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1. Carvajal  JA, Aguan  K, Thompson  LP, Buhimschi  IA, Weiner  CP,     ( 2001 )

Natriuretic peptide-induced relaxation of myometrium from the pregnant guinea pig is not mediated by guanylate cyclase activation.

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 297 (1)
PMID : 11259543  :  
Abstract >>
We tested both relaxation and cGMP generation by atrial (ANP), brain (BNP), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) in oxytocin-stimulated myometrium from near-term pregnant guinea pigs to investigate the ability and mechanism of natriuretic peptides to inhibit myometrial contractility. Myometrial strips were contracted by 10(-8) M oxytocin, and relaxation to the cumulative addition (10(-9)-10(-6) M) of the natriuretic peptides measured. Maximal relaxation to BNP was significantly greater than to ANP (52 versus 32% respectively; p < 0.05), whereas CNP failed to produce relaxation. However, the increase in cGMP produced by BNP (10(-7) M) was significantly less than that produced by ANP (10(-7) M) (4.5 versus 7.0 times basal; p < 0.05); CNP did not increase myometrial cGMP. Anantin, a competitive blocker of the guanylate cyclase A receptor, significantly reduced the increase in cGMP produced by ANP and BNP, but had no effect on relaxation induced by either peptide. Rp-8-Br-cGMP, an inhibitor of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase, did not alter BNP-induced relaxation. The atrial natriuretic peptide-fragment 4-23 amide, a natriuretic peptide clearance receptor agonist, failed to inhibit oxytocin-stimulated myometrial contraction. We conclude that natriuretic peptide induced relaxation of oxytocin-stimulated myometrium from the pregnant guinea pig is not mediated by either guanylate cyclase A or B activation, is independent of the cGMP pathway, and does not involve clearance receptor activation. Our results suggest that natriuretic peptide-induced relaxation of pregnant myometrium is mediated via a novel mechanism.
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2. Moro  C, Galitzky  J, Sengenes  C, Crampes  F, Lafontan  M, Berlan  M,     ( 2004 )

Functional and pharmacological characterization of the natriuretic peptide-dependent lipolytic pathway in human fat cells.

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 308 (3)
PMID : 14634036  :   DOI  :   10.1124/jpet.103.060913    
Abstract >>
A lipolytic pathway involving natriuretic peptides has recently been discovered in human fat cells. Its functional characteristics and the interactions of the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-induced effects with adrenergic and insulin pathways were studied. Characterization of the action of ANP antagonists, i.e., A71915, anantin, S-28-Y (Ser-28-Tyr, a synthesized peptide), and HS-142-1 (a microbial polysaccharide), was performed. Lipolytic assays and intracellular cGMP and cAMP determinations were performed on isolated fat cells. Cell membranes were used for binding studies. At low concentrations ANP and isoproterenol [beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) agonist] exerted additive lipolytic effects. The alpha(2)-AR pathway did not interfere with that of ANP. Lipolytic effects of ANP were unaltered by a 2-h pretreatment of fat cells with insulin, whereas beta-AR-induced lipolysis was reduced. Homologous desensitization occurred for ANP-dependent lipolytic pathways. Dendroapsis natriuretic peptide exhibited a similar maximal effect but a 10-fold higher lipolytic potency than ANP and mini-ANP (the shortest form of ANP). The antagonist A71915 exhibited competitive antagonistic properties with a pA(2) value of 7.51. Anantin displayed noncompetitive antagonism and exerted an inhibitory action on basal and beta-adrenergic receptor-induced lipolytic response. S-28-Y exhibited antagonist potencies toward ANP-induced lipolysis and behaved as a partial lipolytic agonist with a lower pD(2) value (7.4 +/- 0.2) than ANP (9.4 +/- 0.3). HS-142-1 exerted the weakest antagonistic effects. The results demonstrate that ANP-dependent effects do not interfere with beta- and alpha(2)-adrenergic pathways in human fat cells. They are unaffected by insulin pretreatments of fat cells but undergo desensitization. In the search of potent and specific natriuretic peptide receptor-A antagonist, in the human fat cell, A71915 was the only reliable one found.
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3. Weber  W, Fischli  W, Hochuli  E, Kupfer  E, Weibel  EK,     ( 1991 )

Anantin--a peptide antagonist of the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). I. Producing organism, fermentation, isolation and biological activity.

The Journal of antibiotics 44 (2)
PMID : 1849131  :   DOI  :   10.7164/antibiotics.44.164    
Abstract >>
Anantin, a peptide binding to the receptor of the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) was isolated from a strain of Streptomyces coerulescens. The molecule consists of 17 natural L-amino acids which form a peptidic ring system. It has a MW of 1,871.0. The chemical composition is C90H111N21O24. The compound was found to bind competitively to ANF-receptors from bovine adrenal cortex (Kd = 0.61 microM). Furthermore, it dose-dependently inhibited the ANF-induced intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate accumulation in bovine aorta smooth muscle cells. At the same concentration no agonistic effects were detectable in these cells. Thus, anantin is considered to be the first microbially produced antagonist of the cardiac hormone, ANF.
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4. Wyss  DF, Lahm  HW, Manneberg  M, Labhardt  AM,     ( 1991 )

Anantin--a peptide antagonist of the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). II. Determination of the primary sequence by NMR on the basis of proton assignments.

The Journal of antibiotics 44 (2)
PMID : 1826288  :   DOI  :   10.7164/antibiotics.44.172    
Abstract >>
Anantin, a naturally occurring peptide from Streptomyces coerulescens, binds competitively to the receptor of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) from bovine adrenal cortex (Kd = 0.6 microM) and acts as ANF antagonist. Protein chemical data and FAB-MS have identified anantin to be a cyclic polypeptide consisting of 17 common L-amino acids. The molecule is highly stable and precludes the application of standard sequencing methods. The primary sequence of anantin was determined by 2D 1H NMR spectroscopy and the application of advanced protein chemical methods to be Gly1-Phe2-Ile3-Gly4-Trp5-Gly6-Asn7-Asp8 -Ile9-Phe10-Gly11-His12-Tyr13-Ser14+ ++- Gly15-Asp16-Phe17. The molecule is cyclized between the beta-carboxyl group of Asp8 and the amino group of Gly1.
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5.     ( 1998 )

Atrial natriuretic peptide induces acrosomal exocytosis of human spermatozoa.

The American journal of physiology 274 (2)
PMID : 9486150  :   DOI  :   10.1152/ajpendo.1998.274.2.E218    
Abstract >>
Acrosomal exocytosis in mammalian spermatozoa is a process essential for fertilization. We report here that atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) markedly stimulates acrosomal exocytosis of capacitated human spermatozoa. Typically, ANP exerts some of its actions via activation of the ANP receptor (ANPR-A), a particulate guanylyl cyclase-linked receptor, and subsequent formation of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). We found that ANP-stimulated acrosome reaction was inhibited by the competitive ANPR-A antagonist anantin, indicating a receptor-mediated process. A linear fragment of ANP, ANP-(13-28), and another ANP-like compound, brain natriuretic peptide, were inactive. The stimulatory effect of ANP on acrosome reaction was mimicked by the permeable cGMP analog, 8-bromo-cGMP (8-BrcGMP). Addition of the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, staurosporine and GF-109203X, resulted in a dose-related inhibition of ANP-induced acrosome reaction. Also, downregulation of endogeneous PKC activity resulted in inhibition of ANP- but not 8-BrcGMP-induced acrosome reaction. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ abolished ANP-induced acrosome reaction. Thus ANP via Ca2+ influx, PKC activation, and stimulation of particulate guanylyl cyclase may play a role in the induction of acrosome reaction of human spermatozoa.
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