sequence comparisons revealed that the first 100 aminoacyl residues of both enzymes II were homologous to the second 100 residues, suggesting that an intragenic duplication of about 300 nucleotides had occurred during the evolution of IIFru prior to divergence of the E. coli and R. capsulatus genes. The protein contains only two cysteyl residues, and only one of these residues is conserved between the two proteins. This residue is therefore presumed to provide the active-site thiol group which may serve as the phosphorylation site. IIFru was found to exhibit regions of homology with sequenced enzymes II from other bacteria, including those specific for sucrose, beta-glucosides, mannitol, glucose, N-acetylglucosamine, and lactose. The degree of evolutionary divergence differed for different parts of the proteins, with certain transmembrane segments exhibiting high degrees of conservation. The hydrophobic domain of IIFru was also found to be similar to several uniport and antiport transporters of animals, including the human and mouse insulin-responsive glucose facilitators. These observations suggest that the mechanism of transmembrane transport may be similar for permeases catalyzing group translocation and facilitated diffusion.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
82. Stiehle  H, Cortez  N, Klug  G, Drews  G,     ( 1990 )

A negatively charged N terminus in the alpha polypeptide inhibits formation of light-harvesting complex I in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Journal of bacteriology 172 (12)
PMID : 2254277  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.172.12.7131-7137.1990     PMC  :   PMC210837    
Abstract >>
Light-harvesting complex I (LHI) of Rhodobacter capsulatus contains bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoids which are noncovalently bound to two different apoproteins (alpha and beta polypeptides) carrying oppositely charged N-terminal ends. The contribution of these charged segments to the assembly of LHI was studied with mutants having oppositely charged amino acids in the alpha or beta polypeptide. The influence of these mutations on the insertion and assembly process of the LHI complex was investigated by means of spectroscopic analysis of isolated intracytoplasmic membranes and pulse-chase experiments. Exchange of four positively charged amino acids to negatively charged amino acids on the N-terminal domain of the alpha subunit inhibited completely the assembly of the LHI complex. Although this mutant has no antenna, the reaction center is active and the cells were able to grow anaerobically in the light. Conversely, mutation of the four negatively charged amino acids of the N-terminal segment of the beta polypeptide did not prevent the assembly of the LHI complex, although the stability of the complex and the size of the photosynthetic unit were affected. The presence of the mutated beta polypeptide was confirmed by protein sequencing.
KeywordMeSH Terms
83. Yang  ZM, Bauer  CE,     ( 1990 )

Rhodobacter capsulatus genes involved in early steps of the bacteriochlorophyll biosynthetic pathway.

Journal of bacteriology 172 (9)
PMID : 2203738  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.172.9.5001-5010.1990     PMC  :   PMC213156    
Abstract >>
Three open reading frames in the Rhodobacter capsulatus photosynthesis gene cluster, designated F0, F108, and F1025, were disrupted by site-directed mutagenesis. Mutants bearing insertions in these reading frames were defective in converting protoporphyrin IX to magnesium-protoporphyrin monomethyl ester, protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide a, and magnesium-protoporphyrin monomethyl ester to protochlorophyllide, respectively. These results demonstrate that the genes examined most likely encode enzyme subunits that catalyze steps common to plant and bacterial tetrapyrrole photopigment biosynthetic pathways. The open reading frames were found to be part of a large 11-kilobase operon that encodes numerous genes involved in early steps of the bacteriochlorophyll a biosynthetic pathway.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
84. Wu  LF, Tomich  JM, Saier  MH,     ( 1990 )

Structure and evolution of a multidomain multiphosphoryl transfer protein. Nucleotide sequence of the fruB(HI) gene in Rhodobacter capsulatus and comparisons with homologous genes from other organisms.

Journal of molecular biology 213 (4)
PMID : 2193161  :   DOI  :   10.1016/S0022-2836(05)80256-6    
Abstract >>
The gene order of the fructose (fru) operon and nucleotide sequence of the first gene (fruB(HI) of Rhodobacter capsulatus are reported, analyzed and compared with homologous genes from other bacteria, and the gene products are identified. Included within the region reported is a gene encoding a multiphosphoryl transfer protein (MTP) of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). MTP consists of three moieties: a fructose-specific enzyme III (IIIfru)-like N-terminal moiety (residues 1 to 143) followed by an FPr(HPr)-like moiety (residues 157 to 245) and an enzyme I-like moiety (residues 273 to 827). The enzyme III-like moiety closely resembles the N-terminal 143 residues of the IIIfru-FPR fusion protein from Salmonella typhimurium (40.6% identity throughout its length) and the C-terminal 145 residues of the mannitol-specific enzyme II (IImtl) (37.8% identity throughout its length with the IIImtl moiety of IImtl). The FPr-like domain of MTP resembles the S. typhimurium FPr (42.4% identity) and the Escherichia coli or S. typhimurium HPr (38.8% identity). The enzyme I-like moiety resembles the E. coli enzyme I (38.9% identity). Predicted phosphorylation sites within the three functional units of MTP (His62 in the IIIfru-like moiety; His171 in the FPr-like moiety and His457 in the enzyme I-like moiety) were identified on the basis of sequence comparisons with the homologous proteins from enteric bacteria. The three functional domains of MTP are joined by two flexible "linkage" regions, rich in alanine, glycine and proline, which show 47% sequence identity with each other. They also exhibit a high degree of sequence identity with the linkage region of the mannose-specific enzyme III (IIIman) of the E. coli PTS as well as several other proteins of bacterial, eukaryotic and viral origin. At the RNA level, these linker regions formed hairpin structures with high (90%) G + C content. Analyses of the IIIfru-FPr fusion protein of S. typhimurium revealed that between the IIIfru and FPr moieties of this protein is a stretch of 142 amino acids that do not show homology to known PTS proteins. This region and the adjacent FPr-like region contain a sequence of 110 residues exhibiting 59% similarity to the receiver consensus motif defined by Kofoid and Parkinson. Because the Salmonella IIIfru-FPr fusion protein has been implicated in transcriptional regulation, this region of the Salmonella protein may prove to have regulatory significance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
Biological Evolution
85. Weiss  MS, Wacker  T, Weckesser  J, Welte  W, Schulz  GE,     ( 1990 )

The three-dimensional structure of porin from Rhodobacter capsulatus at 3 A resolution.

FEBS letters 267 (2)
PMID : 2165921  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0014-5793(90)80942-c    
Abstract >>
The crystal structure of porin from Rhodobacter capsulatus strain 37b4 has been solved at 3.0 A (1 A = 0.1 nm) resolution by multiple isomorphous replacement and solvent-flattening. The three pores of the trimer are well defined in the electron density map. Each pore consists of a 16-stranded beta-barrel which traverses the membrane as a tube. Near its center the tube is narrowed by chain segments protruding from the inner wall of the barrel that form an eye-let with an irregular cross-section of about 6 A by 10 A. The eye-let has an axial length of about 10 A; it defines the exclusion limit for diffusing particles.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins
86.     ( 1997 )

A [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin (FdVI) is essential for growth of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Journal of bacteriology 179 (10)
PMID : 9150228  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.179.10.3304-3309.1997     PMC  :   PMC179111    
Abstract >>
The physiological function of Rhodobacter capsulatus FdVI, a [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin, was investigated by the cloning, sequence analysis, and mutagenesis of its structural gene, called fdxE. The DNA region surrounding fdxE was mapped, and the nucleotide sequence of a 4.2-kb fragment was determined. fdxE is preceded by a sequence that is very similar to a sigma54 recognition site and is followed by a putative transcription stop signal, suggesting that fdxE forms a separate cistron. Two open reading frames were identified upstream and downstream of fdxE and were named ORFE0 and ORFE1, respectively. The former may encode a polypeptide having 34% similarity with HtrA, a serine protease found in enteric bacteria. ORFE1 is homologous to purU, a gene involved in purine biosynthesis. Interposon mutagenesis of fdxE was unsuccessful when attempted on the wild-type strain B10. Disruption of fdxE could be achieved only in strains harboring an additional copy of fdxE on a plasmid. Mutants obtained in this way and carrying a plasmid-borne copy of fdxE under the control of the nifH promoter grew only in N-free medium, thus demonstrating that fdxE expression is required for growth. Nevertheless, such mutants were found to spontaneously revert at a frequency of 5 x 10(-6) to an apparent wild-type phenotype, although they contained no detectable amount of FdVI. Taken together, the results indicate that FdVI is required for an essential metabolic function in R. capsulatus and that this FdVI dependence could be relieved by a single-mutation event. In accordance, FdVI biosynthesis was found to be constitutive in R. capsulatus.
KeywordMeSH Terms
87.     ( 1997 )

Comparative characterization of SecA from the alpha-subclass purple bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus and Escherichia coli reveals differences in membrane and precursor specificity.

Journal of bacteriology 179 (12)
PMID : 9190818  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.179.12.4003-4012.1997     PMC  :   PMC179211    
Abstract >>
We have cloned the secA gene of the alpha-subclass purple bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus, a close relative to the mitochondrial ancestor, and purified the protein after expression in Escherichia coli. R. capsulatus SecA contains 904 amino acids with 53% identity to E. coli and 54% identity to Caulobacter crescentus SecA. In contrast to the nearly equal partitioning of E. coli SecA between the cytosol and plasma membrane, R. capsulatus SecA is recovered predominantly from the membrane fraction. A SecA-deficient, cell-free synthesis-translocation system prepared from R. capsulatus is used to demonstrate translocation activity of the purified R. capsulatus SecA. This translocation activity is then compared to that of the E. coli counterpart by using various precursor proteins and inside-out membrane vesicles prepared from both bacteria. We find a preference of the R. capsulatus SecA for the homologous membrane vesicles whereas E. coli SecA is active with either type of membrane. Furthermore, the two SecA proteins clearly select between distinct precursor proteins. In addition, we show here for the first time that a bacterial c-type cytochrome utilizes the canonical, Sec-dependent export pathway.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Escherichia coli Proteins
Membrane Transport Proteins
88.     ( 1997 )

Identification, sequence analysis, and expression of the lepB gene for a leader peptidase in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Molecular & general genetics : MGG 253 (6)
PMID : 9079877  :   DOI  :   10.1007/s004380050370    
Abstract >>
The leader peptidase (signal peptidase I) gene, lepB, of Rhodobacter capsulatus has been cloned and sequenced. The amino acid sequence of the predicted protein exhibits similarity to other known bacterial leader peptidases. R. capsulatus belongs to the alpha-subdivision of purple bacteria and thus is a relative of mitochondria in eukaryotes. Like the yeast mitochondrial inner membrane proteases IMP1 and IMP2, the leader peptidase from Rhodobacter has only one membrane-spanning segment. Sequence comparison of the Rhodobacter Lep protein with IMP1 and IMP2 did not reveal a higher overall similarity than between other prokaryotic signal peptidases and the mitochondrial enzymes. Expression studies using lacZ fusions in combination with primer extension analysis provide evidence for a weak promoter located a short distance from the transcription start of the lepB gene. Failure to establish a Rhodobacter strain with a disrupted lepB gene indicates that this gene is essential.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Membrane Proteins
89.     ( 1997 )

Molecular and immunological analysis of an ABC transporter complex required for cytochrome c biogenesis.

Journal of molecular biology 268 (4)
PMID : 9175857  :   DOI  :   10.1006/jmbi.1997.0992    
Abstract >>
The helABC genes are predicted to encode an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter necessary for heme export for ligation in bacterial cytochrome c biogenesis. The recent discoveries of homologs of the helB and helC genes in plant mitochondrial genomes suggest this is a highly conserved transporter in prokaryotes and some eukaryotes with the HelB and HelC proteins comprising the transmembrane components. Molecular genetic analysis in the Gram-negative bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus was used to show that the helABC and helDX genes are part of an operon linked to the secDF genes. To facilitate analysis of this transporter, strains with non-polar deletions in each gene, epitope and reporter-tagged HelABCD proteins, and antisera specific to the HelA and HelX proteins were generated. We directly demonstrate that this transporter is present in the cytoplasmic membrane as an HelABCD complex. The HelB and HelC but not HelD proteins are necessary for the binding and stability of the HelA protein, the cytoplasmic subunit containing the ATP-binding region. In addition we show that the HelA protein co-immunoprecipitates with either the HelC or HelD proteins. Thus, the HelABCD heme export complex is distinguished by the presence of four membrane-associated subunits and represents a unique subfamily of ABC transporters.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
90.     ( 1997 )

Sulfide-quinone reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus. Purification, cloning, and expression.

The Journal of biological chemistry 272 (15)
PMID : 9092526  :   DOI  :   10.1074/jbc.272.15.9890    
Abstract >>
A sulfide-quinone oxidoreductase (SQR, EC 1.8.5.'.) has been purified to homogeneity from chromatophores of the non-sulfur purple bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus DSM 155. It is composed of a single polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of about 55 kDa, exhibiting absorption and fluorescence spectra typical for a flavoprotein and similar to the SQR from the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica. From N-terminal and tryptic peptide sequences of the pure protein a genomic DNA clone was obtained by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Its sequence contains an open reading frame of 1275 base pairs (EMBL nucleotide sequence data base, accession no. X97478X97478) encoding the SQR of R. capsulatus. The deduced polypeptide consists of 425 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 47 kDa and a net charge of +9. The high similarity (72%)/identity (48%) between the N termini of the cyanobacterial and the bacterial enzyme was confirmed and extended. Both enzymes exhibit the FAD/NAD(P) binding betaalphabeta-fold (Wierenga, R. K., Terpstra, P., and Hol, W. G. S. (1986) J. Mol. Biol. 187, 101-107). The complete sequence of the SQR from R. capsulatus shows further similarity to flavoproteins, in particular glutathione reductase and lipoamide dehydrogenase. The cloned sqr was expressed in Escherichia coli in a functional form.
KeywordMeSH Terms
91.     ( 1997 )

Analysis of the fnrL gene and its function in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Journal of bacteriology 179 (23)
PMID : 9393689  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.179.23.7264-7273.1997     PMC  :   PMC179675    
Abstract >>
The fnr gene encodes a regulatory protein involved in the response to oxygen in a variety of bacterial genera. For example, it was previously shown that the anoxygenic, photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides requires the fnrL gene for growth under anaerobic, photosynthetic conditions. Additionally, the FnrL protein in R. sphaeroides is required for anaerobic growth in the dark with an alternative electron acceptor, but it is not essential for aerobic growth. In this study, the fnrL locus from Rhodobacter capsulatus was cloned and sequenced. Surprisingly, an R. capsulatus strain with the fnrL gene deleted grows like the wild type under either photosynthetic or aerobic conditions but does not grow anaerobically with alternative electron acceptors such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or trimethylamine oxide. It is demonstrated that the c-type cytochrome induced upon anaerobic growth on DMSO is not synthesized in the R. capsulatus fnrL mutant. In contrast to wild-type strains, R. sphaeroides and R. capsulatus fnrL mutants do not synthesize the anaerobically, DMSO-induced reductase. Mechanisms that explain the basis for FnrL function in both organisms are discussed.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
Trans-Activators
92.     ( 1997 )

TRAP transporters: a new family of periplasmic solute transport systems encoded by the dctPQM genes of Rhodobacter capsulatus and by homologs in diverse gram-negative bacteria.

Journal of bacteriology 179 (17)
PMID : 9287004  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.179.17.5482-5493.1997     PMC  :   PMC179420    
Abstract >>
The dct locus of Rhodobacter capsulatus encodes a high-affinity transport system for the C4-dicarboxylates malate, succinate, and fumarate. The nucleotide sequence of the region downstream of the previously sequenced dctP gene (encoding a periplasmic C4-dicarboxylate-binding protein) was determined. Two open reading frames (ORFs) of 681 bp (dctQ) and 1,320 bp (dctM) were identified as additional dct genes by insertional mutagenesis and complementation studies. DctQ (24,763 Da) and DctM (46,827 Da) had hydropathic profiles consistent with the presence of 4 and 12 potential transmembrane segments, respectively, and were localized in the cytoplasmic membrane fraction after heterologous expression of the dctQM ORFs in Escherichia coli. DctP, DctQ, and DctM were found to be unrelated to known transport proteins in the ABC (ATP-binding cassette) superfamily but were shown to be homologous with the products of previously unidentified ORFs in a number of gram-negative bacteria, including Bordetella pertussis, E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Haemophilus influenzae, and Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803. An additional ORF (rypA) downstream of dctM encodes a protein with sequence similarity to eukaryotic protein-tyrosine phosphatases, but interposon mutagenesis of this ORF did not result in a Dct- phenotype. Complementation of a Rhizobium meliloti dctABD deletion mutant by heterologous expression of the dctPQM genes from R. capsulatus demonstrated that no additional structural genes were required to form a functional transport system. Transport via the Dct system was vanadate insensitive, and in uncoupler titrations with intact cells, the decrease in the rate of succinate transport correlated closely with the fall in membrane potential but not with the cellular ATP concentration, implying that the proton motive force, rather than ATP hydrolysis, drives uptake. It is concluded that the R. capsulatus Dct system is a new type of periplasmic secondary transporter and that similar, hitherto-unrecognized systems are widespread in gram-negative bacteria. The name TRAP (for tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic) transporters is proposed for this new group.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Dicarboxylic Acid Transporters
Membrane Transport Proteins
Periplasmic Proteins
93.     ( 1997 )

Immuno-purification of a dimeric subcomplex of the respiratory NADH-CoQ reductase of Rhodobacter capsulatus equivalent to the FP fraction of the mitochondrial complex I.

FEBS letters 405 (3)
PMID : 9108316  :   DOI  :   10.1016/s0014-5793(97)00212-3    
Abstract >>
The Rhodobacter capsulatus genes encoding the NUOE and NUOF subunits, equivalent to the 24 kDa and 51 kDa subunits of the mammalian mitochondrial complex I, have been sequenced. According to the nucleotide sequence, the NUOE subunit is 389 amino acids long and has a molecular mass of 41.3 kDa. In comparison to the mitochondrial equivalent subunit, NUOE is extended at the C terminus by more than 150 amino acids. The NUOF subunit is 431 amino acids long and has a molecular mass of 47.1 kDa. A subcomplex containing both the NUOE and NUOF subunits was extracted by detergent treatment of R. capsulatus membranes and immuno-purified. This subcomplex is homologous to the mitochondrial FP fragment. Mass spectrometry after trypsin treatment of the NUOE subunit validates the atypical primary structure deduced from the sequence of the gene.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
94.     ( 1997 )

Protein and gene structure of the NADH-binding fragment of Rhodobacter capsulatus NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase.

European journal of biochemistry 246 (3)
PMID : 9219542  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1432-1033.1997.t01-1-00800.x    
Abstract >>
Membranes of aerobically grown Rhodobacter capsulatus contain only one type of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase which is homologous to the proton-translocating complex I. The K(m) value of the enzyme for NADH was determined to be 8 microM. After solubilization of the membranes with an alkylglucoside detergent, two fragments of complex I with molecular masses of 110 kDa and 140 kDa were isolated by chromatographic steps in the presence of detergent. Both fragments contain at least two polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of 46 kDa and 42 kDa. FMN was identified as cofactor in the preparations. Degenerative oligonucleotide primers were used to amplify a part of the sequence coding for the NADH-binding subunit of complex I by PCR. With the PCR product as probe, a genomic fragment was cloned and sequenced containing the genes encoding the two purified polypeptides and additional reading frames. The two genes are named nuoE and nuoF and are homologous to nqo2 and nqo1 of Paracoccus denitrificans. However, NuoE contains a C-terminal extension of 149 amino acids compared with Nqo2. NuoE and NuoF have molecular masses of 41259 Da and 47133 Da and contain the NADH-, FMN- and FeS-cluster-binding motifs.
KeywordMeSH Terms
95.     ( 1997 )

Cloning, sequencing, and oxygen regulation of the Rhodobacter capsulatus alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase operon.

Journal of bacteriology 179 (14)
PMID : 9226266  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.179.14.4559-4566.1997     PMC  :   PMC179292    
Abstract >>
The Rhodobacter capsulatus sucA, sucB, and lpd genes, which encode the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (E1o), the dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase (E2o), and the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) components of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGD), respectively, were cloned, sequenced, and used for regulatory analyses. The KGD enzymatic activity was greater in cells grown under aerobic, respiratory growth conditions than under anaerobic, photosynthetic conditions. Similarly, the sucA gene was transcribed differentially, leading to a greater accumulation of sucA mRNAs under respiratory growth conditions than under photosynthetic conditions, although differential rates of mRNA decay could also contribute to the different amounts of sucA mRNAs under these two growth conditions. The sucA promoter was located about 4 kb upstream of the 5' end of the sucA gene, and transcripts greater than 9.5 kb hybridized to a sucA probe, suggesting the presence of an operon that produces a polycistronic mRNA. Thus, these genes seem to be expressed as an unstable primary transcript, and we speculate that posttranscriptional processes control the stoichiometry of KGD proteins.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Operon
96.     ( 1997 )

Cloning of the sdsA gene encoding solanesyl diphosphate synthase from Rhodobacter capsulatus and its functional expression in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Journal of bacteriology 179 (19)
PMID : 9324242  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.179.19.5992-5998.1997     PMC  :   PMC179498    
Abstract >>
Different organisms produce different species of isoprenoid quinones, each with its own distinctive length. These differences in length are commonly exploited in microbial classification. The side chain length of quinone is determined by the nature of the polyprenyl diphosphate synthase that catalyzes the reaction. To determine if the side chain length of ubiquinone (UQ) has any distinct role to play in the metabolism of the cells in which it is found, we cloned the solanesyl diphosphate synthase gene (sdsA) from Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003 and expressed it in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sequence analysis revealed that the sdsA gene encodes a 325-amino-acid protein which has similarity (27 to 40%) with other prenyl diphosphate synthases. Expression of the sdsA gene complemented a defect in the octaprenyl diphosphate synthase gene of E. coli and the nonrespiratory phenotype resulting from a defect in the hexaprenyl diphosphate synthase gene of S. cerevisiae. Both E. coli and S. cerevisiae expressing the sdsA gene mainly produced solanesyl diphosphate, which resulted in the synthesis of UQ-9 without any noticeable effect on the growth of the cells. Thus, it appears that UQ-9 can replace the function of UQ-8 in E. coli and UQ-6 in S. cerevisiae. Taken together with previous results, the results described here imply that the side chain length of UQ is not a critical factor for the survival of microorganisms.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Alkyl and Aryl Transferases
97.     ( 1997 )

Sequence of a 189-kb segment of the chromosome of Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 94 (17)
PMID : 9256491  :   DOI  :   10.1073/pnas.94.17.9384     PMC  :   PMC23199    
Abstract >>
Cosmids from the 1A3-1A10 region of the complete miniset were individually subcloned by using the vector M13 mp18. Sequences of each cosmid were assembled from about 400 DNA fragments generated from the ends of these phage subclones and merged into one 189-kb contig. About 160 ORFs identified by the CodonUse program were subjected to similarity searches. The biological functions of 80 ORFs could be assigned reliably by using the WIT and Magpie genome investigation tools. Eighty percent of these recognizable ORFs were organized in functional clusters, which simplified assignment decisions and increased the strength of the predictions. A set of 26 genes for cobalamin biosynthesis, genes for polyhydroxyalkanoic acid metabolism, DNA replication and recombination, and DNA gyrase were among those identified. Most of the ORFs lacking significant similarity with reference databases also were grouped. There are two large clusters of these ORFs, one located between 45 and 67 kb of the map, and the other between 150 and 183 kb. Nine of the loosely identified ORFs (of 15) of the first of these clusters match ORFs from phages or transposons. The other cluster also has four ORFs of possible phage origin.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Chromosomes, Bacterial
98.     ( 1996 )

Molecular characterization and organization of porin from Rhodobacter capsulatus strain 37B4.

Gene 183 (1��2��)
PMID : 8996088  :   DOI  :   10.1016/s0378-1119(96)00471-4    
Abstract >>
The primary and atomic structures of the porin protein from Rhodobacter (Rb.) capsulatus strain 37b4 were determined several years ago by peptide sequencing and X-ray crystallography. In this work the gene encoding this porin (named porCa) was cloned and sequenced. The porin open reading frame encodes 320 amino acids-a mature protein of 300 residues (molecular mass 31 552 kDa) and a presequence of 20 amino acids. Our deduced amino-acid sequence was directly confirmed by purifying the porin protein from the same bacterial strain and sequencing the amino terminus as well as several peptides derived from trypsin digestion. However, comparison of this deduced amino-acid sequence with the published primary structure of this porin, nominally from the same strain (but cultivated for ca. 30 years in a different laboratory) reveals seven differences in the amino-acid sequence at the following positions in the mature protein (published/present): 59 (Gly/Ala), 123 (Tyr/Asn), 135 Ser/Thr), 189 (Ile/Val), 196 (Asn/His), 231 (Ala/Thr) and 238 (Ser/deleted). Surprisingly, analysis of the positioning of these mutations revealed that they are located exclusively on transmembrane strands, with two of them deeply buried within the structure. These mutations may in fact have only marginal influence on porin structure and function. Northern blot analysis revealed that porCa encodes an RNA transcript of 1070 nucleotides. No differential response in the abundance or size of this mRNA was seen upon growth under phototrophic/anaerobic vs. chemotrophic/aerobic conditions, under high or low osmotic pressure. Primer extension experiments revealed a transcription start site 73 bases upstream from the ATG translation start, juxtaposed to the identified putative promoter region. Fusion of lacZ with this putative promoter region (using a 288-bp upstream region) revealed similar promoter activity in beta-galactosidase assays under both physiological conditions tested, again suggesting that this gene is constitutively expressed. The molecular genetic characterization described in this work opens the way for structure-function studies by site-directed mutagenesis.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
99.     ( 1996 )

Cloning and sequence analysis of the dimethylsulfoxide reductase structural gene from Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Biochimica et biophysica acta 1276 (3)
PMID : 8856102  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0005-2728(96)00092-8    
Abstract >>
The dimethylsulfoxide reductase structural gene (dorA) of Rhodobacter capsulatus was cloned from a lambda expression library. The nucleotide sequence of the dorA gene was determined and it was found to encode a protein of 825 amino acids. Comparison of the deduced amino-acid sequence of DorA with N-terminal sequence of purified dimethylsulfoxide reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus showed that the pre-protein possesses a 41-amino-acid N-terminal signal polypeptide. All of the conserved segments which have been described in bacterial enzymes which bind molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide (Berks, B.C., Ferguson, S.J., Moir, J.W.B. and Richardson, D.J. (1995) Biochim, Biophys. Acta 1232, 97-173) were identified in Rhodobacter capsulatus dimethylsulfoxide reductase.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
Iron-Sulfur Proteins
100.     ( 1993 )

Biochemical genetics revisited: the use of mutants to study carbon and nitrogen metabolism in the photosynthetic bacteria.

FEMS microbiology reviews 10 (1��2��)
PMID : 8431308  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1574-6968.1993.tb05862.x    
Abstract >>
The biochemical genetics approach is defined as the use of mutants, in comparative studies with the wild-type, to obtain information about biochemical and physiological processes in complex metabolic systems. This approach has been used extensively, for example in studies on the bioenergetics of the photosynthetic bacteria, but has been applied less frequently to studies of intermediary carbon and nitrogen metabolism in phototrophic organisms. Several important processes in photosynthetic bacteria--the regulation of nitrogenase synthesis and activity, the control of intracellular redox balance during photoheterotrophic growth, and chemotaxis--have been shown to involve metabolism. However, current understanding of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in these organisms is insufficient to allow a complete understanding of these phenomena. The purpose of the present review is to give an overview of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in the photosynthetic bacteria, with particular emphasis on work carried out with mutants, and to indicate areas in which the biochemical genetics approach could be applied successfully. In particular, it will be argued that, in the case of Rhodobacter capsulatus and Rb. sphaeroides, two species which are fast-growing, possess a versatile metabolism, and have been extensively studied genetically, it should be possible to obtain a complete, integrated description of carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and to undertake a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the flow of carbon and reducing equivalents during photoheterotrophic growth. This would require a systematic biochemical genetic study employing techniques such as HPLC, NMR, and mass spectrometry, which are briefly discussed. The review is concerned mainly with Rb. capsulatus and Rb. sphaeroides, since most studies with mutants have been carried out with these organisms. However, where possible, a comparison is made with other species of purple non-sulphur bacteria and with purple and green sulphur bacteria, and recent literature relevant to these organisms has been cited.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Mutation
101.     ( 1996 )

Crystal structure of dimethyl sulfoxide reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus at 1.88 A resolution.

Journal of molecular biology 263 (1)
PMID : 8890912  :   DOI  :   10.1006/jmbi.1996.0555    
Abstract >>
The periplasmic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase (DMSOR) from the photosynthetic purple bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus functions as the terminal electron acceptor in its respiratory chain. The enzyme catalyzes the reduction of highly oxidized substrates like dimethyl sulfoxide to dimethyl sulfide. At a molybdenum redox center, two single electrons are transferred from cytochrome C556 to the substrate dimethyl sulfoxide, generating dimethyl sulfide and (with two protons) water. The enzyme was purified and crystallized in space group P4(1)2(1)2 with unit cell dimensions of a = b = 80.7 A and c = 229.2 A. The crystals diffract beyond 1.8 A with synchrotron radiation. The three-dimensional structure was solved by a combination of multiple isomorphous replacement and molecular replacement techniques. The atomic model was refined to an R-factor of 0.169 for 57,394 independent reflections. The spherical protein consists of four domains with a funnel-like cavity that leads to the freely accessible metal-ion redox center. The bis(molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide) molybdenum cofactor (1541 Da) of the single chain protein (85,033 Da) has the molybdenum ion bound to the cis-dithiolene group of only one molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide molecule. Three additional ligands, two oxo groups and the oxygen of a serine side-chain, are bound to the molybdenum ion. The second molybdopterin system is not part of the ligand sphere of the metal center with its sulfur atoms at distances of 3.5 A and 3.8 A away. It might be involved in electron shuttling from the protein surface to the molybdenum center.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Iron-Sulfur Proteins
Models, Molecular
102.     ( 1996 )

Isolation, cloning, sequence analysis and localization of the operon encoding dimethyl sulfoxide/trimethylamine N-oxide reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Journal of molecular biology 263 (1)
PMID : 8890911  :   DOI  :   10.1006/jmbi.1996.0554    
Abstract >>
The operon encoding the periplasmic enzymes dimethyl sulfoxide reductase (DMSOR) and trimethylamine N-oxide reductase (TMAOR) from the purple, non-sulfur, photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus was isolated, cloned and sequenced, and its chromosomal location determined. It was shown by analytical and crystallographic data that DMSOR and TMAOR are identical enzymes. Degenerate primers were derived from short peptide sequences generated by automated Edman degradation and a 700 bp fragment was amplified by nested PCR, subsequently cloned and radioactively labeled to screen a prepared lambda DASH library. Positive lambda clones were subcloned into pBluescript and subsequently transformed into Escherichia coli to sequence the DMSOR/ TMAOR operon. The promoter consisted of an A + T-rich region followed by a -35 region, a putative ribosome binding site, and a leader sequence of 13 amino acid residues. The transcription terminator was a G + C-rich dyad sequence capable of forming a hairpin structure, which may act rho-independently. An optimized protein purification of the wild-type enzyme is also described, giving high yields (5 mg protein per liter of culture) and a specific activity of 30 units/mg. The molecular mass was determined by electrospray mass spectrometry to be 85,034 Da; from the deduced amino acid sequence the molecular mass of the apoenzyme was 85,033 Da.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Iron-Sulfur Proteins
103.     ( 1996 )

Topological analysis of the Rhodobacter capsulatus PucC protein and effects of C-terminal deletions on light-harvesting complex II.

Journal of bacteriology 178 (16)
PMID : 8759841  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.178.16.4801-4806.1996     PMC  :   PMC178260    
Abstract >>
A theoretical model for the cytoplasmic membrane topology of the Rhodobacter capsulatus PucC protein was derived and tested experimentally with pucC'::pho'A gene fusions. The alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities of selected fusions were assayed, and the resultant pattern of high and low activity was compared with that of the theoretical model. High AP activity correlated well with fusion joints located in regions predicted to be periplasmic, and most fusions in predicted cytoplasmic loops yield approximately 1/20th as much activity. Replacement of pho'A with lac'Z in nine of the fusions confirmed the topology, as beta-galactosidase activities were generally reciprocal to the corresponding AP activity. On the basis of the theoretical analysis and the information provided by the activities of fusions, a model for PucC topology in which there are 12 membrane-spanning segments and both the N and C termini are located in the cytoplasm is proposed. Translationally out-of-frame pucC::phoA fusions were expressed in an R. capsulatus delta pucC strain. None of the fusions missing only one or two of the proposed C-terminal transmembrane segments restored the wild-type phenotype, suggesting that the C terminus of PucC is important for function.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes
Photosystem II Protein Complex
Protein Structure, Secondary
Sequence Deletion
104.     ( 1993 )

Membrane-associated NADH dehydrogenase activities in Rhodobacter capsulatus: purification of a dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase.

Journal of general microbiology 139 (8)
PMID : 8409925  :   DOI  :   10.1099/00221287-139-8-1841    
Abstract >>
The presence of several NADH dehydrogenase activities associated with cytoplasmic membrane vesicles of chemoheterotrophically grown Rhodobacter capsulatus MT1131 was demonstrated by combining isoelectric focusing with NADH-tetranitrobluetetrazolium activity staining, a procedure that should have general applicability in the analysis of bacterial NADH dehydrogenase activities. Low pI (pI = 5.7), Mid pI (pI = 6.9) and High pI (pI = 8.5) bands were resolved. The Mid pI NADH dehydrogenase activity was purified and identified as a dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase. Our data indicate that this dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase is derived from a 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complex which is associated with the cytoplasmic membrane.
KeywordMeSH Terms
105.     ( 1996 )

Cloning, nucleotide sequence and characterization of the rpoD gene encoding the primary sigma factor of Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Gene 176 (1��2��)
PMID : 8918250  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0378-1119(96)00243-0    
Abstract >>
A synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide probe based on a highly conserved region of the sigma factors was used to identify and clone the rpoD gene encoding the principal sigma factor of R. capsulatus. The deduced polypeptide contains 674 amino acids and has a predicted molecular mass of 75,942 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence of R. capsulatus RpoD protein exhibits 46.2% and 45.7% identity with housekeeping sigma factors of Pseudomonas and E. coli, respectively. Unsuccessful attempts to inactivate the single chromosomal rpoD gene of R. capsulatus by gene replacement technique indicate that this gene is essential for cell survival, as expected for the primary sigma factor. The rpoD transcript 5'-end was mapped by primer extension analysis, 74 bp upstream of the initiation codon and DNA sequence analysis has identified a motif resembling the delta 70 E. coli consensus promoter sequences at the expected distance from this proposed transcription start site. rpoD gene expression, as measured by the activity of the phi (rpoD'-lacZ+) translational fusion, was found to be constant throughout exponential and early plateau phases, but significantly increased at later times of the stationary phase.
KeywordMeSH Terms
106.     ( 1993 )

Purification of the integration host factor homolog of Rhodobacter capsulatus: cloning and sequencing of the hip gene, which encodes the beta subunit.

Journal of bacteriology 175 (20)
PMID : 8407826  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.175.20.6499-6504.1993     PMC  :   PMC206759    
Abstract >>
We describe a method for rapid purification of the integration host factor (IHF) homolog of Rhodobacter capsulatus that has allowed us to obtain microgram quantities of highly purified protein. R. capsulatus IHF is an alpha beta heterodimer similar to IHF of Escherichia coli. We have cloned and sequenced the hip gene, which encodes the beta subunit. The deduced amino acid sequence (10.7 kDa) has 46% identity with the beta subunit of IHF from E. coli. In gel electrophoretic mobility shift DNA binding assays, R. capsulatus IHF was able to form a stable complex in a site-specific manner with a DNA fragment isolated from the promoter of the structural hupSL operon, which contains the IHF-binding site. The mutated IHF protein isolated from the Hup- mutant IR4, which is mutated in the himA gene (coding for the alpha subunit), gave a shifted band of greater mobility, and DNase I footprinting analysis has shown that the mutated IHF interacts with the DNA fragment from the hupSL promoter region differently from the way that the wild-type IHF does.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
107.     ( 1996 )

Concerted movement of side chains in the haem vicinity observed on ligand binding in cytochrome c' from rhodobacter capsulatus.

Nature structural biology 3 (5)
PMID : 8612077  :  
Abstract >>
We have determined the structure of n-butylisocyanide-bound Rhodobacter capsulatus cytochrome c'. This is the first example of a ligand-bound structure of a class IIa cytochrome c. Compared with the structure of native cytochrome c', there are significant conformational changes of amino acid residues in the haem vicinity, accompanied by a rearrangement of the hydrogen bonding pattern. The results suggest that rearrangements resulting from ligand binding could drive dimer dissociation in some species and also that the haem propionate may participate in proton transfer.
KeywordMeSH Terms
108.     ( 1996 )

Identification and analysis of the rnc gene for RNase III in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Nucleic acids research 24 (7)
PMID : 8614626  :   DOI  :   10.1093/nar/24.7.1246     PMC  :   PMC145773    
Abstract >>
The large subunit ribosomal RNA of the purple bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus shows fragmentation into pieces of 14 and 16S, both fragments forming the functional equivalent of intact 23S rRNA. An RNA-processing step removes an extra stem-loop structure from the 23S rRNA [Kordes, E., Jock, S., Fritsch, J., Bosch, F. and Klug, G. (1994) J. Bacteriol., 176, 1121-1127]. Taking advantage of the fragmentation deficient mutant strain Fm65, we used genetic complementation to find the mutated gene responsible for this aberration. It was identified as the Rhodobacter homologue to mc from Escherichia coli encoding endoribonuclease III (RNase III). The predicted protein has 226 amino acids with a molecular weight of 25.5 kDa. It shares high homology with other known RNase III enzymes over the full length. In particular it shows the double-stranded RNA-binding domain (dsRBD) motif essential for binding of dsRNA substrates. The Fm65 mutant has a frame shift mutation resulting in complete loss of the dsRBD rendering the enzyme inactive. The cloned Rhodobacter enzyme can substitute RNase III activity in an RNase III deficient E. coli strain. Contrary to E. coli, the Rhodobacter mc is in one operon together with the lep gene encoding the leader peptidase.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Escherichia coli Proteins
Genes, Bacterial
Membrane Proteins
Serine Endopeptidases
109.     ( 1995 )

Identification of five Rhodobacter capsulatus genes encoding the equivalent of ND subunits of the mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase.

Gene 167 (1��2��)
PMID : 8566820  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0378-1119(95)00693-1    
Abstract >>
We previously reported the sequencing of two genes (ndhA and ndhI) encoding two of the subunits of the type-I NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus (Rc). The present paper deals with the cloning and characterization of a chromosomal fragment clustering five new Rc genes which encode subunits of this enzyme. This gene cluster is located immediately downstream from ndhA and ndhI, and also contains two unidentified open reading frames (urf2, urf3). The five genes, nuoJ, nuoK, nuoL, nuoM and nuoN, encode proteins related, respectively, to mitochondrial (mt) subunits ND6, ND4L, ND5, ND4 and ND2. The overall organization of the nuo genes identified in Rc shows similarity to that of the Paracoccus denitrificans (Pd) nqo gene cluster.
KeywordMeSH Terms
110.     ( 1996 )

Molecular analysis of the Rhodobacter capsulatus chaperonin (groESL) operon: purification and characterization of Cpn60.

Archives of microbiology 166 (3)
PMID : 8703196  :  
Abstract >>
The heat-shock protein Cpn60 (chaperonin, GroEL homologue) from the phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus B10 was purified to homogeneity and biochemically characterized. Native Cpn60 from R. capsulatus was shown to be a tetradecamer of 840 kDa similar to that of homologous chaperones characterized so far. Cpn60 possesses ATPase activity and promotes refolding of chaotropically denatured citrate synthase. The groESL operon of R. capsulatus was cloned using a degenerate oligonucleotide and sequenced. Two open reading frames (285 and 1,635 bp) were found; they encode Cpn10 and Cpn60, with corresponding deduced molecular masses of 10.6 and 57.6 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequences coincided perfectly with those of the amino terminus and of three tryptic peptides of purified Cpn60 from R. capsulatus. Strong evidence that R. capsulatus encodes only one copy of the groESL operon was obtained. Primer-extension analysis revealed that the groESL operon is transcribed by a -35/-10-type promoter, and that transcription was initiated from the same positions before and after heat-shock under both chemotrophic and phototrophic conditions. The major initiation site is immediately followed by the inverted repeat structure CIRCE, which has been found upstream of many bacterial heat-shock operons. A second minor transcript starts just after the CIRCE element. Although heat-shock induction of a groEL-lacZ fusion failed because of thermal inactivation of the fusion protein, Western blot analysis revealed a two- to threefold induction of cellular Cpn60 levels 45-75 min after shifting from 28 degrees C to 39 degrees C. Deletion mapping of the groESL promoter identified upstream of the promoter a 19-bp element that enhances groESL transcription eightfold and contains the AT-rich sequence dAAATTTTT, which is found at similar positions in heat-shock operons of other gram-negative bacteria.
KeywordMeSH Terms
111.     ( 1996 )

Isolation of Rhodobacter capsulatus transketolase: cloning and sequencing of its structural tktA gene.

Gene 169 (1)
PMID : 8635754  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0378-1119(95)00796-2    
Abstract >>
Rhodobacter capsulatus transketolase (Tkt) protein has been isolated from strain B10 by heparin affinity chromatography. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides (oligo) constructed as based on the amino-acid sequences were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification on total genomic DNA. Southern hybridization with the PCR product as a probe allowed the isolation of a 5-kb PstI DNA fragment containing the structural Tkt-encoding gene (tktA) which was cloned and sequenced. The deduced tktA product of 671 aa (72815 Da) shares 59% identity with Rhodobacter sphaeroides Tkt.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
112.     ( 1993 )

The draTG gene region of Rhodobacter capsulatus is required for post-translational regulation of both the molybdenum and the alternative nitrogenase.

Journal of general microbiology 139 (11)
PMID : 8277250  :   DOI  :   10.1099/00221287-139-11-2667    
Abstract >>
Synthetic oligonucleotides, which were designed according to amino acid sequences conserved between Rhodospirillum rubrum and Azospirillum brasilense DraT and DraG, respectively, were used to identify the corresponding genes of Rhodobacter capsulatus. Sequence analysis of a 1904 bp DNA fragment proved the existence of R. capsulatus draT and draG. These two genes were separated by 11 bp only, suggesting that R. capsulatus draT and draG were part of one transcriptional unit. In contrast to R. rubrum, A. brasilense and Azospirillum lipoferum, the R. capsulatus draTG genes were not located upstream of the structural genes of nitrogenase nifHDK but close to the dctP gene at a distance of about 1000 kb from the nifHDK genes. Deletion mutations in the draTG gene region were constructed and introduced into R. capsulatus wild-type and a nifHDK deletion strain. The resulting mutant strains were examined for post-translational regulation of the molybdenum and the alternative nitrogenase in response to ammonia and darkness. Under 'switch-off' conditions the modified (ADP-ribosylated) and the non-modified forms of component II of both the molybdenum and the alternative nitrogenase were detected in a draTG wild-type background by immunoblot analysis, whereas only the non-modified forms were present in the draTG deletion strains. Nitrogenase activity in these strains was followed by the acetylene reduction assay. In contrast to the wild-type, draTG mutants were not affected in nitrogenase activity in response to ammonia or darkness. These results demonstrated that the draTG genes are required for post-translational regulation of both the molybdenum and the heterometal-free nitrogenase in R. capsulatus.
KeywordMeSH Terms
113.     ( 1993 )

A novel membrane-associated c-type cytochrome, cyt cy, can mediate the photosynthetic growth of Rhodobacter capsulatus and Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

The EMBO journal 12 (4)
PMID : 8385603  :   PMC  :   PMC413338    
Abstract >>
Mutants of Rhodobacter capsulatus lacking the soluble electron carrier cytochrome c2 are able to grow photosynthetically (Ps+), whereas Rhodobacter sphaeroides is unable to do so. To understand this unusual electron transfer pathway the gene required for cyt c2-independent growth of R.capsulatus was sought using chromosomal libraries derived from a cyt c2- mutant of this species to complement a Ps- cyt c2- mutant of R.sphaeroides to Ps+ growth. The complementing 1.2 kbp DNA fragment contained a gene, cycY, encoding a novel membrane-associated c-type cytochrome, cyt cy, based on predicted amino acid sequence, optical difference spectra and SDS-PAGE analysis of chromatophore membranes. The predicted primary sequence of cyt cy is unusual in having two distinct domains, a hydrophobic amino-terminal region and a carboxyl-terminus with strong homology to cytochromes c. A cyt cy- mutant of R.capsulatus remains Ps+ as does the cyt c2- mutant. However, a mutant lacking both cyt c2 and cy is Ps-, and can be complemented to Ps+ by either cyt c2 or cyt cy. These findings demonstrate that each of the cytochromes c2 and cy is essential for photosynthesis only in the absence of the other. Thus, two distinct electron transfer pathways, unrecognized until now, operate during photosynthesis in R.capsulatus under appropriate conditions, one via the soluble cyt c2 and the other via the membrane-associated cyt cy.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Photosynthesis
114.     ( 1993 )

Identification of a new class of nitrogen fixation genes in Rhodobacter capsulatus: a putative membrane complex involved in electron transport to nitrogenase.

Molecular & general genetics : MGG 241 (5��6��)
PMID : 8264535  :   DOI  :   10.1007/bf00279903    
Abstract >>
DNA sequence analysis of a 12236 bp fragment, which is located upstream of nifE in Rhodobacter capsulatus nif region A, revealed the presence of ten open reading frames. With the exception of fdxC and fdxN, which encode a plant-type and a bacterial-type ferredoxin, the deduced products of these coding regions exhibited no significant homology to known proteins. Analysis of defined insertion and deletion mutants demonstrated that six of these genes were required for nitrogen fixation. Therefore, we propose to call these genes rnfA, rnfB, rnfC, rnfD, rnfE and rnfF (for Rhodobacter nitrogen fixation). Secondary structure predictions suggested that the rnf genes encode four potential membrane proteins and two putative iron-sulphur proteins, which contain cysteine motifs (C-X2-C-X2-C-X3-C-P) typical for [4Fe--4S] proteins. Comparison of the in vivo and in vitro nitrogenase activities of fdxN and rnf mutants suggested that the products encoded by these genes are involved in electron transport to nitrogenase. In addition, these mutants were shown to contain significantly reduced amounts of nitrogenase. The hypothesis that this new class of nitrogen fixation genes encodes components of an electron transfer system to nitrogenase was corroborated by analysing the effect of metronidazole. Both the fdxN and rnf mutants had higher growth yields in the presence of metronidazole than the wild type, suggesting that these mutants contained lower amounts of reduced ferredoxins.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
115.     ( 1993 )

Purification and properties of an unusual membrane-derived cytochrome b-561 from the purple phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus, which is structurally related to the bacteriochlorophyll-binding protein, LHII beta.

Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 304 (1)
PMID : 8323277  :   DOI  :   10.1006/abbi.1993.1329    
Abstract >>
An abundant cytochrome b-561 was solubilized from Rhodobacter capsulatus membranes by successive treatments with perchlorate and butanol/water. Neither procedure was effective alone although they could be combined into a single step. Once solubilized, cytochrome b-561 was purified by standard chromatographic procedures used for water-soluble proteins without addition of butanol or detergents. Cytochrome b-561 appears to be highly acidic, it has a size greater than about 1000 kDa as isolated, and the subunit size measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is less than 8 kDa. The redox potential measured by cyclic voltammetry is -65 mV at pH 7. The N-terminal amino acid sequence is identical to that of the Rb. capsulatus LHII beta light-harvesting bacteriochlorophyll binding protein subunit which has only 48 amino acid residues, and the mass, determined by mass spectroscopy, is identical to that of LHII beta. There is but one heme per two to three peptide chains of 5 kDa, which suggests that the two extraplanar ligands to the heme are on separate subunits. There is strong exciton splitting in the circular dichroism spectrum in the Soret region indicative of heme-heme interaction. The helix content based on far-uv CD is 41%. Together, these properties of cytochrome b-561 are very similar to those of isolated LHII alpha beta bacteriochlorophyll-protein complexes.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes
116.     ( 1996 )

Nucleotide sequence of the Rhodobacter capsulatus hemH gene.

Gene 170 (1)
PMID : 8621079  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0378-1119(96)00845-1    
Abstract >>
The last step in heme synthesis is the insertion of iron into the ring of protoporphyrin IX. The enzyme which catalyzes this reaction, ferrochelatase (FC), is encoded by the hemH gene. A clone containing this gene from Rhodobacter capsulatus, a purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacterium, has been sequenced. A single open reading frame was found which could encode a protein of 351 amino acids. This putative protein is very similar to other FC and contains the FC signature sequence.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
117.     ( 1996 )

High-resolution crystal structures of two polymorphs of cytochrome c' from the purple phototrophic bacterium rhodobacter capsulatus.

Journal of molecular biology 259 (3)
PMID : 8676382  :   DOI  :   10.1006/jmbi.1996.0333    
Abstract >>
The structures of two polymorphs of cytochrome c' from Rhodobacter capsulatus (RCCP) strain M110 have been determined by the molecular replacement method. Iron anomalous scattering data were used to confirm the molecular replacement solution. The structures were refined at 1.72 angstrom and 2.0 angstrom resolution to R-values of 15.0% and 16.3%, respectively. The RCCP molecule is a dimer and each of the identical 129 residue subunits folds as a four-helical bundle with a covalently bound heme group in the center. This structural motif resembles that of cytochromes c' reported from Rhodospirillum molischianum (RMCP), Rhodospirillum rubrum (RRCP), Chromatium vinosum (CVCP), Achromobacter xyloseoxidans (AXCP) and Alcaligenes denitrificans (ADCP). However, the architecture of the RCCP dimer, that is, the mode of association of subunits, differs substantially from that of the other cytochromes c'. In the RCCP dimer, the subunits are roughly parallel with each other and only helix B of each subunit participates in formation of the dimer interface. Measurement of the solvent-accessible surface area indicates that the dimer interface is smaller in RCCP than in the other cytochromes c'. In RMCP, CVCP, RRCP, AXCP and ADCP the subunits cross each other to form an X shape, and two helices, A and B, of each subunit interact across the dimer interface. These results are consistent with hydrodynamic measurements, which show that there is an equilibrium between monomers and dimer in RCCP, whereas the dimer is the predominant form in the other cytochromes c' for which structures have been determined. Structural comparison of the six cytochromes c' reveal that they can be divided into two groups. In group 1 cytochromes c', CVCP and RCCP, the amino acid sequences and the folding of subunits are arranged in such a way as to allow the formation of a deep channel between helices B and C with direct solvent accessibility to the heme sixth ligand position. There is no such channel in group 2 cytochromes c', RMCP, RRCP, AXCP and ADCP. This may account, in part, for the differences in carbon monoxide binding.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Crystallography, X-Ray
118.     ( 1993 )

Purification and characterization of a novel dimeric ferredoxin (FdIII) from Rhodobacter capsulatus.

The Journal of biological chemistry 268 (14)
PMID : 8387524  :  
Abstract >>
A new ferredoxin, called FdIII, has been isolated and purified from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. Its complete amino acid sequence has been determined. The FdIII polypeptide consists of 100 residues, including 9 cysteines and has a calculated molecular mass of 10,688 Da, which was confirmed by electrospray mass spectrometry. In its native form, FdIII is a homodimer as deduced from molecular sieve chromatography and non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, as well as cross-linking experiments. The dimeric ferredoxin was found to contain 15.2 +/- 0.6 iron atoms and 13 +/- 1 inorganic sulfur atoms, consistent with the presence of four [4Fe-4S] clusters/molecule. The UV visible absorption spectrum of oxidized FdIII exhibited maxima at 282 and at 386 nm and a shoulder near 314 nm. FdIII was fully reduced by excess dithionite at pH 8.0 or photochemically using 5-deazaflavin. Anaerobic oxidative titration of reduced FdIII with thionin indicated that each FdIII monomer exchanges two electrons. Exposure of FdIII to air resulted in a rapid and irreversible oxidative denaturation of the Fe-S clusters. The EPR spectrum of fully reduced FdIII showed a broad signal with an average g value of 1.94 that integrated to about two spins/monomer. EPR analysis of partially reduced FdIII (approximately 20% reduction) revealed a complex set of signals which was interpreted as being the resulting sum of the contribution of two distinct paramagnetic centres. Based on its biochemical and spectroscopic properties, it is concluded that FdIII is a dimeric ferredoxin containing four [4Fe-4S] clusters. The synthesis of FdIII occurs only under growth conditions allowing the derepression of nif genes. Results of in vitro electron transfer assays indicate that FdIII cannot serve as an electron donor to nitrogenase.
KeywordMeSH Terms
119.     ( 1996 )

Characterisation of the mcpA and mcpB genes capable of encoding methyl-accepting type chemoreceptors in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Gene 170 (1)
PMID : 8621092  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0378-1119(95)00844-6    
Abstract >>
Two contiguous mcp genes, mcpA and mcpB, transcribed from the same DNA strand and capable of encoding methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (Mcp) have been isolated from Rhodobacter capsulatus (Rc), sequences and overexpressed in Escherichia coli (Ec). The deduced proteins (McpA, 69 171 Da; McpB, 81 629 Da) show a structure similar to that of Ec Mcp. The products of mcpA and mcpB, overproduced in Ec, were recognized by anti-Ec Mcp (Trg) antibodies.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Chemoreceptor Cells
Genes, Bacterial
120.     ( 1993 )

Sequence analysis and interposon mutagenesis of the hupT gene, which encodes a sensor protein involved in repression of hydrogenase synthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Journal of bacteriology 175 (22)
PMID : 8226687  :   PMC  :   PMC206885     DOI  :   10.1128/jb.175.22.7404-7412.1993    
Abstract >>
The hupT gene, which represses hydrogenase gene expression in the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus, has been identified and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of hupT and of the contiguous downstream open reading frame, hupU, is reported. The HupT protein of 456 amino acids (48,414 Da) has sequence similarity with the FixL, DctB, NtrB, and ArcB proteins and is predicted to be a soluble sensor kinase. Insertional inactivation of the hupT gene led to deregulation of transcriptional control, so that the hydrogenase structural operon hupSLC became overexpressed in cells grown anaerobically or aerobically. The HupT- mutants were complemented in trans by a plasmid containing an intact copy of the hupT gene. The hupU open reading frame, capable of encoding a protein of 84,879 Da, shared identity with [NiFe]hydrogenase subunits; the strongest similarity was observed with the periplasmic hydrogenase of Desulfovibrio baculatus.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
121.     ( 1996 )

Isolation, characterisation and expression of the bacterioferritin gene of Rhodobacter capsulatus.

FEMS microbiology letters 139 (2��3��)
PMID : 8674981  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1574-6968.1996.tb08194.x    
Abstract >>
The nucleotide sequence of the Rhodobacter capsulatus bacterioferritin gene (bfr) was determined and found to encode a protein of 161 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 18,174 Da. The molecular mass of the purified protein was estimated to be 18,176. +/ 0.80 Da by electrospray mass spectrometry. The bfr was introduced into an expression vector, and bacterioferritin was produced to a high level in Escherichia coli. The amino acids which are involved in haem ligation, and those provide ligands in the binuclear metal centre in bacterioferritin from E. coli are conversed in the R. capsulatus protein. The sequences of bacterioferritins, ferritin-like proteins, and proteins similar to Dps of E. coli are compared, and membership of the bacterioferritin family re-evaluated.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
122.     ( 1996 )

Promoters controlling expression of the alternative nitrogenase and the molybdenum uptake system in Rhodobacter capsulatus are activated by NtrC, independent of sigma54, and repressed by molybdenum.

Journal of bacteriology 178 (7)
PMID : 8606177  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.178.7.2010-2017.1996     PMC  :   PMC177898    
Abstract >>
The alternative nitrogenase of Rhodobacter capsulatus is expressed only under conditions of nitrogen and molybdenum depletion. The analysis of anfA-lacZ fusions demonstrated that this dual control occurred at the level of transcription of anfA, which encodes a transcriptional activator specific for the alternative nitrogenase. The anfA promoter was found to be activated under nitrogen-limiting conditions by NtrC in a sigma54-independent manner. In addition, anfA transcription was repressed by traces of molybdenum. This molybdenum-dependent repression of anfA was released in R. capsulatus mutants carrying either lesions in the high-affinity molybdenum uptake system (modABCD) or a double deletion of mopA and mopB, two genes encoding molybdenum-pterin-binding proteins. The expression of the molybdenum transport system itself was shown to be negatively regulated by molybdenum and, unexpectedly, to be also regulated by NtrC. This finding is in line with the presence of two tandemly arranged DNA motifs located in front of the R. capsulatus mopA-modABCD operon, which are homologous to R. capsulatus NtrC binding sites. Mapping of the transcriptional initiation sites of mopA and anfA revealed promoter sequences exhibiting significant homology to each other but no homology to known prokaryotic promoters. In addition, a conserved DNA sequence of dyad symmetry overlapping the transcriptional initiation sites of mopA and anfA was found. Deletions within this element resulted in molybdenum-independent expression of anfA, indicating that this DNA sequence may be the target of MopA/MopB-mediated repression.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Carrier Proteins
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Membrane Transport Proteins
Promoter Regions, Genetic
Transcription Factors
123.     ( 1995 )

Expression of the cbbLcbbS and cbbM genes and distinct organization of the cbb Calvin cycle structural genes of Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Archives of microbiology 164 (6)
PMID : 8588741  :  
Abstract >>
Rhodobacter capsulatus fixes CO2 via the Calvin reductive pentose phosphate pathway and, like some other nonsulfur purple bacteria, is known to synthesize two distinct structural forms of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). Cosmid clones that hybridized to form I (cbbLcbbS) and form II (cbbM) RubisCO gene probes were isolated from a genomic library of R. capsulatus strain SB1003. Southern blotting and hybridization analysis with gene-specific probes derived from Rhodobacter sphaeroides revealed that R. capsulatus cbbM is clustered with genes encoding other enzymes of the Calvin cycle, including fructose 1,6/sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphatase (cbbF), phosphoribulokinase (cbbP), transketolase (cbbT), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (cbbG), and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (cbbA), as well as a gene (cbbR) encoding a divergently transcribed LysR-type regulatory protein. Surprisingly, a cosmid clone containing the R. capsulatus form I RubisCO genes (cbbL and cbbS) failed to hybridize to the other cbb structural gene probes, unlike the situation with the closely related organism R. sphaeroides. The form I and form II RubisCO genes were cloned into pUC-derived vectors and were expressed in Escherichia coli to yield active recombinant enzyme in each case. Complementation of a RubisCO-deletion strain of R. sphaeroides to photosynthetic growth by R. capsulatus cbbLcbbS or cbbM was achieved using the broad host-range vector, pRK415, and R. sphaeroides expression vector pRPS-1.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
124.     ( 1993 )

Characterization of anf genes specific for the alternative nitrogenase and identification of nif genes required for both nitrogenases in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Molecular microbiology 8 (4)
PMID : 8332060  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1365-2958.1993.tb01611.x    
Abstract >>
To identify Rhodobacter capsulatus nif genes necessary for the alternative nitrogenase, strains carrying defined mutations in 32 genes and open reading frames of nif region A, B or C were constructed. The ability of these mutants to grow on nitrogen-free medium with molybdenum (Nif phenotype) or in a nifHDK deletion background on medium without molybdenum (Anf phenotype) was tested. Nine nif genes and nif-associated coding regions are absolutely essential for the alternative nitrogenase. These genes comprise nifV and nifB, the nif-specific ntr system (nifR1, R2, R4) and four open reading frames, which exhibit no homology to known genes. In addition, a significantly reduced activity of both the alternative nitrogenase and the molybdenum-dependent nitrogenase was found for fdxN mutants. By random Tn5 mutagenesis of a nifHDK deletion strain 42 Anf- mutants were isolated. Southern hybridization experiments demonstrated that 17 of these Tn5 mutants were localized in at least 13 different restriction fragments outside of known nif regions. Ten different Anf- Tn5 mutations are clustered on a 6 kb DNA fragment of the chromosome designated anf region A. DNA sequence analysis revealed that this region contained the structural genes of the alternative nitrogenase (anfHDGK). The identification of several Tn5 insertions mapping outside of anf region A indicated that at least 10 genes specific for the alternative nitrogenase are present in R. capsulatus.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
125.     ( 1993 )

Nucleotide sequence and genetic analysis of the Rhodobacter capsulatus ORF6-nifUI SVW gene region: possible role of NifW in homocitrate processing.

Molecular & general genetics : MGG 238 (3)
PMID : 8492805  :   DOI  :   10.1007/bf00291996    
Abstract >>
DNA sequence analysis of a 3494-bp HindIII-BclI fragment of the Rhodobacter capsulatus nif region A revealed genes that are homologous to ORF6, nifU, nifS, nifV and nifW from Azotobacter vinelandii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. R. capsulatus nifU, which is present in two copies, encodes a novel type of NifU protein. The deduced amino acid sequences of NifUI and NifUII share homology only with the C-terminal domain of NifU from A. vinelandii and K. pneumoniae. In contrast to nifA and nifB, which are almost perfectly duplicated, the predicted amino acid sequences of the two NifU proteins showed only 39% sequence identity. Expression of the ORF6-nifUISVW operon, which is preceded by a putative sigma 54-dependent promoter, required the function of NifA and the nif-specific rpoN gene product encoded by nifR4. Analysis of defined insertion and deletion mutants demonstrated that only nifS was absolutely essential for nitrogen fixation in R. capsulatus. Strains carrying mutations in nifV were capable of very slow diazotrophic growth, whereas ORF6, nifUI and nifW mutants as well as a nifUI/nifUII double mutant exhibited a Nif+ phenotype. Interestingly, R. capsulatus nifV mutants were able to reduce acetylene not only to ethylene but also to ethane under conditions preventing the expression of the alternative nitrogenase system. Homocitrate added to the growth medium repressed ethane formation and cured the NifV phenotype in R. capsulatus. Higher concentrations of homocitrate were necessary to complement the NifV phenotype of a polar nifV mutant (NifV-NifW-), indicating a possible role of NifW either in homocitrate transport or in the incorporation of this compound into the iron-molybdenum cofactor of nitrogenase.
KeywordMeSH Terms
126.     ( 1994 )

Cloning of a gene involved in rRNA precursor processing and 23S rRNA cleavage in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Journal of bacteriology 176 (4)
PMID : 8106323  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.176.4.1121-1127.1994     PMC  :   PMC205164    
Abstract >>
In Rhodobacter capsulatus wild-type strains, the 23S rRNA is cleaved into [16S] and [14S] rRNA molecules. Our data show that a region predicted to form a hairpin-loop structure is removed from the 23S rRNA during this processing step. We have analyzed the processing of rRNA in the wild type and in the mutant strain Fm65, which does not cleave the 23S rRNA. In addition to the lack of 23S rRNA processing, strain Fm65 shows impeded processing of a larger 5.6-kb rRNA precursor and slow maturation of 23S and 16S rRNAs from pre-23S and pre-16S rRNA species. Similar effects have also been described previously for Escherichia coli RNase III mutants. Processing of the 5.6-kb precursor was independent of protein synthesis, while the cleavage of 23S rRNA to generate 16S and 14S rRNA required protein synthesis. We identified a DNA fragment of the wild-type R. capsulatus chromosome that conferred normal processing of 5.6-kb rRNA and 23S rRNA when it was expressed in strain Fm65.
KeywordMeSH Terms
127.     ( 1994 )

Identification and molecular genetic characterization of a sensor kinase responsible for coordinately regulating light harvesting and reaction center gene expression in response to anaerobiosis.

Journal of bacteriology 176 (24)
PMID : 8002581  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.176.24.7566-7573.1994     PMC  :   PMC197214    
Abstract >>
Our laboratory recently demonstrated that anaerobic induction of light harvesting and reaction center structural gene expression involved a trans-acting factor, RegA, which exhibits sequence similarity to the class of prokaryotic sensory transduction proteins known as response regulators (M. W. Sganga and C. E. Bauer, Cell 68:945-954, 1992). In this study, we performed a screen for additional genes involved in inducing anaerobic expression of light harvesting and reaction center structural genes. This search resulted in the isolation of four strains that were shown by complementation and marker rescue analysis to harbor mutations allelic to the originally described regA mutation and one strain with a mutation found to be linked but nonallelic to regA. Sequence analysis indicated that this additional gene, regB, codes for a polypeptide that exhibits sequence similarity to the prokaryotic family of histidine sensor kinases. Analysis of photosynthesis gene expression in regB mutants indicates that the disruption of regB results in a phenotype that is very similar to that described for regA mutants, namely, a failure to trans activate anaerobic expression of the puf, puh, and puc operons. In analogy to other prokaryotic sensory transduction systems, we propose that RegB functions as a membrane-spanning sensor kinase that controls the anaerobic phosphorylation state of RegA, which in turn controls the induction of light harvesting and reaction center structural genes.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
128.     ( 1993 )

Sequence analysis and interposon mutagenesis of a sensor-kinase (DctS) and response-regulator (DctR) controlling synthesis of the high-affinity C4-dicarboxylate transport system in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Molecular & general genetics : MGG 237 (1��2��)
PMID : 8455557  :   DOI  :   10.1007/bf00282803    
Abstract >>
A two-component sensor-regulator system has been identified in the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus, which controls the expression of high-affinity C4-dicarboxylate transport activity in these cells. Nucleotide sequencing has revealed the existence of two genes, dctS and dctR, which together form an operon linked to, but divergently transcribed from, the previously identified dctP gene, which encodes the periplasmic binding protein of the transport system. The DctS protein is predicted to be a membrane-bound sensor-kinase with two potential membrane-spanning sequences in the N-terminal region. DctR was found to have sequence similarity throughout its entire length with proteins in the FixJ subfamily of response-regulators, especially to FixJ itself (42% identical residues). Insertional inactivation of the dctS and dctR genes resulted in the inability of the resulting mutants to grow on or transport malate, succinate or fumarate under aerobic conditions in the dark, and such mutants did not express the DctP protein. The mutants were complemented in trans by plasmids containing intact copies of the dctS and dctR genes.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Signal Transduction
Transcription Factors
129.     ( 1993 )

Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression of the gene for catalase-peroxidase (cpeA) from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus B10.

European journal of biochemistry 214 (1)
PMID : 8508796  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1432-1033.1993.tb17918.x    
Abstract >>
The gene encoding catalase-peroxidase was cloned from chromosomal DNA of Rhodobacter capsulatus B10. The nucleotide sequence of a 3.7-kb SacI-HindIII fragment, containing the catalase-peroxidase gene (cpeA) and its flanking regions were determined. A 1728-bp open reading frame, coding for 576 amino acid residues (molecular mass 61516 Da) of the enzyme, was observed. A Shine-Dalgarno sequence was found 5 bp upstream from the translational start site. The deduced amino acid sequence coincides with that of the amino terminus and of four peptides derived from trypsin digestion of the purified catalase-peroxidase of R. capsulatus B10. The amino acid sequence of R. capsulatus catalase-peroxidase shows interesting similarities to the amino acid sequences of the hydroperoxidases of Escherichia coli (42.7%) and Salmonella typhimurium (39.9%), the peroxidase of Bacillus stearothermophilus (32.1%) and the catalase-peroxidase of Mycobacterium intracellulare (42.2%). As shown by a cpeA::lacZ fusion in trans in R. capsulatus, the expression of the catalase-peroxidase gene is regulated by oxygen. The promoter of the cpeA gene was localized within 320 bp upstream of the ATG start codon.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
Genes, Bacterial
130.     ( 1993 )

Characterization of Rhodobacter capsulatus genes encoding a molybdenum transport system and putative molybdenum-pterin-binding proteins.

Journal of bacteriology 175 (10)
PMID : 8491722  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.175.10.3031-3042.1993     PMC  :   PMC204623    
Abstract >>
The alternative, heterometal-free nitrogenase of Rhodobacter capsulatus is repressed by traces of molybdenum in the medium. Strains carrying mutations located downstream of nifB copy II were able to express the alternative nitrogenase even in the presence of high molybdate concentrations. DNA sequence analysis of a 5.5-kb fragment of this region revealed six open reading frames, designated modABCD, mopA, and mopB. The gene products of modB and modC are homologous to ChlJ and ChlD of Escherichia coli and represent an integral membrane protein and an ATP-binding protein typical of high-affinity transport systems, respectively. ModA and ModD exhibited no homology to known proteins, but a leader peptide characteristic of proteins cleaved during export to the periplasm is present in ModA, indicating that ModA might be a periplasmic molybdate-binding protein. The MopA and MopB proteins showed a high degree of amino acid sequence homology to each other. Both proteins contained a tandem repeat of a domain encompassing 70 amino acid residues, which had significant sequence similarity to low-molecular-weight molybdenum-pterin-binding proteins from Clostridium pasteurianum. Compared with that for the parental nifHDK deletion strain, the molybdenum concentrations necessary to repress the alternative nitrogenase were increased 4-fold in a modD mutant and 500-fold in modA, modB, and modC mutants. No significant inhibition of the heterometal-free nitrogenase by molybdate was observed for mopA mopB double mutants. The uptake of molybdenum by mod and mop mutants was estimated by measuring the activity of the conventional molybdenum-containing nitrogenase. Molybdenum transport was not affected in a mopA mopB double mutant, whereas strains carrying lesions in the binding-protein-dependent transport system were impaired in molybdenum uptake.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Membrane Transport Proteins
131.     ( 1994 )

Heterologous expression of the bchM gene product from Rhodobacter capsulatus and demonstration that it encodes S-adenosyl-L-methionine:Mg-protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase.

Journal of bacteriology 176 (17)
PMID : 8071204  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.176.17.5290-5296.1994     PMC  :   PMC196713    
Abstract >>
The bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis gene, bchM, from Rhodobacter capsulatus was previously believed to code for a polypeptide involved in formation of the cyclopentone ring of protochlorophyllide from Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester. In this study, R. capsulatus bchM was expressed in Escherichia coli and the gene product was subsequently demonstrated by enzymatic analysis to catalyze methylation of Mg-protoporphyrin IX to form Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester. Activity required the substrates Mg-protoporphyrin IX and S-adenosyl-L-methionine. 14C-labeled product was formed in incubations containing 14C-methyl-labeled S-adenosyl-L-methionine. On the basis of these and previous results, we also conclude that the bchH gene, which was previously reported to code for Mg-protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase, is most likely involved in the Mg chelation step.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Gene Expression
Genes, Bacterial
132.     ( 1994 )

Characterization of a light-responding trans-activator responsible for differentially controlling reaction center and light-harvesting-I gene expression in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Journal of bacteriology 176 (22)
PMID : 7961455  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.176.22.6936-6943.1994     PMC  :   PMC197064    
Abstract >>
The purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus regulates synthesis of its photosystem in response to two environmental stimuli, oxygen tension and light intensity. Here we describe the identification and characterization of the trans-acting regulatory gene hvrA, which we show is involved in differentially controlling reaction center and light-harvesting gene expression in response to alterations in light intensity. An hvrA mutant strain is shown to lack the capability to trans-activate light-harvesting-I and reaction center gene expression but retain normal light-harvesting-II and photopigment regulation, in response to a reduction in light intensity. As a consequence of altered expression, hvrA mutant strains exhibit reduced photosynthetic growth capabilities under dim-light conditions. The results of this study and additional studies indicate that regulated synthesis of the photosystem involves complex sets of overlapping regulatory circuits that differentially control photosystem gene expression in response to environmental stimuli such as oxygen tension and light intensity.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes
133.     ( 1994 )

Rhodobacter capsulatus contains a novel cb-type cytochrome c oxidase without a CuA center.

Biochemistry 33 (10)
PMID : 8130227  :   DOI  :   10.1021/bi00176a047    
Abstract >>
The facultative phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus is capable of growth in a wide range of environmental conditions using a highly branched electron-transfer chain. During respiratory growth of this organism reducing equivalents are conveyed to oxygen via two terminal oxidases, previously called "cyt b410" (cytochrome c oxidase) and "cyt b260" (quinol oxidase). The cytochrome c oxidase was purified to homogeneity from a semiaerobically grown R. capsulatus strain. The purified enzyme consumes oxygen at a rate of 600 s-1, oxidizes reduced equine cyt c and R. capsulatus cyt c2, and has high sensitivity to cyanide. The complex is composed of three major polypeptides of apparent molecular masses 45, 32, and 28 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The 32- and 28-kDa proteins also stain with tetramethylbenzidine, indicating that they are c-type cytochromes. Partial amino acid sequences obtained from each of the subunits reveal significant homology to the fixN, fixO, and fixP gene products of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Rhizobium meliloti. The reduced enzyme has an optical absorption spectrum with distinct features near 550 and 560 nm and an asymmetric Soret band centered at 418 nm, indicating the presence of both c- and b-type cytochromes. Two electrochemically distinct cyt c are apparent, with redox midpoint potentials (Em7) of 265 and 320 mV, while the low-spin cyt b has an Em7 value of 385 mV. The enzyme binds carbon monoxide, and the CO difference spectrum indicates that CO binds to a high-spin cyt b. Pyridine hemochrome and HPLC analyses suggest that the complex contains 1 mol of heme C to 1 mol of protoheme and that neither heme O nor heme A is present.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
KeywordMeSH Terms
134.     ( 1994 )

The Escherichia coli efg gene and the Rhodobacter capsulatus adgA gene code for NH3-dependent NAD synthetase.

Journal of bacteriology 176 (11)
PMID : 8195100  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.176.11.3400-3402.1994     PMC  :   PMC205516    
Abstract >>
The essential gene efg, which complements ammonia-dependent growth (adgA) mutations in Rhodobacter capsulatus and is located at 38.1 min on the Escherichia coli chromosome, was found to code for NH3-dependent NAD synthetase. Crude extracts from a strain which overproduces the efg gene product contained up to 400 times more activity than crude extracts from the control strain, and the purified Efg protein possessed-NH3-dependent NAD synthetase activity. Glutamine-dependent NAD synthetase activity was found in crude extracts of E. coli but not in the purified enzyme, suggesting that it may be catalyzed by an additional subunit. An R. capsulatus strain carrying an adgA mutation was found to be deficient in NAD synthetase activity, and activity was restored by complementation with the E. coli gene. In accordance with the nomenclature proposed for Salmonella typhimurium (K. T. Hughes, B. M. Olivera, and J. R. Roth, J. Bacteriol. 170:2113-2120, 1988), the efg and adgA genes should now be designated nadE.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Amide Synthases
135.     ( 1994 )

Purification of a sixth ferredoxin from Rhodobacter capsulatus. Primary structure and biochemical properties.

European journal of biochemistry 222 (3)
PMID : 8026503  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1432-1033.1994.tb18942.x    
Abstract >>
A new ferredoxin has been purified from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. It is the sixth ferredoxin to be isolated from this bacterium and it was called FdVI. Its primary structure was established based on amino acid sequence analysis of the protein and of peptides derived from it. It is composed of 106 residues including five cysteines. The calculated mass of the polypeptide is 11,402.6 Da which matches the experimental value determined by electrospray mass spectrometry. Amino acid sequence comparison revealed that ferredoxin VI (FdVI) is strikingly similar to a ferredoxin from Caulobacter crescentus and to the putidaredoxin from Pseudomonas putida. FdVI exhibited an ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum typical for a [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin. EPR spectroscopy of the reduced protein showed a nearly axial signal similar to that of mitochondrial and P. putida ferredoxins. FdVI is biosynthesized in cells growing anaerobically under either nitrogen-sufficient or nitrogen-deficient conditions. Although the function of FdVI is unknown, its structural resemblance to [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins known to transfer electrons to oxygenases such as P-450 cytochromes, suggests that FdVI may have a similar role in R. capsulatus.
KeywordMeSH Terms
136.     ( 1993 )

Organization of the genes necessary for hydrogenase expression in Rhodobacter capsulatus. Sequence analysis and identification of two hyp regulatory mutants.

Molecular microbiology 8 (1)
PMID : 8497190  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1365-2958.1993.tb01199.x    
Abstract >>
A 25 kbp DNA fragment from the chromosome of Rhodobacter capsulatus B10 carrying hydrogenase (hup) determinants was completely sequenced. Coding regions corresponding to 20 open reading frames were identified. The R. capsulatus hydrogenase-specific gene (hup and hyp) products bear significant structural identity to hydrogenase gene products from Escherichia coli (13), from Rhizobium leguminosarum (16), from Azotobacter vinelandii (10) and from Alcaligenes eutrophus (11). The sequential arrangement of the R. capsulatus genes is: hupR2-hupU-hypF-hupS-hupL-hupM-hu pD-hupF-hupG-hupH-hupJ-hupK-hypA- hypB-hupR1- hypC-hypD-hypE-ORF19-ORF20, all contiguous and transcribed from the same DNA strand. The last two potential genes do not encode products that are related to identified hydrogenase-specific gene products in other species. The sequence of the 12 R. capsulatus genes underlined above is presented. The mutation site in two of the Hup- mutants used in this study, RS13 and RCC12, was identified in the hypF gene (deletion of one G) and in the hypD gene (deletion of 54 bp), respectively. The hypF gene product shares 45% identity with the product of hydA from E. coli and the product of hypF from R. leguminosarum. Those products present at their N-terminus a Cys arrangement typical of zinc-finger proteins. The G deletion in the C-terminal region of hypF in the RS13 mutant prevented the expression of a hupS::lacZ translational fusion from being stimulated by H2 as it is observed in the wild-type strain B10. It is inferred that the HypF protein is a factor involved in H2 stimulation of hydrogenase expression.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
137. Thöny-Meyer  L, Beck  C, Preisig  O, Hennecke  H,     ( 1994 )

The ccoNOQP gene cluster codes for a cb-type cytochrome oxidase that functions in aerobic respiration of Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Molecular microbiology 14 (4)
PMID : 7891558  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1365-2958.1994.tb01308.x    
Abstract >>
The genes for a new type of a haem-copper cytochrome oxidase were cloned from Rhodobacter capsulatus strain 37b4, using the Bradyrhizobium japonicum fixNOQP gene region as a hybridizing probe. Four genes, probably organized in an operon (ccoNOQP), were identified; their products share extensive amino acid sequence similarity with the FixN, O, Q and P proteins that have recently been shown to be the subunits of a cb-type oxidase. CcoN is a b-type cytochrome, CcoO and CcoP are membrane-bound mono- and dihaem c-type cytochromes and CcoQ is a small membrane protein of unknown function. Genes for a similar oxidase are also present in other non-rhizobial bacterial species such as Azotobacter vinelandii, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as revealed by polymerase chain reaction analysis. A ccoN mutant was constructed whose phenotype, in combination with the structural information on the gene products, provides evidence that the CcoNOQP oxidase is a cytochrome c oxidase of the cb type, which supports aerobic respiration in R. capsulatus and which is probably identical to the cbb3-type oxidase that was recently purified from a different strain of the same species. Mutant analysis also showed that this oxidase has no influence on photosynthetic growth and nitrogen-fixation activity.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
Multigene Family
138.     ( 1993 )

Identification of a gene required for the oxygen-regulated formation of the photosynthetic apparatus of Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Molecular microbiology 10 (4)
PMID : 7934837  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1365-2958.1993.tb00945.x    
Abstract >>
The pigment-binding proteins of Rhodobacter capsulatus are encoded by the polycistronic puf and puc operons. Both operons show higher expression under low oxygen tension than under high oxygen tension in the wild-type strain. The Tn5 mutant strain AH2 shows only low levels of puf and puc mRNA under high and low oxygen tension, indicating that it lacks a gene product required for stimulation of puf and puc gene expression under low oxygen tension. The formation of wild-type levels of photosynthetic complexes and normal oxygen regulation could be restored by the expression in trans of a 1.7 kb fragment of the R. capsulatus wild-type chromosome or by addition of 10 micrograms l-1 vitamin B12 to the growth medium. An open reading frame of 798 nucleotides containing the Tn5 insertion was identified on the 1.7 kb fragment. This open reading frame shows no homology to known genes and has a remarkably high GC content of 76%.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
139. Ineichen  G, Biel  AJ,     ( 1995 )

Nucleotide sequence of the Rhodobacter capsulatus hemE gene.

Plant physiology 108 (1)
PMID : 7784514  :   DOI  :   10.1104/pp.108.1.423     PMC  :   PMC157351    
Abstract >>
N/A
KeywordMeSH Terms
Databases, Factual
Genes, Plant
140. Indest  K, Biel  AJ,     ( 1995 )

Nucleotide sequence of the Rhodobacter capsulatus hemB gene.

Plant physiology 108 (1)
PMID : 7784513  :   DOI  :   10.1104/pp.108.1.421     PMC  :   PMC157350    
Abstract >>
N/A
KeywordMeSH Terms
Databases, Factual
Genes, Bacterial
Genes, Plant
141. Fernandez de Henestrosa  AR, Rivera  E, Barbé  J,     ( 1995 )

Non-reciprocal regulation of Rhodobacter capsulatus and Rhodobacter sphaeroides recA genes expression.

FEMS microbiology letters 129 (2��3��)
PMID : 7607398  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1574-6968.1995.tb07576.x    
Abstract >>
The Rhodobacter capsulatus recA gene has been isolated and sequenced. Its deduced amino acid sequence showed the closest identity with the Rhodobacter sphaeroides RecA protein (91% identity). However, the promoter regions of both R. capsulatus and R. sphaeroides recA genes are only 64% similar. An Escherichia coli-like LexA binding site was not present in the upstream region of the R. capsulatus recA gene. Nevertheless, the R. capsulatus recA gene is inducible by DNA damage in both hetero- and phototrophically growing conditions. The R. capsulatus recA gene is poorly induced when inserted into the chromosome of R. sphaeroides, indicating that the recA gene of both bacteria possess different control sequences despite their phylogenetically close relationship.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Serine Endopeptidases
142. Kanazireva  E, Biel  AJ,     ( 1995 )

Cloning and overexpression of the Rhodobacter capsulatus hemH gene.

Journal of bacteriology 177 (22)
PMID : 7592455  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.177.22.6693-6694.1995     PMC  :   PMC177530    
Abstract >>
In photosynthetically grown Rhodobacter capsulatus, heme is a qualitatively minor end product of the common tetrapyrrole pathway, but it may play a significant regulatory role. Heme is synthesized from protoporphyrin by the product of the hemH gene, ferrochelatase. We have cloned the R. capsulatus hemH gene by complementation of an Escherichia coli hemH mutant. When a plasmid carrying the hemH gene is returned to R. capsulatus, ferrochelatase activity increases, aminolevulinate synthase activity decreases, and bacteriochlorophyll levels are dramatically lowered. This is the first in vivo evidence to suggest that heme feedback inhibits aminolevulinate synthase in R. capsulatus, thereby reducing porphyrin synthesis.
KeywordMeSH Terms
143. Willison  JC, Pierrard  J, Hübner  P,     ( 1993 )

Sequence and transcript analysis of the nitrogenase structural gene operon (nifHDK) of Rhodobacter capsulatus: evidence for intramolecular processing of nifHDK mRNA.

Gene 133 (1)
PMID : 7693551  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0378-1119(93)90222-o    
Abstract >>
Northern blot analysis of RNA prepared from cells of Rhodobacter capsulatus derepressed for nitrogenase (N2ase) synthesis, using a 6.0-kb DNA probe containing the entire nifHDK operon, revealed the presence of at least six hybridizing species of the estimated sizes, 4.4, 3.5, 2.7, 1.3, 0.9 and 0.38 kb. No hybridization was detected with RNA prepared from cells grown in the presence of an excess of NH4+, which represses N2ase synthesis. Hybridization with gene-specific probes revealed that the 4.4-kb species hybridized with all three probes, and presumably corresponded to the full-length nifHDK transcript, whereas the 3.5-kb species hybridized with nifD and nifK only, and the 2.7-kb transcript hybridized with nifH and nifD. The 1.3 and 0.9-kb species hybridized with all three probes, but appeared to hybridize most strongly with nifH. In contrast, the 0.38-kb species hybridized with none of the gene-specific probes, and was also detected in RNA from cells of strain RcM1, which contains a chromosomal deletion of the nifHDK operon. This species probably corresponds to the transcript of a gene, named fdxD, which was found to be located just upstream from the nifHDK operon. Nucleotide (nt) sequencing of the nifH-D and nifD-K intergenic regions revealed the presence of inverted repeat (IR) sequences potentially capable of forming stable stem-loop structures in mRNA. Primer extension analysis of the nifDK-homologous species showed that the 5' end was located one or two nt downstream from the IR sequence between nifH and nifD, suggesting that the putative stem-loop structure may be a target for intramolecular processing of the nifHDK mRNA.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
Operon
RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional
Transcription, Genetic
144.     ( 1994 )

Identification of the rpmF-plsX-fabH genes of Rhodobacter capsulatus.

FEMS microbiology letters 118 (3)
PMID : 8020746  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1574-6968.1994.tb06832.x    
Abstract >>
The rpmF-plsX-fabH gene cluster of Rhodobacter capsulatus homologous to that of Escherichia coli was identified. rpmF encodes ribosomal protein L32, plsX plays an undefined role in membrane lipid synthesis, and fabH encodes beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III. The R. capsulatus plsX gene complemented a defect in an E. coli strain with the plsX50 mutation. Overproduction of the fabH gene product of R. capsulatus in E. coli resulted in dramatically increased beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III activity. These results indicate that plsX and fabH apparently function the same in R. capsulatus as in E. coli.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Escherichia coli Proteins
Genes, Bacterial
145. Pollich  M, Klug  G,     ( 1995 )

Identification and sequence analysis of genes involved in late steps in cobalamin (vitamin B12) synthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Journal of bacteriology 177 (15)
PMID : 7635831  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.177.15.4481-4487.1995     PMC  :   PMC177200    
Abstract >>
A 6.4-kb region of a 6.8-kb BamHI fragment carrying Rhodobacter capsulatus genes involved in late steps of cobalamin synthesis has been sequenced. The nucleotide sequence and genetic analysis revealed that this fragment contains eight genes arranged in at least three operons. Five of these eight genes show homology to genes involved in the cobalamin synthesis of Pseudomonas denitrificans and Salmonella typhimurium. The arrangement of these homologous genes differs considerably in the three genera. Upstream of five overlapping genes (named bluFEDCB), a promoter activity could be detected by using lacZ fusions. This promoter shows no regulation by oxygen, vitamin B12 (cobalamin), or cobinamide. Disruption of the bluE gene by a Tn5 insertion (strain AH2) results in reduced expression of the puf and puc operons, which encode pigment-binding proteins of the photosynthetic apparatus. The mutant strain AH2 can be corrected to a wild-type-like phenotype by addition of vitamin B12 or cobinamide dicyanide. Disruption of the bluB gene by an interposon (strain BB1) also disturbs the formation of the photosynthetic apparatus. The mutation of strain BB1 can be corrected by vitamin B12 but not by cobinamide. We propose that a lack of cobalamin results in deregulation and a decreased formation of the photosynthetic apparatus.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
146. Scolnik  PA, Walker  MA, Marrs  BL,     ( 1980 )

Biosynthesis of carotenoids derived from neurosporene in Rhodopseudomonas capsulata.

The Journal of biological chemistry 255 (6)
PMID : 7358679  :  
Abstract >>
We have characterized the carotenoids accumulated by a series of mutants of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata as part of a study of the synthesis, structure, and function of the photosynthetic membranes of this bacterium. The carotenoids in this study were identified by visible and mass spectroscopy, chromatography, derivatization, and chemical analyses. We have located a new genetic region, crtF, necessary for the O-methylation of the carotenoids. Mutants with a lesion in crtF accumulate demethylspheroidene as their major carotenoid during anaerobic growth and demethylspheroidenone when grown in the presence of oxygen, a heretofore undescribed phenotype. The genetic region necessary for O-methylation maps adjacent to the known cluster of genes affecting carotenoid biosynthesis. In addition, we have identified methoxyneurosporene as the carotenoid that preferentially binds to the reaction centers of strain Ga, a green mutant of R. sphaeroides which accumulates three neurosporene-like carotenoids. A metabolic grid for carotenoid biosynthesis is proposed, based upon the intermediates accumulated in these mutants.
KeywordMeSH Terms
147. Tadros  MH, Suter  F, Seydewitz  HH, Witt  I, Zuber  H, Drews  G,     ( 1984 )

Isolation and complete amino-acid sequence of the small polypeptide from light-harvesting pigment-protein complex I (B870) of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata.

European journal of biochemistry 138 (1)
PMID : 6363069  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1432-1033.1984.tb07902.x    
Abstract >>
The small bacteriochlorophyll-binding polypeptide of the light-harvesting complex B870 was extracted from the intracytoplasmic membrane of the strain A1a+ of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata with chloroform/methanol/ammonium acetate and separated by chromatography on Sephadex LH60 using the same solvent. The polypeptide obtained from the peak fraction III was found to be homogeneous and identical with the small polypeptide isolated from the B870 complex as shown by dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, amino acid composition and N-terminal sequence. The complete amino acid sequence is given. The relative molecular mass based on the amino acid sequence is 5341. The polarity of amino acids is 35.42%. The C-terminal part of the peptide chain from residue 29 to 48 is hydrophobic and includes one His residue.
KeywordMeSH Terms
148. Foloppe  N, Ferrand  M, Breton  J, Smith  JC,     ( 1995 )

Structural model of the photosynthetic reaction center of Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Proteins 22 (3)
PMID : 7479696  :   DOI  :   10.1002/prot.340220304    
Abstract >>
The reaction center (RC) from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter (Rb.) capsulatus has been the subject of a considerable amount of molecular biological and spectroscopic work aimed at improving our understanding of the primary steps of photosynthesis. However, no three-dimensional structure is available for this protein. We present here a model obtained by combining information from the structure of the highly homologous RC from Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) viridis with molecular mechanics and simulated annealing calculations. In the Rb. capsulatus model the orientations of the bacteriochlorophyll monomer and the bacteriopheophytin on the branch inactive in electron transfer differ significantly from those in the RCs of Rps. viridis and Rb. sphaeroides. The bacteriopheophytin orientational difference is in good accord with previous linear dichroism measurements. A comparison is made of interactions between the pigments and the protein environment that may be of functional significance in Rps. viridis, Rb. sphaeroides, and Rb. capsulatus.
KeywordMeSH Terms
149. Borghese  R, Wall  JD,     ( 1995 )

Regulation of the glnBA operon of Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Journal of bacteriology 177 (15)
PMID : 7635841  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.177.15.4549-4552.1995     PMC  :   PMC177213    
Abstract >>
In a recent report identifying the promoters of the Rhodobacter capsulatus glnBA operon, it was suggested that an internal promoter upstream of the glnA gene probably resulted in different levels of glnBA and glnA transcripts (D. Foster-Hartnett and R. G. Kranz, J. Bacteriol. 176:5171-5176, 1994). Therefore, to investigate the regulation, we constructed and examined the expression of a number of translational fusions in R. capsulatus glnBA. The results support a role for posttranscriptional regulation.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Operon
150. Keuntje  B, Masepohl  B, Klipp  W,     ( 1995 )

Expression of the putA gene encoding proline dehydrogenase from Rhodobacter capsulatus is independent of NtrC regulation but requires an Lrp-like activator protein.

Journal of bacteriology 177 (22)
PMID : 7592417  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.177.22.6432-6439.1995     PMC  :   PMC177492    
Abstract >>
Four Rhodobacter capsulatus mutants unable to grow with proline as the sole nitrogen source were isolated by random Tn5 mutagenesis. The Tn5 insertions were mapped within two adjacent chromosomal EcoRI fragments. DNA sequence analysis of this region revealed three open reading frames designated selD, putR, and putA. The putA gene codes for a protein of 1,127 amino acid residues which is homologous to PutA of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. The central part of R. capsulatus PutA showed homology to proline dehydrogenase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Put1) and Drosophila melanogaster (SlgA). The C-terminal part of PutA exhibited homology to Put2 (pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase) of S. cerevisiae and to aldehyde dehydrogenases from different organisms. Therefore, it seems likely that in R. capsulatus, as in enteric bacteria, both enzymatic steps for proline degradation are catalyzed by a single polypeptide (PutA). The deduced amino acid sequence of PutR (154 amino acid residues) showed homology to the small regulatory proteins Lrp, BkdR, and AsnC. The putR gene, which is divergently transcribed from putA, is essential for proline utilization and codes for an activator of putA expression. The expression of putA was induced by proline and was not affected by ammonia or other amino acids. In addition, putA expression was autoregulated by PutA itself. Mutations in glnB, nifR1 (ntrC), and NifR4 (ntrA encoding sigma 54) had no influence on put gene expression. The open reading frame located downstream of R. capsulatus putR exhibited strong homology to the E. coli selD gene, which is involved in selenium metabolism. R. capsulatus selD mutants exhibited a Put+ phenotype, demonstrating that selD is required neither for viability nor for proline utilization.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Drosophila Proteins
Phosphotransferases
Trans-Activators
151. Youvan  DC, Bylina  EJ, Alberti  M, Begusch  H, Hearst  JE,     ( 1984 )

Nucleotide and deduced polypeptide sequences of the photosynthetic reaction-center, B870 antenna, and flanking polypeptides from R. capsulata.

Cell 37 (3)
PMID : 6744416  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0092-8674(84)90429-x    
Abstract >>
The complete nucleotide sequence (8867 bp) and the deduced polypeptide sequence are given for 11 proteins from the photosynthetic gene cluster of R. capsulata (46 kb), including the photosynthetic reaction-center L, M, and H subunits and the B870 alpha and B870 beta polypeptides (light-harvesting I). These polypeptides bind bacteriochlorophyll, bacteriopheophytin, carotenoids, and quinones that are involved in the primary light reactions of photosynthesis. Hydropathy plots indicate that the L and M subunits are transmembrane proteins that may cross the membrane five times, while the H subunit has only one hydrophobic section near the amino terminus, which may be transmembrane. The L and M subunits are homologous over their entire length and have a high degree of homology with the QB protein from photosystem II of higher plants. An additional six genes were identified that may have some unknown role in bioenergetics since only mutations that affect the differentiation of the photosynthetic apparatus are known to map to this gene cluster.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Photosynthesis
152. Tadros  MH, Suter  F, Drews  G, Zuber  H,     ( 1983 )

The complete amino-acid sequence of the large bacteriochlorophyll-binding polypeptide from light-harvesting complex II (B800-850) of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata.

European journal of biochemistry 129 (3)
PMID : 6825670  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1432-1033.1983.tb07081.x    
Abstract >>
The large bacteriochlorophyll-a-binding polypeptide of the light-harvesting complex II (B800-850), having an apparent Mr with sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide electrophoresis of 10000, has been isolated and purified from intracytoplasmic membranes of the phototrophically negative mutant strain Y5 of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata. The primary structure of this polypeptide has been determined. The polypeptide consists of 60 amino acid residues yielding an Mr of 7322. The hydrophobic stretch in positions 16-35 with a histidine in position 31 might be of importance for interaction with bacteriochlorophyll. The C-terminal part is also hydrophobic while the N-terminal part consists of hydrophilic amino acids. The polarity of the total amino acids was determined to be 28.3%.
KeywordMeSH Terms
153. Ambler  RP, Bartsch  RG, Daniel  M, Kamen  MD, McLellan  L, Meyer  TE, Van Beeumen  J,     ( 1981 )

Amino acid sequences of bacterial cytochromes c' and c-556.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 78 (11)
PMID : 6273892  :   DOI  :   10.1073/pnas.78.11.6854     PMC  :   PMC349150    
Abstract >>
The cytochrome c' are electron transport proteins widely distributed in photosynthetic and aerobic bacteria. We report the amino acid sequences of the proteins from 12 different bacterial species, and we show by sequences that the cytochromes c-556 from 2 different bacteria are structurally related to the cytochromes c'. Unlike the mitochondrial cytochromes c, the heme binding site in the cytochromes c' and c-556 is near the COOH terminus. The cytochromes c-556 probably have a methionine sixth heme ligand located near the NH2 terminus, whereas the cytochromes c' may be pentacoordinate. Quantitative comparison of cytochrome c' and c-556 sequences indicates a relatively low 28% average identity.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Cytochrome c Group
Cytochromes
154. Pollock  D, Bauer  CE, Scolnik  PA,     ( 1988 )

Transcription of the Rhodobacter capsulatus nifHDK operon is modulated by the nitrogen source. Construction of plasmid expression vectors based on the nifHDK promoter.

Gene 65 (2)
PMID : 3410321  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0378-1119(88)90463-5    
Abstract >>
We characterized the Rhodobacter capsulatus nifHDK promoter by nucleotide sequencing and nuclease S1 analysis of mRNA-protected DNA probes. Comparison of this promoter to nifP and ntrP promoters from other species reveals extensive homology to the canonical nifP consensus sequence. Using lac fusions we have demonstrated that transcription of the nifHDK operon is totally repressed when the growth medium is supplemented with ammonia, becomes fully derepressed in ammonia-free medium, and proceeds at intermediate levels when other nitrogen sources are used. Based on this information, we constructed plasmid expression vectors in which the rates of transcription from cloned DNA fragments are determined by the nitrogen source used in the growth medium.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genetic Vectors
Operon
Promoter Regions, Genetic
Transcription, Genetic
155. Leclerc  M, Colbeau  A, Cauvin  B, Vignais  PM,     ( 1988 )

Cloning and sequencing of the genes encoding the large and the small subunits of the H2 uptake hydrogenase (hup) of Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Molecular & general genetics : MGG 214 (1)
PMID : 3067084  :   DOI  :   10.1007/bf00340186    
Abstract >>
The structural genes (hup) of the H2 uptake hydrogenase of Rhodobacter capsulatus were isolated from a cosmid gene library of R. capsulatus DNA by hybridization of Bradyrhizobium japonicum. The R. capsulatus genes were localized on a 3.5 kb HindIII fragment. The fragment, cloned onto plasmid pAC76, restored hydrogenase activity and autotrophic growth of the R. capsulatus mutant JP91, deficient in hydrogenase activity (Hup-). The nucleotide sequence, determined by the dideoxy chain termination method, revealed the presence of two open reading frames. The gene encoding the large subunit of hydrogenase (hupL) was identified from the size of its protein product (68,108 dalton) and by alignment with the NH2 amino acid protein sequence determined by Edman degradation. Upstream and separated from the large subunit by only three nucleotides was a gene encoding a 34,256 dalton polypeptide. Its amino acid sequence showed 80% identity with the small subunit of the hydrogenase of B. japonicum. The gene was identified as the structural gene of the small subunit of R. capsulatus hydrogenase (hupS). The R. capsulatus hydrogenase also showed homology of Desulfovibrio baculatus and D. gigas. In the R. capsulatus hydrogenase the Cys residues (13 in the small subunit and 12 in the large subunit) were not arranged in the typical configuration found in [4Fe-4S] feredoxins.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Cloning, Molecular
Genes
Genes, Bacterial
156. Schumann  JP, Waitches  GM, Scolnik  PA,     ( 1986 )

A DNA fragment hybridizing to a nif probe in Rhodobacter capsulatus is homologous to a 16S rRNA gene.

Gene 48 (1)
PMID : 3557130  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0378-1119(86)90354-9    
Abstract >>
We have sequenced the Rhodobacter capsulatus nifH and nifD genes. The nifH gene, which codes for the dinitrogenase reductase protein, is 894 bp long and codes for a polypeptide of predicted Mr 32,412. The nifD gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of dinitrogenase, is 1,500 bp long and codes for a protein of predicted Mr 56,113. A 776-bp BglII-XhoI fragment containing only nif sequences was used as a hybridization probe against R. capsulatus genomic DNA. Two HindIII fragments, 11.8 kb and 4.7 kb in length, hybridize to this probe. Both fragments have been cloned from a cosmid library. The 11.8-kb fragment contains the nifH, D and K genes, as previously demonstrated (Scolnik and Haselkorn, 1984). In this paper we present evidence that suggests that the 4.7-kb HindIII fragment contains a gene coding for 16S rRNA, and that although homology between nif and this fragment can be observed in filter hybridization experiments, a second copy of the nif structural genes seems not to be present in this region.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
157. Hochman  A, Shemesh  A,     ( 1987 )

Purification and characterization of a catalase-peroxidase from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas capsulata.

The Journal of biological chemistry 262 (14)
PMID : 3571290  :  
Abstract >>
Catalase-peroxidase was isolated from aerobically grown Rhodopseudomonas capsulata. The enzyme resembles typical catalases in some of its physicochemical properties. It has an apparent molecular weight of 236,000 and is composed of four identical subunits. It shows a typical high spin ferric heme spectrum with absorption maxima at 403 and 635 nm and shoulders at 503 and 535 nm. Upon binding of cyanide, the enzyme is converted to the low spin state, as shown by the shift of the Soret maximum to 418 nm and the band at 532 nm. It has an isoelectric point at pH 4.5. The enzyme differs from typical catalases in also having a strong peroxidatic activity with dianisidine, pyrogallol, and diaminobenzidine as electron donors. Both the catalatic and the peroxidatic activities are similarly inactivated by treatment with 1 mM H2O2, heating to 50 degrees C, exposure to ethanol/chloroform, and photooxidative conditions. In contrast to typical catalases, but similarly to peroxidases, the enzyme is reduced by sodium dithionite. The pH optimum of the peroxidatic activity is 5-5.3 (in contrast to 6-6.5 of the catalatic activity). 50% of the apparent maximal activities are reached at 0.3 and 4.2 mM H2O2 for the peroxidatic and catalatic activities, respectively. Both enzymic activities are equally inhibited by cyanide, 50% inhibition being achieved with 2.2 X 10(-5) M KCN. Contrarily, the two activities differ in their response to hydroxylamine and azide. 50% inhibition of the catalatic activity is obtained with 1.5 X 10(-4) M azide or 2.15 X 10(-6) M hydroxylamine; 50% inhibition of the peroxidatic activity requires 7.3 X 10(-4) M azide or 7.8 X 10(-5) M hydroxylamine. The activation energies of the catalatic and the peroxidatic activities are 1.9 and 1.7 kcal/mol, respectively.
KeywordMeSH Terms
158. Gabellini  N, Sebald  W,     ( 1986 )

Nucleotide sequence and transcription of the fbc operon from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. Evaluation of the deduced amino acid sequences of the FeS protein, cytochrome b and cytochrome c1.

European journal of biochemistry 154 (3)
PMID : 3004982  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1432-1033.1986.tb09437.x    
Abstract >>
The fbc operon from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides encodes the three redox carriers of the ubiquinol-cytochrome-c reductase (b/c1 complex): FeS protein, cytochrome b and cytochrome c1 [Gabellini, N. et al. (1985) EMBO J.2, 549-553]. The nucleotide sequence of 3874 bp of cloned R. sphaeroides chromosomal DNA, including the three structural genes fbcF, fbcB and fbcC has been determined. The reading frames of the fbc genes could be identified readily since the encoded amino acid sequences are highly homologous with the sequences of the corresponding mitochondrial polypeptides. Initiation and termination points for transcription have been investigated by S1 nuclease protection analysis. The transcription of the fbc operon starts approximately 240 base pairs upstream from the start codon of the fbcF gene and terminates 120 base pairs downstream from the stop codon of the fbcC gene. Nucleotide sequences resembling recognition signals for the binding and release of the RNA polymerase were identified. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the mature cytochrome c1 was obtained by automated Edman degradation of the isolated subunit, confirming the fbcC reading frame and indicating that the bacterial preapocytochrome c1 has a transient leader sequence including 21 residues. The N-terminal sequence of one hydrophilic peptide of the FeS protein has been also obtained confirming the fbcF reading frame. The deduced amino acid sequences are discussed in relation to the known primary structures of the homologous proteins from mitochondria and chloroplasts. The primary structures of the polypeptides are evaluated with respect to their topology in the membrane, their biogenesis, the structure of the catalytic sites and subunit interactions.
KeywordMeSH Terms
159.     ( 2013 )

Prediction of function for the polyprenyl transferase subgroup in the isoprenoid synthase superfamily.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 (13)
PMID : 23493556  :   DOI  :   10.1073/pnas.1300632110     PMC  :   PMC3612614    
Abstract >>
The number of available protein sequences has increased exponentially with the advent of high-throughput genomic sequencing, creating a significant challenge for functional annotation. Here, we describe a large-scale study on assigning function to unknown members of the trans-polyprenyl transferase (E-PTS) subgroup in the isoprenoid synthase superfamily, which provides substrates for the biosynthesis of the more than 55,000 isoprenoid metabolites. Although the mechanism for determining the product chain length for these enzymes is known, there is no simple relationship between function and primary sequence, so that assigning function is challenging. We addressed this challenge through large-scale bioinformatics analysis of >5,000 putative polyprenyl transferases; experimental characterization of the chain-length specificity of 79 diverse members of this group; determination of 27 structures of 19 of these enzymes, including seven cocrystallized with substrate analogs or products; and the development and successful application of a computational approach to predict function that leverages available structural data through homology modeling and docking of possible products into the active site. The crystallographic structures and computational structural models of the enzyme-ligand complexes elucidate the structural basis of specificity. As a result of this study, the percentage of E-PTS sequences similar to functionally annotated ones (BLAST e-value ? 1e(-70)) increased from 40.6 to 68.8%, and the percentage of sequences similar to available crystal structures increased from 28.9 to 47.4%. The high accuracy of our blind prediction of newly characterized enzymes indicates the potential to predict function to the complete polyprenyl transferase subgroup of the isoprenoid synthase superfamily computationally.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Databases, Protein
160. Bortolotti  A, Sánchez-Azqueta  A, Maya  CM, Velázquez-Campoy  A, Hermoso  JA, Medina  M, Cortez  N,     ( 2014 )

The C-terminal extension of bacterial flavodoxin-reductases: involvement in the hydride transfer mechanism from the coenzyme.

Biochimica et biophysica acta 1837 (1)
PMID : 24016470  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.bbabio.2013.08.008    
Abstract >>
KeywordMeSH Terms
2′-phospho-AMP portion of NADP(+)/H
2′P-AMP
CTC
Catalytic efficiency
Crystal structure
FAD and FADH(−)
FNR/FPR
FPR in the oxidised state
FPR(ox)
Ferredoxin (flavodoxin)-NADP(+) reductase
HT
HT first-order rate constant
Hydride transfer
ITC
K(d)
K(d)(NADPH)
NMN
WT
apparent conversion rate constants derived by global analysis
charge transfer complex
dissociation constant of the FNR(ox):NADPH complex
dissociation constant of the FPR(ox):NADP(+) complex
isothermal titration calorimetry
k(A→B,)k(B→C)
k(HT)
nicotinamide mononucleotide portion of NADP(+)/H
oxidised and two-electron reduced forms of the flavin adenine dinucleotide
plastidic/bacterial ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase
r.m.s.d.
root mean square deviation
wild-type
2′-phospho-AMP portion of NADP(+)/H
2′P-AMP
CTC
Catalytic efficiency
Crystal structure
FAD and FADH(−)
FNR/FPR
FPR in the oxidised state
FPR(ox)
Ferredoxin (flavodoxin)-NADP(+) reductase
HT
HT first-order rate constant
Hydride transfer
ITC
K(d)
K(d)(NADPH)
NMN
WT
apparent conversion rate constants derived by global analysis
charge transfer complex
dissociation constant of the FNR(ox):NADPH complex
dissociation constant of the FPR(ox):NADP(+) complex
isothermal titration calorimetry
k(A→B,)k(B→C)
k(HT)
nicotinamide mononucleotide portion of NADP(+)/H
oxidised and two-electron reduced forms of the flavin adenine dinucleotide
plastidic/bacterial ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase
r.m.s.d.
root mean square deviation
wild-type
Catalysis
161. Singh  R, Wiseman  B, Deemagarn  T, Jha  V, Switala  J, Loewen  PC,     ( 2008 )

Comparative study of catalase-peroxidases (KatGs).

Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 471 (2)
PMID : 18178143  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.abb.2007.12.008    
Abstract >>
KeywordMeSH Terms
Catalase
Peroxidases
162.     ( 1999 )

A consensus sequence for the Rhodospirillaceae SOS operators.

FEMS microbiology letters 171 (1)
PMID : 9987839  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1574-6968.1999.tb13409.x    
Abstract >>
The sequences controlling the expression of the Rhodobacter capsulatus recA and uvrA genes belonging to the SOS DNA repair system have been identified by PCR mutagenesis. Data obtained demonstrated that the GTTCN7GTAC and GAACN7GAAC motifs present upstream of the recA gene and the GTTCN7GTTC motif found upstream of the uvrA gene are required for their respective DNA damage-mediated induction. Alignment of recA promoters of R. capsulatus, Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas viridis with the uvrA promoters of R. capsulatus and R. sphaeroides has identified the consensus sequence GTTCVYVYTWTGTTC as the SOS operator site of the Rhodospirillaceae family.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Escherichia coli Proteins
163.     ( 1998 )

Distal genes of the nuo operon of Rhodobacter capsulatus equivalent to the mitochondrial ND subunits are all essential for the biogenesis of the respiratory NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase.

Molecular microbiology 28 (3)
PMID : 9632256  :   DOI  :   10.1046/j.1365-2958.1998.00814.x    
Abstract >>
Seven out of the 13 proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome of mammals (peptides ND1 to ND6 plus ND4L) are subunits of the respiratory NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). The function of these ND subunits is still poorly understood. We have used the NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase of Rhodobacter capsulatus as a model for the study of the function of these proteins. In this bacterium, the 14 genes encoding the NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase are clustered in the nuo operon. We report here on the biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of mutants individually disrupted in five nuo genes, equivalent to mitochondrial genes nd1, nd2, nd5, nd6 and nd4L. Disruption of any of these genes in R. capsulatus leads to the suppression of NADH dehydrogenase activity at the level of the bacterial membranes and to the disappearance of complex I-associated iron-sulphur clusters. Individual NUO subunits can still be immunodetected in the membranes of these mutants, but they do not form a functional subcomplex. In contrast to these observations, disruption of two ORFs (orf6 and orf7), also present in the distal part of the nuo operon, does not suppress NADH dehydrogenase activity or complex I-associated EPR signals, thus demonstrating that these ORFs are not essential for the biosynthesis of complex I.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Operon
164.     ( 1998 )

Cloning and characterization of the rpoH gene of Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Molecular & general genetics : MGG 260 (2��3��)
PMID : 9862474  :   DOI  :   10.1007/s004380050888    
Abstract >>
By using an oligonucleotide mixture corresponding to a region highly conserved among alternative sigma factors we identified a new sigma factor gene (rpoH) from Rhodobacter capsulatus. This gene encodes a protein of 34 kDa with strong similarity to the RpoH (sigma32) factors from other bacterial species. It was not possible to inactivate the R. capsulatus rpoH gene by introducing a resistance cassette, implying that it is essential for growth. The 5' ends of the mRNAs were mapped to two sequences with similarity to an rpoH- and an rpoD-dependent promoter, respectively. The amounts of both these mRNAs increased after heat shock, but were unaffected by a decrease in oxygen tension. Western analysis using a sigma factor-specific antibody revealed the accumulation of a protein of about 34 kDa after heat shock, and an increase in the amounts of a protein with the same size after reduction of oxygen tension in R. capsulatus cultures.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Sigma Factor
165.     ( 1998 )

Different cleavage specificities of RNases III from Rhodobacter capsulatus and Escherichia coli.

Nucleic acids research 26 (19)
PMID : 9742248  :   DOI  :   10.1093/nar/26.19.4446     PMC  :   PMC147862    
Abstract >>
23S rRNA in Rhodobacter capsulatus shows endoribonuclease III (RNase III)-dependent fragmentation in vivo at a unique extra stem-loop extending from position 1271 to 1331. RNase III is a double strand (ds)-specific endoribonuclease. This substrate preference is mediated by a double-stranded RNA binding domain (dsRBD) within the protein. Although a certain degree of double strandedness is a prerequisite, the question arises what structural features exactly make this extra stem-loop an RNase III cleavage site, distinguishing it from the plethora of stem-loops in 23S rRNA? We used RNase III purified from R.capsulatus and Escherichia coli, respectively, together with well known substrates for E.coli RNase III and RNA substrates derived from the special cleavage site in R.capsulatus 23S rRNA to study the interaction between the Rhodobacter enzyme and the fragmentation site. Although both enzymes are very similar in their amino acid sequence, they exhibit significant differences in binding and cleavage of these in vitro substrates.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Escherichia coli Proteins
166.     ( 1998 )

Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the Rhodobacter capsulatus sodB gene, encoding an iron superoxide dismutase.

Journal of bacteriology 180 (20)
PMID : 9765573  :   PMC  :   PMC107590    
Abstract >>
Genetic complementation of a sodA sodB Escherichia coli mutant strain was used to clone Rhodobacter capsulatus genes involved in detoxification of superoxide radicals. After sequence analysis, 1 of the 16 identical clones obtained by this selection procedure was shown to contain an open reading frame with sequence similarity to that coding for Fe-containing superoxide dismutases (SodB). The R. capsulatus sodB gene was expressed in E. coli, and the nature of the metal ligand was confirmed by inhibitor sensitivity assays with lysates from both bacterial species. Activity staining of cleared Rhodobacter lysates resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that SodB was the only superoxide dismutase present in this phototrophic organism. The sodB gene was expressed at low levels in R. capsulatus cells grown under anaerobic or semiaerobic conditions, but expression was strongly induced upon exposure of the bacteria to air or to methyl viologen. Attempts to construct a sodB mutant in this organism by allelic exchange of the chromosomal copy of the gene with a suicide plasmid containing a mutated sodB gene were unsuccessful, strongly suggesting that the encoded superoxide dismutase is essential for viability of R. capsulatus in aerobic cultures.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
Iron
167.     ( 1998 )

The atpIBEXF operon coding for the F0 sector of the ATP synthase from the purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Archives of microbiology 170 (5)
PMID : 9818357  :  
Abstract >>
The atpIBEXF operon coding for the F0 sector of the ATP synthase from Rhodobacter capsulatus was cloned and sequenced. The genes for the five subunits were present in the order: atpI (subunit I), atpB (subunit a), atpE (subunit c), atpX (subunit b'), and atpF (subunit b). The transcription initiation site was defined by primer-extension analysis. A duplicated and divergent copy of the b subunit gene (subunit b') was present. This duplication is found only in photosynthetic prokaryotes and in plant chloroplasts. F0 deletion mutants formed tiny colonies during anaerobic growth in the dark but could not sustain continuous growth. Based on the results of the present work, we conclude that a functioning ATP synthase is essential for normal growth under all conditions tested.
KeywordMeSH Terms
168.     ( 1998 )

Physiological control and regulation of the Rhodobacter capsulatus cbb operons.

Journal of bacteriology 180 (16)
PMID : 9696777  :   PMC  :   PMC107425    
Abstract >>
The genes encoding enzymes of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) reductive pentose phosphate pathway in Rhodobacter capsulatus are organized in at least two operons, each preceded by a separate cbbR gene, encoding potential LysR-type transcriptional activators. As a prelude to studies of cbb gene regulation in R. capsulatus, the nucleotide sequence of a 4,537-bp region, which included cbbRII, was determined. This region contained the following open reading frames: a partial pgm gene (encoding phosphoglucomutase) and a complete qor gene (encoding NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase), followed by cbbRII, cbbF (encoding fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase), cbbP (encoding phosphoribulokinase), and part of cbbT (encoding transketolase). Physiological control of the CBB pathway and regulation of the R. capsulatus cbb genes were studied by using a combination of mutant strains and promoter fusion constructs. Characterization of mutant strains revealed that either form I or form II ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO), encoded by the cbbLS and cbbM genes, respectively, could support photoheterotrophic and autotrophic growth. A strain with disruptions in both cbbL and cbbM could not grow autotrophically and grew photoheterotrophically only when dimethyl sulfoxide was added to the culture medium. Disruption of cbbP resulted in a strain that did not synthesize form II RubisCO and had a phenotype similar to that observed in the RubisCO-minus strain, suggesting that there is only one cbbP gene in R. capsulatus and that this gene is cotranscribed with cbbM. Analysis of RubisCO activity and synthesis in strains with disruptions in either cbbRI or cbbRII, and beta-galactosidase determinations from wild-type and mutant strains containing cbbIp- and cbbIIp-lacZ fusion constructs, indicated that the cbbI and cbbII operons of R. capsulatus are within separate CbbR regulons.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Operon
169.     ( 1998 )

A family of flavoproteins in the domains Archaea and Bacteria.

European journal of biochemistry 254 (2)
PMID : 9660187  :   DOI  :   10.1046/j.1432-1327.1998.2540325.x    
Abstract >>
A family of flavoproteins, called A-type flavoproteins, is described. It consists of 14 protein sequences of 385-597 amino acids in length, 7 from methanogens (domain: Archaea), 5 from phototrophic prokaryotes, one from Escherichia coli, and a partial sequence from the sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio gigas (domain: Bacteria). No similar sequence could be found in the domain Eucarya. All sequences show significant similarity over a 385-400 amino acid portion overlapping a recognizable flavodoxin signature starting at positions 245-285 of the common core sequence. Cofactor analysis and, to some extent, analysis of the primary structure of six A-type flavoproteins, three of which are structurally characterized here, support the existence of four sub-families: (a) simple flavoproteins binding only FMN; (b) diflavin flavoproteins binding FMN and FAD; (c) a flavorubredoxin binding FMN and iron; (d) a hemoflavoprotein. The possible involvement of A-type flavoproteins in the metabolism of oxygen, as suggested for D. gigas hemoflavoprotein [Gomes, C. M., Silva, G., Oliveira, S., LeGall, J., Liu, M.-Y., Xavier, A. V., Rodrigues-Pousada, C. & Teixeira, M. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 22502-22508], is discussed.
KeywordMeSH Terms
170.     ( 1998 )

Xanthine dehydrogenase from the phototrophic purple bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus is more similar to its eukaryotic counterparts than to prokaryotic molybdenum enzymes.

Molecular microbiology 27 (4)
PMID : 9515710  :   DOI  :   10.1046/j.1365-2958.1998.00733.x    
Abstract >>
Fourteen Rhodobacter capsulatus mutants unable to grow with xanthine as sole nitrogen source were isolated by random Tn5 mutagenesis. Five of these Tn5 insertions were mapped within two adjacent chromosomal EcoRI fragments hybridizing to oligonucleotides synthesized according to conserved amino acid sequences of eukaryotic xanthine dehydrogenases. DNA sequence analysis of this region revealed two open reading frames, designated xdhA and xdhB, encoding xanthine dehydrogenase. The deduced amino acid sequence of XDHA contains binding sites for two [2Fe-2S] clusters and FAD, whereas XDHB is predicted to contain the molybdopterin cofactor. In contrast to R. capsulatus, these three cofactor binding sites reside within a single polypeptide chain in eukaryotic xanthine dehydrogenases. The amino acid sequence of xanthine dehydrogenase from R. capsulatus showed a higher degree of similarity to eukaryotic xanthine dehydrogenases than to the xanthine dehydrogenase-related aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulphovibrio gigas. The expression of an xdhA-lacZ fusion was induced when hypoxanthine or xanthine was added as sole nitrogen source. Mutations in nifR1 (ntrC) and nifR4 (rpoN, encoding sigma54) had no influence on xdh gene expression. A putative activator sensing the availability of substrate seems to respond to xanthine but not to hypoxanthine. The transcriptional start site of xdhA was mapped by primer extension analysis. Comparison with known promoter elements revealed no significant homology. Xanthine dehydrogenase from R. capsulatus was purified to homogeneity. The enzyme consists of two subunits with molecular masses of 85 kDa and 50 kDa respectively. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of both subunits confirmed the predicted start codons. The molecular mass of the native enzyme was determined to be 275 kDa, indicating an alpha2beta2-subunit structure. Analysis of the molybdenum cofactor of xanthine dehydrogenase from R. capsulatus revealed that it contains the molybdopterin cofactor and not a molybdopterin dinucleotide derivative.
KeywordMeSH Terms
171.     ( 1998 )

Isolation and characterization of Rhodobacter capsulatus mutants affected in cytochrome cbb3 oxidase activity.

Journal of bacteriology 180 (4)
PMID : 9473054  :   PMC  :   PMC106979    
Abstract >>
The facultative phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus contains only one form of cytochrome (cyt) c oxidase, which has recently been identified as a cbb3-type cyt c oxidase. This is unlike other related species, such as Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Paracoccus denitrificans, which contain an additional mitochondrial-like aa3-type cyt c oxidase. An extensive search for mutants affected in cyt c oxidase activity in R. capsulatus led to the isolation of at least five classes of mutants. Plasmids complementing them to a wild-type phenotype were obtained for all but one of these classes from a chromosomal DNA library. The first class of mutants contained mutations within the structural genes (ccoNOQP) of the cyt cbb3 oxidase. Sequence analysis of these mutants and of the plasmids complementing them revealed that ccoNOQP in R. capsulatus is not flanked by the oxygen response regulator fnr, which is located upstream of these genes in other species. Genetic and biochemical characterizations of mutants belonging to this group indicated that the subunits CcoN, CcoO, and CcoP are required for the presence of an active cyt cbb3 oxidase, and unlike in Bradyrhizobium japonicum, no active CcoN-CcoO subcomplex was found in R. capsulatus. In addition, mutagenesis experiments indicated that the highly conserved open reading frame 277 located adjacent to ccoNOQP is required neither for cyt cbb3 oxidase activity or assembly nor for respiratory or photosynthetic energy transduction in R. capsulatus. The remaining cyt c oxidase-minus mutants mapped outside of ccoNOQP and formed four additional groups. In one of these groups, a fully assembled but inactive cyt cbb3 oxidase was found, while another group had only extremely small amounts of it. The next group was characterized by a pleiotropic effect on all membrane-bound c-type cytochromes, and the remaining mutants not complemented by the plasmids complementing the first four groups formed at least one additional group affecting the biogenesis of the cyt cbb3 oxidase of R. capsulatus.
KeywordMeSH Terms
172.     ( 1998 )

The high resolution crystal structure of DMSO reductase in complex with DMSO.

Journal of molecular biology 275 (4)
PMID : 9466935  :   DOI  :   10.1006/jmbi.1997.1513    
Abstract >>
The crystal structure of the molybdenum enzyme dimethylsulphoxide reductase (DMSOR) has been determined at 1.9 A resolution with substrate bound at the active site. DMSOR is an oxotransferase which catalyses the reduction of dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) to dimethylsulphide (DMS) in a two stage reaction which is linked to oxygen atom transfer and electron transfer. In the first step, DMSO binds to reduced (Mo(IV)) enzyme, the enzyme is oxidised to Mo(VI) with an extra oxygen ligand and DMS is released. Regeneration of reduced enzyme is achieved by transfer of two electrons, successively from a specific cytochrome, and release of the oxygen as water. The enzyme, purified under aerobic conditions, is in the oxidised (Mo(VI)) state. Addition of a large excess of DMS to the oxidised enzyme in solution causes a change in the absorption spectrum of the enzyme. The same reaction occurs within crystals of the enzyme and the crystal structure reveals a complex with DMSO bound to the molybdenum via its oxygen atom. X-ray edge data indicate that the metal is in the Mo(IV) state. The DMSO ligand replaces one of the two oxo groups which ligate the oxidised form of the enzyme, suggesting very strongly that this is the oxygen which is transferred during catalysis. Residues 384 to 390, disordered in the oxidised enzyme, are now clearly seen in the cleft leading to the active site. The side-chain of Trp388 forms a lid trapping the substrate/product.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Coenzymes
Iron-Sulfur Proteins
173.     ( 1998 )

Rhodobacter capsulatus HypF is involved in regulation of hydrogenase synthesis through the HupUV proteins.

European journal of biochemistry 251 (1��2��)
PMID : 9492269  :   DOI  :   10.1046/j.1432-1327.1998.2510065.x    
Abstract >>
The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus contains a membrane-bound [NiFe]hydrogenase encoded by the hupSL genes. We show in this study that hypF mutants are devoid of hydrogenase activity and lack the HupL protein. We also observed that, in contrast to the wild-type strain B10, transcription of the hupSL genes was not stimulated by H2 in the hypF mutants RS13 and BSE19. Complementation of the hypF mutants with the plasmid borne hypF gene restored hydrogenase activity to wild-type levels and inducibility by H2. The R. capsulatus hupU and hupV gene products share significant similarities with the small (HupS) and the large (HupL) hydrogenase subunits, respectively. Active HupUV proteins can catalyze the hydrogen-deuterium exchange reaction. In whole cells, this H-D exchange is distinguishable from the H-D exchange catalyzed by the membrane-bound HupSL proteins by its insensitivity to O2 and to acetylene. By measuring the formation of H2 and HD in exchange with D2 uptake, we demonstrated that the hypF mutants have no active HupUV nor HupSL proteins. H-D exchange activity, of both HupUV and HupSL, was restored by hypF gene complementation. These data indicate that the HypF protein participates not only in the maturation of HupSL, but also in the maturation of the HupUV proteins and that the latter are involved in the cellular response to H2.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Oxidoreductases
174.     ( 1998 )

Overexpression in Escherichia coli of the rnf genes from Rhodobacter capsulatus--characterization of two membrane-bound iron-sulfur proteins.

European journal of biochemistry 251 (1��2��)
PMID : 9492268  :   DOI  :   10.1046/j.1432-1327.1998.2510054.x    
Abstract >>
The rnf genes of Rhodobacter capsulatus, essential for nitrogen fixation, are thought to encode a system for electron transport to nitrogenase. In the present study, we have attempted to overexpress the rnf genes in Escherichia coli to investigate the molecular properties of the corresponding proteins. Corrections were made to the published DNA sequence of the rnf operon, resulting in the identification of two genes, rnfG and rnfH. The rnfABCDGEH operon thus comprises seven genes and shows similarities in gene arrangement and deduced protein sequences to homologous regions in the genomes of Haemophilus influenzae and E. coli. Four of the rnf gene products were found to be similar in sequence to components of an Na+-dependent NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from Vibrio alginolyticus. Three of the rnf genes were successfully overexpressed in E. coli as His-tagged polypeptides, whereas the products of rnfA, rnfD and rnfE, predicted to be transmembrane proteins, could not be stably maintained in E. coli. The rnfB and rnfC gene products were isolated as two brown proteins with apparent molecular-mass values of 25 kDa and 55 kDa, respectively. RnfB was shown to contain one [2Fe-2S] cluster, based on absorption spectrophotometry, EPR spectroscopy and iron content. Recombinant RnfC contained at least one iron-sulfur cluster, most likely of the [4Fe-4S] type. Unambiguous identification of the prosthetic groups was, however, precluded by the extreme instability of this protein. In R. capsulatus, RnfB and RnfC were found by immunoblot analysis to be tightly bound to the membrane, despite their hydrophilic character. The RnfB and RnfC proteins were absent in mutant strains bearing insertions at various positions within the rnfABCDGEH operon, suggesting that their stability depends on the cosynthesis of the other rnf gene products. We observed that iron limitation during growth resulted in a decrease both in the cellular content of RnfB and in the level of transcription of the rnfABCDGEH operon, indicating that the expression of this operon is regulated as a function of iron availability.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
175.     ( 1998 )

Rhodobacter capsulatus genes encoding form I ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (cbbLS) and neighbouring genes were acquired by a horizontal gene transfer.

Microbiology (Reading, England) 144 (Pt 1) (N/A)
PMID : 9467914  :   DOI  :   10.1099/00221287-144-1-219    
Abstract >>
Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the form I ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) genes (cbbL and cbbS) of the non-sulfur purple bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence of the large subunit was not closely homologous to the large subunit from related organisms. Indeed, phylogenetic analysis suggested that the large subunit protein (CbbL) more closely resembled the enzyme from alpha/beta/gamma purple bacteria and cyanobacteria and is within a 'green-like' radiation of the RubisCO phylogenetic tree, well separated from CbbL of the related organism Rhodobacter sphaeroides. A cbbQ gene was discovered downstream of cbbS in Rh. capsulatus, a gene arrangement which also appears to be limited to certain organisms containing a 'green-like' RubisCO. Upstream, and divergently transcribed from cbbLSQ, is a gene (cbbRI) that encodes a LysR-type transcriptional activator. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of CbbRI also suggests that this protein is quite distinct from the Rh. sphaeroides CbbR protein, and is even distinct from the previously described CbbRII protein, the gene of which is upstream and divergently transcribed from the cbbII operon of Rh. capsulatus. Interestingly, Rh. capsulatus CbbRI is more closely related to CbbR from bacteria whose RubisCO falls within the 'green-like' radiation of the CbbL tree. These studies suggest that the cbbRI-cbbL-cbbS-cbbQ genes were acquired by Rh. capsulatus via horizontal gene transfer from a bacterial species containing a 'green-like' RubisCO.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Phylogeny
176.     ( 1997 )

Molecular analysis of the Rhodobacter capsulatus chaperone dnaKJ operon: purification and characterization of DnaK.

Gene 192 (2)
PMID : 9224898  :   DOI  :   10.1016/s0378-1119(97)00085-1    
Abstract >>
In Rhodobacter capsulatus (Rbc), the participation of DnaK in the synthesis of light harvesting antenna complex I (LHI) has been recently inferred from the finding that the amount of LHI alpha- and beta-polypeptides synthesized in an in vitro translation system was strongly reduced when DnaK was depleted. In the present work, a DnaK protein was isolated from Rbc and biochemically characterized. The N-terminus of the protein was sequenced and a corresponding oligo was used as probe in order to clone the gene coding for DnaK. The dnaK gene was located in an operon (dnaKJ) with two open reading frames, which code for DnaK and DnaJ, respectively. A promoter element corresponding to the consensus sequence of the atypical heat shock (HS) promoter of several alpha-purple proteobacteria was identified. Northern blot analysis indicated that dnaK and dnaJ belong to the same transcriptional unit; there were two transcripts, one comprising both the dnaK and dnaJ genes and a second with only dnaK. Primer extension analysis revealed that under both chemotrophic and phototrophic conditions transcription was initiated from the same position before and after HS. The promoter activity was studied under different growth conditions with a dnaK-lacZ fusion under the control of the dnaKJ promoter. The present work opens up the possibility to study the specific role of DnaK in the assembly of photosynthetic apparatus proteins.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Escherichia coli Proteins
177.     ( 1998 )

The ATP synthase atpHAGDC (F1) operon from Rhodobacter capsulatus.

Journal of bacteriology 180 (2)
PMID : 9440534  :   PMC  :   PMC106900    
Abstract >>
The atpHAGDC operon of Rhodobacter capsulatus, containing the five genes coding for the F1 sector of the ATP synthase, has been cloned and sequenced. The promoter region has been defined by primer extension analysis. It was not possible to obtain viable cells carrying atp deletions in the R. capsulatus chromosome, indicating that genes coding for ATP synthase are essential, at least under the growth conditions tested. We were able to circumvent this problem by combining gene transfer agent transduction with conjugation. This method represents an easy way to construct strains carrying mutations in indispensable genes.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Operon

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