( 1992 )
Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for citrate synthase from a thermotolerant Bacillus sp.
PMID : 1311544 : PMC : PMC195212
The structural gene coding for citrate synthase from the gram-positive soil isolate Bacillus sp. strain C4 (ATCC 55182) capable of secreting acetic acid at pH 5.0 to 7.0 in the presence of dolime has been cloned from a genomic library by complementation of an Escherichia coli auxotrophic mutant lacking citrate synthase. The nucleotide sequence of the entire 3.1-kb HindIII fragment has been determined, and one major open reading frame was found coding for citrate synthase (ctsA). Citrate synthase from Bacillus sp. strain C4 was found to be a dimer (Mr, 84,500) with a subunit with an Mr of 42,000. The N-terminal sequence was found to be identical with that predicted from the gene sequence. The kinetics were best fit to a bisubstrate enzyme with an ordered mechanism. Bacillus sp. strain C4 citrate synthase was not activated by potassium chloride and was not inhibited by NADH, ATP, ADP, or AMP at levels up to 1 mM. The predicted amino acid sequence was compared with that of the E. coli, Acinetobacter anitratum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Rickettsia prowazekii, porcine heart, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytoplasmic and mitochondrial enzymes.
( 2002 )
Gene cloning and biochemical analysis of thermostable chitosanase (TCH-2) from Bacillus coagulans CK108.
PMID : 12092850 : DOI : 10.1271/bbb.66.986
The DNA sequence of the thermostable chitosanase TCH-2 gene from Bacillus coagulans CK108 showed a 843-bp open reading frame that encodes a protein of 280 amino acids with a signal peptide corresponding to 32 kDa in size. The deduced amino acid sequence of the chitosanase from Bacillus coagulans CK108 has 61.6%, 48.0%, and 12.6% identities to those from Bacillus ehemensis, Bacillus circulans, and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. C-Terminal homology analysis shows that the enzyme belongs to the Cluster I group. The size of the gene was similar to those from mesophiles of the Cluster I group with regard to higher preference for codons ending in G or C. The recombinant chitosanase was electrophoretically purified to homogeneity by only two steps with column chromatography. The half-life of the enzyme was 40 min at 90 degrees C. The purified protein was also highly stable, retaining above 50% residual activities during treatment with denaturants such as urea (8 M) and guanidine x HCl (4 M) at 37 degrees C for 30 min. The enzyme had a useful reactivity and a high specific activity for producing functional oligosaccharides as well, producing the tetramer as a major product.
Le Marrec C,
( 2000 )
Biochemical and genetic characterization of coagulin, a new antilisterial bacteriocin in the pediocin family of bacteriocins, produced by Bacillus coagulans I(4).
PMID : 11097892 : DOI : 10.1128/aem.66.12.5213-5220.2000 PMC : PMC92446
A plasmid-linked antimicrobial peptide, named coagulin, produced by Bacillus coagulans I(4) has recently been reported (B. Hyronimus, C. Le Marrec and M. C. Urdaci, J. Appl. Microbiol. 85:42-50, 1998). In the present study, the complete, unambiguous primary amino acid sequence of the peptide was obtained by a combination of both N-terminal sequencing of purified peptide and the complete sequence deduced from the structural gene harbored by plasmid I(4). Data revealed that this peptide of 44 residues has an amino acid sequence similar to that described for pediocins AcH and PA-1, produced by different Pediococcus acidilactici strains and 100% identical. Coagulin and pediocin differed only by a single amino acid at their C terminus. Analysis of the genetic determinants revealed the presence, on the pI(4) DNA, of the entire 3.5-kb operon of four genes described for pediocin AcH and PA-1 production. No extended homology was observed between pSMB74 from P. acidilactici and pI(4) when analyzing the regions upstream and downstream of the operon. An oppositely oriented gene immediately dowstream of the bacteriocin operon specifies a 474-amino-acid protein which shows homology to Mob-Pre (plasmid recombination enzyme) proteins encoded by several small plasmids extracted from gram-positive bacteria. This is the first report of a pediocin-like peptide appearing naturally in a non-lactic acid bacterium genus.
( 2007 )
Development of plasmid vector and electroporation condition for gene transfer in sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans.
PMID : 17215040 : DOI : 10.1016/j.plasmid.2006.11.006
Bacillus coagulans is a sporogenic lactic acid bacterium that ferments glucose and xylose, major components of plant biomass, a potential feedstock for cellulosic ethanol. The temperature and pH for optimum rate of growth of B. coagulans (50 to 55 degrees C, pH 5.0) are very similar to that of commercially developed fungal cellulases (50 degrees C; pH 4.8). Due to this match, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of cellulose to products by B. coagulans is expected to require less cellulase than needed if the SSF is conducted at a sub-optimal temperature, such as 30 degrees C, the optimum for yeast, the main biocatalyst used by the ethanol industry. To fully exploit B. coagulans as a platform organism, we have developed an electroporation method to transfer plasmid DNA into this genetically recalcitrant bacterium. We also constructed a B. coagulans/E. coli shuttle vector, plasmid pMSR10 that contains the rep region from a native plasmid (pMSR0) present in B. coagulans strain P4-102B. The native plasmid, pMSR0 (6823bp), has 9 ORFs, and replicates by rolling-circle mode of replication. Plasmid pNW33N, developed for Geobacillus stearothermophilus, was also transformed into this host and stably maintained while several other Bacillus/Escherichia coli shuttle vector plasmids were not transformed into B. coagulans. The transformation efficiency of B. coagulans strain P4-102B using the plasmids pNW33N or pMSR10 was about 1.5x10(16) per mole of DNA. The availability of shuttle vectors and an electroporation method is expected to aid in genetic and metabolic engineering of B. coagulans.
( 2005 )
Cloning and characterization of a carboxylesterase from Bacillus coagulans 81-11.
PMID : 15902466 : DOI : 10.1007/s00284-004-4423-3
A genomic library of Bacillus coagulans strain 81-11 was screened in Escherichia coli JM83 for lipolytic activity by using tributyrin agar plates. A 2.4 kb DNA fragment was subcloned from a lipolytic-positive clone and completely sequenced. Nucleotide sequence analysis predicted a 723 bp open reading frame (ORF), designated estC1, encoding a protein of 240 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 27,528 Da and a pI of 9.15. The deduced amino acid sequence of the estC1 gene exhibited significant amino acid sequence identity with carboxylesterases from thermophilic Geobacillus spp. and sequence analysis showed that the protein contains the signature G-X-S-X-G included in most esterases and lipases. Enzyme assays using p-nitrophenyl (p-NP) esters with different acyl chain lengths as the substrate confirmed the esterase activity. EstC1 exhibited a marked preference for esters of short-chain fatty acids, yielding the highest activity with p-NP butyrate. Maximum activity was found at pH 8 and 50 degrees C, although the enzyme displayed stability at temperatures up to 60 degrees C.
( 2004 )
cpnDB: a chaperonin sequence database.
PMID : 15289485 : DOI : 10.1101/gr.2649204 PMC : PMC509277
Type I chaperonins are molecular chaperones present in virtually all bacteria, some archaea and the plastids and mitochondria of eukaryotes. Sequences of cpn60 genes, encoding 60-kDa chaperonin protein subunits (CPN60, also known as GroEL or HSP60), are useful for phylogenetic studies and as targets for detection and identification of organisms. Conveniently, a 549-567-bp segment of the cpn60 coding region can be amplified with universal PCR primers. Here, we introduce cpnDB, a curated collection of cpn60 sequence data collected from public databases or generated by a network of collaborators exploiting the cpn60 target in clinical, phylogenetic, and microbial ecology studies. The growing database currently contains approximately 2000 records covering over 240 genera of bacteria, eukaryotes, and archaea. The database also contains over 60 sequences for the archaeal Type II chaperonin (thermosome, a homolog of eukaryotic cytoplasmic chaperonin) from 19 archaeal genera. As the largest curated collection of sequences available for a protein-encoding gene, cpnDB provides a resource for researchers interested in exploiting the power of cpn60 as a diagnostic or as a target for phylogenetic or microbial ecology studies, as well as those interested in broader subjects such as lateral gene transfer and codon usage. We built cpnDB from open source tools and it is available at http://cpndb.cbr.nrc.ca.
( 1992 )
Cloning, sequencing, and high expression of the proline iminopeptidase gene from Bacillus coagulans.
PMID : 1459939 : DOI : 10.1128/jb.174.24.7919-7925.1992 PMC : PMC207526
The gene coding for proline iminopeptidase in Bacillus coagulans was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequencing revealed an 861-bp open reading frame with an unusual TTG initiation codon, encoding a 287-amino-acid protein. The calculated molecular weight of the product was 32,415. The amino acid sequences of the amino-terminal region and those of some peptide fragments obtained by endoproteinase Asp-N digestion of the purified enzyme completely coincided with those deduced from the nucleotide sequence. The rare TTG initiation codon that normally codes for leucine was translated as a formal initiation codon; a methionine residue was found at the amino terminus of the enzyme. By using a vector bearing the strong tac promoter, an expression level as high as 200-fold that of the first clone was achieved. The replacement of the TTG initiation codon with ATG and a simultaneous reduction of the distance to the tac promoter resulted in a further increase of 2.5-fold. The expressed enzyme was easily purified to homogeneity by hydrophobic chromatography on a Toyopearl HW-65C column and crystallization, with a recovery of activity of 36%. The molecular weight was found to be 33,000 by both sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration on a Hi-Load 16/60 Superdex 200 fast protein liquid chromatography column. The expressed enzyme showed the same catalytic and physicochemical properties as those of the wild type, specifically cleaving the N-terminal proline from small substrates.
( 2011 )
Efficient conversion of phenylpyruvic acid to phenyllactic acid by using whole cells of Bacillus coagulans SDM.
PMID : 21533054 : DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0019030 PMC : PMC3080406
Phenyllactic acid (PLA), a novel antimicrobial compound with broad and effective antimicrobial activity against both bacteria and fungi, can be produced by many microorganisms, especially lactic acid bacteria. However, the concentration and productivity of PLA have been low in previous studies. The enzymes responsible for conversion of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) into PLA are equivocal. A novel thermophilic strain, Bacillus coagulans SDM, was isolated for production of PLA. When the solubility and dissolution rate of PPA were enhanced at a high temperature, whole cells of B. coagulans SDM could effectively convert PPA into PLA at a high concentration (37.3 g l(-1)) and high productivity (2.3 g l(-1) h(-1)) under optimal conditions. Enzyme activity staining and kinetic studies identified NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenases as the key enzymes that reduced PPA to PLA. Taking advantage of the thermophilic character of B. coagulans SDM, a high yield and productivity of PLA were obtained. The enzymes involved in PLA production were identified and characterized, which makes possible the rational design and construction of microorganisms suitable for PLA production with metabolic engineering.
van Hartskamp M,
van Kranenburg R,
( 2010 )
Genetic tool development for a new host for biotechnology, the thermotolerant bacterium Bacillus coagulans.
PMID : 20400555 : DOI : 10.1128/AEM.03060-09 PMC : PMC2893497
Bacillus coagulans has good potential as an industrial production organism for platform chemicals from renewable resources but has limited genetic tools available. Here, we present a targeted gene disruption system using the Cre-lox system, development of a LacZ reporter assay for monitoring gene transcription, and heterologous d-lactate dehydrogenase expression.
( 1989 )
Nucleotide sequences of genes encoding heat-stable and heat-labile glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases; amino acid sequence and protein thermostability.
PMID : 2684782 : DOI : 10.1016/0378-1119(89)90049-8
The structural gene (gapST) encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH; EC 220.127.116.11) from Bacillus stearothermophilus has been cloned in Escherichia coli using plasmid pBR322 as a vector; the homologous gene (gapCO) from Bacillus coagulans was cloned from a phage lambda library. Expression of the cloned gap genes revealed that, as in the wild-type (wt) organisms, the GPDH from B. stearothermophilus (GPDH-ST) was intrinsically heat stable (hs) and that from B. coagulans (GPDH-CO) heat labile (hl). The cloned gap genes were sequenced and the deduced amino acid (aa) sequences were found to be highly conserved (91.6% homology), despite the large difference in thermostability between these two enzymes. Of the 28 aa which differ between the two proteins, most of which occur in the middle third of the monomeric subunit, 5 aa involve replacement of alanine in the hl GPDH-CO, by proline in the hs GPDH-ST, and are especially interesting in terms of their potential contributions to thermostability. Conservation at the DNA level is equally dramatic, with the two gap genes exhibiting 93.3% nucleotide sequence homology. These highly expressed genes exhibit an equivalent codon bias, which more closely resembles that of highly expressed E. coli genes, than that of B. stearothermophilus genes whether highly or weakly expressed.
( 2015 )
Complete genome sequences for 35 biothreat assay-relevant bacillus species.
PMID : 25931591 : DOI : 10.1128/genomeA.00151-15 PMC : PMC4417687
In 2011, the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) International released a list of Bacillus strains relevant to biothreat molecular detection assays. We present the complete and annotated genome assemblies for the 15 strains listed on the inclusivity panel, as well as the 20 strains listed on the exclusivity panel.
( 2014 )
Kinetic characterization of recombinant Bacillus coagulans FDP-activated l-lactate dehydrogenase expressed in Escherichia coli and its substrate specificity.
PMID : 24412354 : DOI : 10.1016/j.pep.2013.12.014
Bacillus coagulans is a homofermentative, acid-tolerant and thermophilic sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, which is capable of producing high yields of optically pure lactic acid. The l-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase (l-LDH) from B. coagulans is considered as an ideal biocatalyst for industrial production. In this study, the gene ldhL encoding a thermostable l-LDH was amplified from B. coagulans NL01 genomic DNA and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant enzyme was partially purified and its enzymatic properties were characterized. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the l-LDH was a fructose 1,6-diphosphate-activated NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (l-nLDH). Its molecular weight was approximately 34-36kDa. The Km and Vmax values of the purified l-nLDH for pyruvate were 1.91��0.28mM and 2613.57��6.43�gmol(minmg)(-1), respectively. The biochemical properties of l-nLDH showed that the specific activity were up to 2323.29U/mg with optimum temperature of 55�XC and pH of 6.5 in the pyruvate reduction and 351.01U/mg with temperature of 55�XC and pH of 11.5 in the lactate oxidation. The enzyme also showed some activity in the absence of FDP, with a pH optimum of 4.0. Compared to other lactic acid bacterial l-nLDHs, the enzyme was found to be relatively stable at 50�XC. Ca(2+), Ba(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) ions had activated effects on the enzyme activity, and the enzyme was greatly inhibited by Ni(2+) ion. Besides these, l-nLDH showed the higher specificity towards pyruvate esters, such as methyl pyruvate and ethyl pyruvate.
( 1990 )
Nucleotide sequences of genes encoding heat-stable and heat-labile glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases; amino acid sequence and protein thermostability.
PMID : 2227448 : DOI : 10.1016/0378-1119(90)90484-9
( 2011 )
Evolution of D-lactate dehydrogenase activity from glycerol dehydrogenase and its utility for D-lactate production from lignocellulose.
PMID : 22065761 : DOI : 10.1073/pnas.1111085108 PMC : PMC3223474
Lactic acid, an attractive, renewable chemical for production of biobased plastics (polylactic acid, PLA), is currently commercially produced from food-based sources of sugar. Pure optical isomers of lactate needed for PLA are typically produced by microbial fermentation of sugars at temperatures below 40 �XC. Bacillus coagulans produces L(+)-lactate as a primary fermentation product and grows optimally at 50 �XC and pH 5, conditions that are optimal for activity of commercial fungal cellulases. This strain was engineered to produce D(-)-lactate by deleting the native ldh (L-lactate dehydrogenase) and alsS (acetolactate synthase) genes to impede anaerobic growth, followed by growth-based selection to isolate suppressor mutants that restored growth. One of these, strain QZ19, produced about 90 g L(-1) of optically pure D(-)-lactic acid from glucose in < 48 h. The new source of D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) activity was identified as a mutated form of glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH; D121N and F245S) that was produced at high levels as a result of a third mutation (insertion sequence). Although the native GlyDH had no detectable activity with pyruvate, the mutated GlyDH had a D-LDH specific activity of 0.8 �gmoles min(-1) (mg protein)(-1). By using QZ19 for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to D-lactate (50 �XC and pH 5.0), the cellulase usage could be reduced to 1/3 that required for equivalent fermentations by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. Together, the native B. coagulans and the QZ19 derivative can be used to produce either L(+) or D(-) optical isomers of lactic acid (respectively) at high titers and yields from nonfood carbohydrates.
( 1996 )
Nucleotide sequence of the Bacillus coagulans homologue of the spoIIA operon of Bacillus subtilis.
PMID : 8921882 : DOI : 10.1016/0378-1119(96)00306-x
The spoIIA locus of Bacillus coagulans (Bc) was cloned into pTZ18R and the nucleotide sequence was determined. To clone the operon, one PCR primer corresponding to the C-terminal region of SpoIIAB, and a second corresponding to a region near the middle of SpoIIAC, were designed on the basis of the three previously published Bacillus spoIIA sequences. The Bc spoIIA sequence contains three open reading frames coding for putative proteins of 116, 147 and 252 aa.
( 1996 )
Analysis of the critical sites for protein thermostabilization by proline substitution in oligo-1,6-glucosidase from Bacillus coagulans ATCC 7050 and the evolutionary consideration of proline residues.
PMID : 8787404 : PMC : PMC167984
To identify the critical sites for protein thermostabilization by proline substitution, the gene for oligo-1,6- glucosidase from a thermophilic Bacillus coagulans strain, ATCC 7050, was cloned as a 2.4-kb DNA fragment and sequenced. In spite of a big difference in their thermostabilities, B. coagulans oligo-1,6-glucosidase had a large number of points in its primary structure identical to respective points in the same enzymes from a mesophilic Bacillus cereus strain, ATCC 7064 (57%), and an obligately thermophilic Bacillus thermoglucosidasius strain, KP1006 (59%). The number of prolines (19 for B. cereus oligo-1,6-glucosidase, 24 for B. coagulans enzyme, and 32 for B. thermoglucosidasius enzyme) was observed to increase with the rise in thermostabilities of the oligo-1,6-glucosidases. Classification of proline residues in light of the amino acid sequence alignment and the protein structure revealed by X-ray crystallographic analysis also supported this tendency. Judging from proline residues occurring in B. coagulans oligo-1,6-glucosidase and the structural requirement for proline substitution (second site of the beta turn and first turn of the alpha helix) (K. Watanabe, T. Masuda, H. Ohashi, H. Mihara, and Y. Suzuki, Eur. J. Biochem. 226:277-283, 1994), the critical sites for thermostabilization were found to be Lys-121, Glu-290, Lys-457, and Glu-487 in B. cereus oligo-1,6-glucosidase. With regard to protein evolution, the oligo-1,6-glucosidases very likely follow the neutral theory. The adaptive mutations of the oligo-1,6-glucosidases that appear to increase thermostability are consistent with the substitution of proline residues for neutrally occurring residues. It is concluded that proline substitution is an important factor for the selection of thermostability in oligo-1,6-glucosidases.
( 1993 )
[Amino acid sequence and catalytic properties of the Bacillus coagulans extracellular ribonuclease].
PMID : 8220218 :
( 1994 )
Characterization of BcgI, a new kind of restriction-modification system.
PMID : 8276869 :
The BcgI restriction enzyme from Bacillus coagulans is unusual in that it cleaves on both sides of its recognition site, CGAN6TGC, releasing a fragment that includes the site and several bases on each side. We report the organization and nucleotide sequences of the genes for the BcgI restriction-modification system and the properties of the proteins that they encode. The system comprises two adjacent, similarly oriented genes. The proximal gene, bcgIA, codes for a 637-amino acid protein (molecular mass = 71.6 kDa) that resembles certain m6A-specific DNA-methyltransferases, particularly those that constitute the modification subunits of type I restriction-modification systems. The distal gene, bcgIB, codes for a 341-amino acid protein (molecular mass = 39.2 kDa) that resembles none of the sequences in the sequence data bases. The two genes overlap by several nucleotides. Alone, neither protein restricts or modifies DNA, but, together, they form a complex in the proportion A2B that does both. DNA binding assays showed that the DNA-protein complex can be formed only in the presence of both subunits, suggesting that the association of inactive subunits generates the active BcgI enzyme that can bind DNA and then either cleaves or methylates at target site.
( 1993 )
A unique restriction endonuclease, BcgI, from Bacillus coagulans.
PMID : 8451198 : DOI : 10.1093/nar/21.4.987 PMC : PMC309233
We have purified and characterized a new restriction endonuclease, BcgI, which has properties unlike those of the three recognized classes of restriction enzymes. BcgI was isolated from Bacillus coagulans, and it recognizes the sequence CGAN6TGC. BcgI cleaves double stranded DNA on both strands upstream and downstream of the recognition sequence, so that the recognition sequence is released as a 34-base pair fragment with 2-base 3'-extensions. Mg++ and S-adenosylmethionine are required for cleavage. Sinefungin, a structural analogue of AdoMet which generally inhibits methylase activity, can replace AdoMet in the cleavage reaction. The apparent binding constant (Kappd) for AdoMet is about 100 nM, while the KappD for sinefungin is about 500 nM.
( 1994 )
Prolyl aminopeptidase is not a sulfhydryl enzyme: identification of the active serine residue by site-directed mutagenesis.
PMID : 7896753 : DOI : 10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a124649
Prolyl aminopeptidase (PAP) has been classified as a sulfhydryl enzyme on the basis of its high sensitivity to p-chloromercuribenzoate and heavy metals. Recently, however, the possibility of PAP being instead a serine enzyme has been raised as a result of two observations--the conservation of some residues among the PAPs hitherto sequenced, and a similarity to some serine hydrolases. This is the first report describing an attempt to identify the active residue by site-directed mutagenesis. The pap genes from Bacillus coagulans and Aeromonas sobria, were used for the study. The changes made were Cys62Ser and Ser101Ala for the first enzyme, and Thr92Ala and Ser146Ala for the second. For both enzymes, only the changes made on the serine residues resulted in their complete inactivation, indicating that PAP is a serine peptidase.
( 1985 )
Proline iminopeptidase from Bacillus coagulans: purification and enzymatic properties.
PMID : 4030733 : DOI : 10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a135202
Proline iminopeptidase [EC 18.104.22.168] was purified about 2,700-fold from cell-free extract of Bacillus coagulans by a series of column chromatographies on DEAE-Toyopearl, PCMB-T-Sepharose, and hydroxyapatite, and gel filtration on Sephadex G-150. The purified enzyme was homogeneous as judged by disc gel electrophoresis. The enzyme was most active at pH 7.3 with Pro-beta-naphthylamide (Pro-2-NNap) as the substrate, and hydrolyzed Pro-X (X = amino acid including proline, peptide, amide, and arylamide) bonds when the proline residue was at the amino terminus. Pro-D-amino acid bonds were also susceptible to the enzyme. The enzyme was completely inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB) and partially by proline but not by metal chelators, diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP), or phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF). The enzyme inactivated with PCMB was reactivated by incubation with 2-mercaptoethanol. These results and the chromatographic profile on PCMB-T-Sepharose suggest that the enzyme is a sulfhydryl enzyme. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was 4.0, and the molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 40,000 by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and 35,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gel electrophoresis, indicating that the enzyme exists as a monomer.
( 1981 )
Sequence homology in the amino-terminal and active-site regions of thermolabile glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from a thermophile.
PMID : 7462149 : PMC : PMC217300
The unusual thermolability of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from the facultative thermophile Bacillus coagulans KU (Crabb et al., Biochemistry 16:4840-4847, 1977) has provided the first opportunity to study a homologous enzyme from the same genus that exhibits a marked difference in thermostability. In pursuit of the structural bases for the thermostability of proteins, the sequences of the amino terminus (residues 1 through 27) and the active-site cysteine cyanogen bromide peptide (residues 130 through 167) of this enzyme have been determined and compared with sequences of the enzyme from other sources. The importance of comparing phylogenetically related proteins is evident from the 87% identity found between these sequences in the enzyme from B. coagulans and Bacillus stearothermophilus, versus only 45% identity for all other known sequences. The marked sequence identity of the enzyme from the two Bacillus species drew attention to the variable region (residues 138 through 140a) which is exposed to the exterior of the quaternary structure of this enzyme. Based on the reported crystallographic structures of the enzyme from lobster muscle and B. stearothermophilus and space-filling models of the variable region, the segment Asp-Pro-Lys-Ala in B. stearothermophilus should be more thermostable than the analogous sequence, Asp-Ala-Ala-Asn, from B. coagulans. In addition, the space-filling models suggested that the spatial relationship of an amino acid side chain and its potential for close packing and interactions with neighboring side chains may be more important than the type of amino acid substituted.
( 2019 )
Molecular Characterization and Toxin Profiles of Bacillus spp. Isolated from Retail Fish and Ground Beef.
PMID : 30690739 : DOI : 10.1111/1750-3841.14445
Bacillus species are common in the environment due to their spore-forming ability and nutritional versatility and cause food contamination. Bacilli play a significant role in foodborne illnesses and food spoilage. In this study, 52 Bacillus isolates from retail fish and ground beef were identified and differentiated based on 16S rRNA, gyrB, and rpoB gene sequencing. The presence of genes encoding emetic toxin (ces), hemolytic enterotoxin hemolysin BL (hbl), nonhemolytic enterotoxin (nhe) and cytotoxin K (cytK1) was assessed in all Bacillus isolates. The ability of the Bacillus isolates to produce several extracellular enzymes that contribute to pathogenicity and food spoilage was investigated. The 16S rRNA, rpoB, and gyrB gene sequence similarities of the Bacillus isolates tested were 96.1%, 83.2%, and 77.5%, respectively. The gyrB gene demonstrated a higher degree of sequence variation than the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes. The prevalence of Bacillus isolates producing at least two of the genes of the HBL and NHE complexes was 23.1% and 15.4%, respectively. Of the B. cereus isolates, 10 (41.7%) possessed two or more enterotoxin genes. None of the isolates carried the ces and cytK1 genes. All isolates were positive for the production of enzymes such as protease, lipase, gelatinase, and DNase. However, only 92.3% of the tested isolates were positive for amylase. In conclusion, our results revealed that the presence of genes involved in toxin production and enzyme production in meat-originated B. cereus and other Bacillus isolates may cause spoilage of food and pose a health risk for consumers. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Bacillus species can be found in various foods due to their ubiquitous nature. Bacillus spp., especially B. cereus, are associated with food poisoning and other infections in humans. Toxins and many extracellular enzymes produced by Bacillus spp. are the causative agents of foodborne outbreaks, food spoilage, and low-quality food with significantly reduced edibility. This study highlights the characterization of Bacillus spp. and presence of potentially pathogenic Bacillus species in meats.
( 2013 )
Functional analysis of the ComK protein of Bacillus coagulans.
PMID : 23301076 : DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0053471 PMC : PMC3536758
The genes for DNA uptake and recombination in Bacilli are commonly regulated by the transcriptional factor ComK. We have identified a ComK homologue in Bacillus coagulans, an industrial relevant organism that is recalcitrant for transformation. Introduction of B. coagulans comK gene under its own promoter region into Bacillus subtilis comK strain results in low transcriptional induction of the late competence gene comGA, but lacking bistable expression. The promoter regions of B. coagulans comK and the comGA genes are recognized in B. subtilis and expression from these promoters is activated by B. subtilis ComK. Purified ComK protein of B. coagulans showed DNA-binding ability in gel retardation assays with B. subtilis- and B. coagulans-derived probes. These experiments suggest that the function of B. coagulans ComK is similar to that of ComK of B. subtilis. When its own comK is overexpressed in B. coagulans the comGA gene expression increases 40-fold, while the expression of another late competence gene, comC is not elevated and no reproducible DNA-uptake could be observed under these conditions. Our results demonstrate that B. coagulans ComK can recognize several B.subtilis comK-responsive elements, and vice versa, but indicate that the activation of the transcription of complete sets of genes coding for a putative DNA uptake apparatus in B. coagulans might differ from that of B. subtilis.
( 1997 )
Crystal structure of 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase from the moderate facultative thermophile, Bacillus coagulans: two strategies for thermostabilization of protein structures.
PMID : 9498551 : DOI : 10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a021867
The crystal structure of 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase from the moderate facultative thermophile Bacillus coagulans (BcIPMDH) has been determined by the X-ray method. BcIPMDH is a dimeric enzyme composed of two identical subunits, each of which takes an open alpha/beta structure with 11 alpha-helices and 14 beta-strands. The polypeptide is folded into two domains. The first domain is composed of residues 1-101 and 257-356, and the second domain, of residues 102-256. The latter domains of the two subunits are associated with one another by a dyad axis to make the dimer, locally forming a beta-sheet and a four-helix bundle. As compared with the structure of the enzyme from the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus (TtIPMDH), a new short beta-sheet (residues 329-330 and 340-341) absent in TtIPMDH is formed by the insertion of 5 residues in BcIPMDH. In terms of determinants for thermostabilization, both consistent and inconsistent changes were found between the two enzymes. The regions including inconsistent changes are formed by different usages of the determinants for stabilizing the loops at different levels. Those in BcIPMDH contain some structural redundancies in length of amino acid sequence and flexibility of residues, which seem to be unnecessary for the enzymatic reaction. Such redundancies are also found in the primary structure of the enzyme of the mesophile Bacillus subtilis, but these parts are more stabilized in BcIPMDH by hydrogen bonds and salt bridges. On the other hand, TtIPMDH is stabilized by reducing such redundant parts. This contrast suggests that different strategies may be preferred for thermostabilization, depending on temperature.