( 2002 )
Enzymes involved in fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis in Streptomyces glaucescens: role of FabH and FabD and their acyl carrier protein specificity.
PMID : 12173933 : DOI : 10.1021/bi0258804
Malonyl acyl carrier protein (ACP) is used as an extender unit in each of the elongation steps catalyzed by the type II dissociated fatty acid synthase (FAS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) of Streptomyces glaucescens. Initiation of straight-chain fatty acid biosynthesis by the type II FAS involves a direct condensation of acetyl-CoA with this malonyl-ACP to generate a 3-ketobutyryl-ACP product and is catalyzed by FabH. In vitro experiments with a reconstituted type II PKS system in the absence of FabH have previously shown that the acetyl-ACP (generated by decarboxylation of malonyl-ACP), not acetyl-CoA, is used to initiate tetracenomycin C (TCM C) biosynthesis. We have shown that sgFabH activity is present in S. glaucescens fermentations during TCM C production, suggesting that it could contribute to initiation of TCM C biosynthesis in vivo. Isotope incorporation studies with [CD3]acetate and [13CD3]acetate demonstrated significant intact retention of three deuteriums into the starter unit of palmitate and complete washout of deuterium label into the starter unit of TCM C. These observations provide evidence that acetyl-CoA is not used directly as a starter unit for TCM C biosynthesis in vivo and argue against an involvement of FabH in this process. Consistent with this conclusion, assays of the purified recombinant sgFabH with acetyl-CoA demonstrated activity using malonyl-ACP generated from either FabC (the S. glaucescens FAS ACP) (k(cat) 42.2 min(-1), K(m) 4.5 +/- 0.3 microM) or AcpP (the E. coli FAS ACP) (k(cat) 7.5 min(-1), K(m) 6.3 +/- 0.3 microM) but not TcmM (the S. glaucescens PKS ACP). In contrast, the sgFabD which catalyzes conversion of malonyl-CoA to malonyl-ACP for fatty acid biosynthesis was shown to be active with TcmM (k(cat) 150 min(-1), K(m) 12.2 +/- 1.2 microM), AcpP (k(cat) 141 min(-1), K(m) 13.2 +/- 1.6 microM), and FabC (k(cat) 560 min(-1), K(m) 12.7 +/- 2.6 microM). This enzyme was shown to be present during TCM C production and could play a role in generating malonyl-ACP for both processes. Previous demonstrations that the purified PKS ACPs catalyze self-malonylation and that a FabD activity is not required for polyketide biosynthesis are shown to be an artifact of the expression and purification protocols. The relaxed ACP specificity of FabD and the lack of a clear alternative are consistent with a role of FabD in providing malonyl-ACP precursors for PKS as well as FAS processes. In contrast, the ACP specificity of FabH, isotope labeling studies, and a demonstrated alternative mechanism for initiation of the PKS process provide unequivocal evidence that FabH is involved only in the FAS process.
( 1992 )
Sequence and transcriptional analysis of the Streptomyces glaucescens tcmAR tetracenomycin C resistance and repressor gene loci.
PMID : 1592819 : DOI : 10.1128/jb.174.11.3651-3658.1992 PMC : PMC206054
Sequence analysis of the tcmA tetracenomycin C resistance gene from Streptomyces glaucescens GLA.O (ETH 22794) identifies one large open reading frame whose deduced product has sequence similarity to the mmr methylenomycin resistance gene from Streptomyces coelicolor, the Streptomyces rimosus tet347 (otrB) tetracycline resistance gene, and the atr1 aminotriazole resistance gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These genes are thought to encode proteins that act as metabolite export pumps powered by transmembrane electrochemical gradients. A divergently transcribed gene, tcmR, is located in the region upstream of tcmA. The deduced product of tcmR resembles the repressor proteins encoded by tetR regulatory genes from Escherichia coli and the actII-orf1 gene from S. coelicolor. Transcriptional analysis of tcmA and tcmR indicates that these genes have back-to-back and overlapping promoter regions.
( 1992 )
The Streptomyces glaucescens TcmR protein represses transcription of the divergently oriented tcmR and tcmA genes by binding to an intergenic operator region.
PMID : 1592820 : DOI : 10.1128/jb.174.11.3659-3666.1992 PMC : PMC206055
Preliminary evidence has been presented by Guilfoile and Hutchinson (J. Bacteriol. 174:3651-3658, 1992) suggesting that the Streptomyces glaucescens TcmR protein is a transcriptional repressor. Here, we extend that work by showing that transcription of the S. glaucescens tcmA gene is inducible by tetracenomycin C and that inactivation of the tcmR gene results in constitutive transcription of the tcmA gene. Gel retardation studies show that the TcmR protein binds to the tcmA-tcmR intergenic region in vitro and that this binding is inhibited by tetracenomycin C. Footprinting experiments demonstrate that the TcmR protein binds to an operator region that encompasses both the tcmA and the tcmR promoters. This genetic and biochemical evidence strongly supports the model of the TcmR protein acting as a repressor in inhibiting transcription of both the tcmA and the tcmR genes, in much the same way that TetR from Tn10 inhibits transcription of tetA and tetR.
( 1992 )
Nucleotide sequence of the tcmII-tcmIV region of the tetracenomycin C biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces glaucescens and evidence that the tcmN gene encodes a multifunctional cyclase-dehydratase-O-methyl transferase.
PMID : 1548230 : DOI : 10.1128/jb.174.6.1810-1820.1992 PMC : PMC205782
Mutations in the tcmII-tcmIV region of the Streptomyces glaucescens chromosome block the C-3 and C-8 O-methylations of the polyketide antibiotic tetracenomycin C (Tcm C). The nucleotide sequence of this region reveals the presence of two genes, tcmN and tcmO, whose deduced protein products display similarity to the hydroxyindole O-methyl transferase of the bovine pineal gland, an enzyme that catalyzes a phenolic O-methylation analogous to those required for the biosynthesis of Tcm C. The deduced product of the tcmN gene also has an N-terminal domain that shows similarity to the putative ActVII and WhiE ORFVI proteins of Streptomyces coelicolor. The tcmN N-terminal domain can be separated from the remainder of the tcmN gene product, and when coupled on a plasmid with the Tcm C polyketide synthase genes (tcmKLM), this domain enables high-level production of an early, partially cyclized intermediate of Tcm C in a Tcm C- null mutant or in a heterologous host (Streptomyces lividans). By analogy to fatty acid biosynthesis, the tcmKLM polyketide synthase gene products are probably sufficient to produce the linear decaketide precursor of Tcm C; thus, the tcmN N-terminal domain is most likely responsible for one or more of the early cyclizations and, perhaps, the attendant dehydrations that lead to the partially cyclized intermediate. The tcmN gene therefore appears to encode a multifunctional cyclase-dehydratase-3-O-methyl transferase. The tcmO gene encodes the 8-O-methyl transferase.
( 2004 )
Structural and functional analysis of tetracenomycin F2 cyclase from Streptomyces glaucescens. A type II polyketide cyclase.
PMID : 15231835 : DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M406144200
Tetracenomycin F2 cyclase (tcmI gene product), catalyzes an aromatic rearrangement in the biosynthetic pathway for tetracenomycin C in Streptomyces glaucescens. The x-ray structure of this small enzyme has been determined to 1.9-A resolution together with an analysis of site-directed mutants of potential catalytic residues. The protein exhibits a dimeric betaalphabeta ferredoxin-like fold that utilizes strand swapping between subunits in its assembly. The fold is dominated by four strands of antiparallel sheet and a layer of alpha-helices, which creates a cavity that is proposed to be the active site. This type of secondary structural arrangement has been previously observed in polyketide monooxygenases and suggests an evolutionary relationship between enzymes that catalyze adjacent steps in these biosynthetic pathways. Mutational analysis of all of the obvious catalytic bases within the active site suggests that the enzyme functions to steer the chemical outcome of the cyclization rather than providing a specific catalytic group. Together, the structure and functional analysis provide insight into the structural framework necessary to perform the complex rearrangements catalyzed by this class of polyketide cyclases.
( 2010 )
Coevolution of antibiotic production and counter-resistance in soil bacteria.
PMID : 20067498 : DOI : 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2009.02125.x
We present evidence for the coexistence and coevolution of antibiotic resistance and biosynthesis genes in soil bacteria. The distribution of the streptomycin (strA) and viomycin (vph) resistance genes was examined in Streptomyces isolates. strA and vph were found either within a biosynthetic gene cluster or independently. Streptomyces griseus strains possessing the streptomycin cluster formed part of a clonal complex. All S. griseus strains possessing solely strA belonged to two clades; both were closely related to the streptomycin producers. Other more distantly related S. griseus strains did not contain strA. S. griseus strains with only vph also formed two clades, but they were more distantly related to the producers and to one another. The expression of the strA gene was constitutive in a resistance-only strain whereas streptomycin producers showed peak strA expression in late log phase that correlates with the switch on of streptomycin biosynthesis. While there is evidence that antibiotics have diverse roles in nature, our data clearly support the coevolution of resistance in the presence of antibiotic biosynthetic capability within closely related soil dwelling bacteria. This reinforces the view that, for some antibiotics at least, the primary role is one of antibiosis during competition in soil for resources.
( 2010 )
Crystal structures of the solute receptor GacH of Streptomyces glaucescens in complex with acarbose and an acarbose homolog: comparison with the acarbose-loaded maltose-binding protein of Salmonella typhimurium.
PMID : 20132828 : DOI : 10.1016/j.jmb.2010.01.054
GacH is the solute binding protein (receptor) of the putative oligosaccharide ATP-binding cassette transporter GacFG, encoded in the acarbose biosynthetic gene cluster (gac) from Streptomyces glaucescens GLA.O. In the context of the proposed function of acarbose (acarviosyl-1,4-maltose) as a 'carbophor,' the transporter, in complex with a yet to be identified ATPase subunit, is supposed to mediate the uptake of longer acarbose homologs and acarbose for recycling purposes. Binding assays using isothermal titration calorimetry identified GacH as a maltose/maltodextrin-binding protein with a low affinity for acarbose but with considerable binding activity for its homolog, component 5C (acarviosyl-1,4-maltose-1,4-glucose-1,1-glucose). In contrast, the maltose-binding protein of Salmonella typhimurium (MalE) displays high-affinity acarbose binding. We determined the crystal structures of GacH in complex with acarbose, component 5C, and maltotetraose, as well as in unliganded form. As found for other solute receptors, the polypeptide chain of GacH is folded into two distinct domains (lobes) connected by a hinge, with the interface between the lobes forming the substrate-binding pocket. GacH does not specifically bind the acarviosyl group, but displays specificity for binding of the maltose moiety in the inner part of its binding pocket. The crystal structure of acarbose-loaded MalE showed that two glucose units of acarbose are bound at the same region and position as maltose. A comparative analysis revealed that in GacH, acarbose is buried deeper into the binding pocket than in MalE by exactly one glucose ring shift, resulting in a total of 18 hydrogen-bond interactions versus 21 hydrogen-bond interactions for MalE(acarbose). Since the substrate specificity of ATP-binding cassette import systems is determined by the cognate binding protein, our results provide the first biochemical and structural evidence for the proposed role of GacHFG in acarbose metabolism.
( 2009 )
The gac-gene cluster for the production of acarbose from Streptomyces glaucescens GLA.O: identification, isolation and characterization.
PMID : 19059289 : DOI : 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2008.10.016
The C7N-cyclitol containing alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose is commercially produced using developed strains of Actinoplanes and is used in the treatment of patients suffering from diabetes type II. We have identified a second acarbose production cluster using a genomic cosmid gene bank from Streptomyces glaucescens GLA.O and sequenced a region (42658bp; accession AM409314) which clearly contained a gene cluster (gac-cluster) for the synthesis of acarbose or acarbose related endproducts. The gac-cluster exhibited large similarities to the acb-gene cluster from Actinoplanes. However, remarkable differences are found in the biosynthesis of the C7N-cyclitol in the two acarbose biosynthesis pathways. We show the expression of selected genes using RT-PCR approaches, we were able to detect small amounts of acarbose or acarbose related metabolites and we have characterized the GacK protein, an acarbose kinase, which specifically phosphorylates acarbose and acarbose homologs. All these data in combination with the postulated functions of the encoded Gac proteins clearly indicate that also in S. glaucescens a recycling mechanism for acarbose ("carbophor") which had been described for the first time for acarbose cluster from Actinoplanes, is also realised.
( 1991 )
Albino mutants of Streptomyces glaucescens tyrosinase.
PMID : 1901488 : DOI : 10.1042/bj2740707 PMC : PMC1149969
Site-directed mutagenesis was used to determine the functional role of several residues of Streptomyces glaucescens tyrosinase. Replacement of His-37, -53, -193 or -215 by glutamine yields albino phenotypes, as determined by expression on melanin-indicator plates. The purified mutant proteins display no detectable oxy-enzyme and increased Cu lability at the binuclear active site. The carbonyl derivatives of H189Q and H193Q luminesce, with lambda max. displaced more than 25 nm to a longer wavelength compared with native tyrosinase. The remaining histidine mutants display no detectable luminescence. The results are consistent with these histidine residues (together with His-62 and His-189 reported earlier) acting as Cu ligands in the Streptomyces glaucescens enzyme. Conservative substitution of the invariant Asn-190 by glutamine also gives an albino phenotype, no detectable oxy-enzyme and labilization of active-site Cu. The luminescence spectrum of carbonyl-N190Q, however, closely resembles that of the native enzyme under conditions promoting double Cu occupancy of the catalytic site. A critical role for Asn-190 in active-site hydrogen-bonding interactions is proposed.
( 1988 )
Identification of two histidines as copper ligands in Streptomyces glaucescens tyrosinase.
PMID : 2846043 : DOI : 10.1021/bi00415a032
The physiochemical properties of wild type and two mutants of Streptomyces glaucescens tyrosinase are reported. The native enzyme contains two coppers at the active site which are EPR nondetectable. The two coppers react stoichiometrically with one hydrogen peroxide molecule giving rise to oxytyrosinase. Its optical features are similar to those reported earlier for a molluscan hemocyanin. The two mutants in which histidine-62 and -189 were changed to asparagine by site-directed mutagenesis have lost their enzymatic activity and their ability to bind oxygen and contain only one copper ion which is fully EPR detectable. The EPR parameters indicate that the remaining copper is in a tetragonally distorted ligand environment. These data are in agreement with His-62 and His-189 serving as copper ligands in S. glaucescens tyrosinase.
( 2017 )
Evolution and Distribution of C7-Cyclitol Synthases in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.
PMID : 28182402 : PMC : PMC5400686 DOI : 10.1021/acschembio.7b00066
2-Epi-5-epi-valiolone synthase (EEVS), a C7-sugar phosphate cyclase (SPC) homologous to 3-dehydroquinate synthase (DHQS), was discovered during studies of the biosynthesis of the C7N-aminocyclitol family of natural products. EEVS was originally thought to be present only in certain actinomycetes, but analyses of genome sequences showed that it is broadly distributed in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, including vertebrates. Another SPC, desmethyl-4-deoxygadusol synthase (DDGS), was later discovered as being involved in the biosynthesis of mycosporine-like amino acid sunscreen compounds. Current database annotations are quite unreliable, with many EEVSs reported as DHQS, and most DDGSs reported as EEVS, DHQS, or simply hypothetical proteins. Here, we identify sequence features useful for distinguishing these enzymes, report a crystal structure of a representative DDGS showing the high similarity of the EEVS and DDGS enzymes, identify notable active site differences, and demonstrate the importance of two of these active site residues for catalysis by point mutations. Further, we functionally characterized two representatives of a distinct clade equidistant from known EEVS and known DDGS groups and show them to be authentic EEVSs. Moreover, we document and discuss the distribution of genes that encode EEVS and DDGS in various prokaryotes and eukaryotes, including pathogenic bacteria, plant symbionts, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, myxobacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, stramenopiles, and animals, suggesting their broad potential biological roles in nature.
( 1989 )
Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the Streptomyces glaucescens tcmI genes provides key information about the enzymology of polyketide antibiotic biosynthesis.
PMID : 2684656 : PMC : PMC401280
Key information about the biosynthesis of polyketide metabolites has been uncovered by sequence analysis of the tetracenomycin C polyketide synthase genes (tcml) from Streptomyces glaucescens GLA.0. The sequence data revealed the presence of three complete open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 and ORF2 appear to be translationally coupled and would encode proteins containing 426 and 405 amino acids, respectively. The two deduced proteins are homologous to known beta-ketoacyl synthases. ORF3 begins 70 nucleotides after the stop codon of ORF2 and would code for an 83 amino acid protein with a strong resemblance to known bacterial, animal and plant acyl-carrier proteins (ACP). The presence of an ACP gene within the tcm gene cluster suggests that different ACPs are used in fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis in Streptomyces. We conclude from these data and earlier information that polyketide biosynthesis in S. glaucescens, and most likely in other bacteria, involves a multienzyme complex consisting of at least five types of enzymes: acylCoA transferases that load the acyl and 2-carboxyacyl precursors onto the ACP; a beta-ketoacyl synthase that, along with the acylated ACP, forms the poly-beta-ketoacyl intermediates; a poly-beta-ketone cyclase that forms carbocyclic structures from the latter intermediates; a beta-ketoacyl oxidoreductase that forms beta-hydroxyacyl intermediates or reduces ketone groups in fully formed polyketides; and a thioesterase that releases the assembled polyketide from the enzyme.
( 2015 )
Complete genome sequence of the actinobacterium Streptomyces glaucescens GLA.O (DSM 40922) consisting of a linear chromosome and one linear plasmid.
PMID : 25499805 : DOI : 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2014.11.036
Here we report the complete and finished genome sequence of Streptomyces glaucescens GLA.O (DSM 40922), a natural producer of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose, which is used in the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus. The genome of S. glaucescens GLA.O consists of two replicons, the chromosome with a size of 7,453,200bp and a G+C content of 73.0% as well as a plasmid named pSglau1 with a size of 170,574bp and a G+C content of 69.06%.
( 1997 )
Identification of stsC, the gene encoding the L-glutamine:scyllo-inosose aminotransferase from streptomycin-producing Streptomycetes.
PMID : 9238101 :
Eight new genes, strO-stsABCDEFG, were identified by sequencing DNA in the gene cluster that encodes proteins for streptomycin production of Streptomyces griseus N2-3-11. The StsA (calculated molecular mass 43.5 kDa) and StsC (45.5 kDa) proteins - together with another gene product, StrS (39.8 kDa), encoded in another operon of the same gene cluster - show significant sequence identity and are members of a new class of pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferases that have been observed mainly in the biosynthetic pathways for secondary metabolites. The aminotransferase activity was demonstrated for the first time by identification of the overproduced and purified StsC protein as the L-glutamine:scyllo-inosose aminotransferase, which catalyzes the first amino transfer in the biosynthesis of the streptidine subunit of streptomycin. The stsC and stsA genes each hybridized specifically to distinct fragments in the genomic DNA of most actinomycetes tested that produce diaminocyclitolaminoglycosides. In contrast, only stsC, but not stsA, hybridized to the DNA of Streptomyces hygroscopicus ssp. glebosus, which produces the monoaminocyclitol antibiotic bluensomycin; this suggests that both genes are specifically used in the first and second steps of the cyclitol transamination reactions. Sequence comparison studies performed with the deduced polypeptides of the genes adjacent to stsC suggest that the enzymes encoded by some of these genes [strO (putative phosphatase gene), stsB (putative oxidoreductase gene), and stsE (putative phosphotransferase gene)] also could be involved in (di-)aminocyclitol synthesis.
( 1996 )
A general approach for cloning and characterizing dNDP-glucose dehydratase genes from actinomycetes.
PMID : 8768522 : DOI : 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1996.tb08384.x
Oligonucleotide primers were designed and successfully applied to amplify DNA fragments of dNDP-glucose dehydratase genes from actinomycete species producing natural compounds which contain deoxysugar moieties. The deduced amino acid sequence of the isolated fragments revealed similarity to known dNDP-glucose dehydratases. A phylogeny for the deduced proteins of the obtained fragments and for dNDP-glucose dehydratases described in the data bases was constructed. dNDP-glucose dehydratases from actinomycetes were more related to each other than to dehydratases from species of other orders. The phylogenetic analysis also revealed a close relation between dehydratases from strains producing natural compounds with similar deoxysugar moieties.
( 1996 )
The str gene cluster for the biosynthesis of 5'-hydroxystreptomycin in Streptomyces glaucescens GLA.0 (ETH 22794): new operons and evidence for pathway-specific regulation by StrR.
PMID : 8628239 : DOI : 10.1007/bf02172990
Two divergently oriented operons, strXU and strVW, located within the gene cluster for 5'-hydroxystreptomycin (5'-OH-Sm) biosynthesis in Streptomyces glaucescens strain GAL.0 (ETH 22794), were analysed by DNA sequencing and transcription/regulation studies. Three genes, strU and strVW, are conserved in a similar arrangement but in a different location within the str/sts gene cluster of the Sm-producing strain S. griseus N2-3-11. The four putative products resemble NDP-4-ketohexose 3,5-epimerases (StrX, M(r) 20.2 kDa), NAD(P)-dependent oxidoreductases (StrU, 45.6 kDa), and ABC-transporters (StrV, 61.8 kDa; StrW, 63.4 kDa). These genes are apparently involved in the biosynthesis of 5'-OH-Sm because the promoters of both operons are activated in trans by the activator StrR of S. griseus N2-3-11, when cloned in S. lividans 66 TK23. A sequence motif resembling the consensus sequence GTTCGActG(N)11CagTcGAAc for binding of StrR was identified within the intergenic region of strX and strV. Specific binding of StrR to this site was demonstrated by gel retardation assays using purified His*Tag-StrR.
( 1993 )
Tetracenomycin F1 monooxygenase: oxidation of a naphthacenone to a naphthacenequinone in the biosynthesis of tetracenomycin C in Streptomyces glaucescens.
PMID : 8329392 : DOI : 10.1021/bi00077a019
Tetracenomycin (Tcm) F1 monooxygenase, which catalyzes the oxidation of the naphthacenone Tcm F1 to the 5,12-naphthacenequinone Tcm D3 in the biosynthesis of the anthracycline antibiotic Tcm C in Streptomyces glaucescens, has been purified to homogeneity and characterized. Gel filtration chromatography yields a molecular weight of 37,500 whereas SDS-PAGE gives a single band with a molecular weight of 12,500, indicating that the Tcm F1 monooxygenase is a homotrimer in solution. The N-terminal sequence of the enzyme establishes that it is encoded by the tcmH gene. The monooxygenase displays an optimal pH of 7.5 and has a Km of 7.47 +/- 0.67 microM and Vmax of 473 +/- 10 nmol.min-1.mg-1. Formally, the Tcm F1 monooxygenase can be classified as an internal monooxygenase that requires only O2 for the enzymatic oxidation. Yet, it apparently does not possess any of the prosthetic groups of known monooxygenases, such as flavin or heme groups, nor does it utilize metal ions. It is inactivated by p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, N-ethylmaleimide, and diethyl pyrocarbonate, suggesting that sulfhydryl groups and histidine residues are essential for the enzyme activity.
( 1993 )
Nucleotide sequences and heterologous expression of tcmG and tcmP, biosynthetic genes for tetracenomycin C in Streptomyces glaucescens.
PMID : 8509339 : DOI : 10.1128/jb.175.12.3876-3886.1993 PMC : PMC204804
The nucleotide sequence of the tcmIII, tcmIc, and tcmVII region of the tetracenomycin (TCM) C gene cluster of Streptomyces glaucescens ETH 22794 (GLA.0) revealed the presence of two genes, tcmP and tcmG. The deduced product of tcmG resembles flavoprotein hydroxylases found in several other bacteria, whereas the predicted amino acid sequence of tcmP is not significantly similar to those of any known proteins in the available data bases. Southern blot hybridization revealed an approximately 180-bp deletion in a tcmIII (tcmG) mutant and a 1,800-bp insertion in a tcmVII (tcmP) mutant. Heterologous expression of tcmG and tcmP in Streptomyces lividans and tcmP in Escherichia coli established that tcmP encodes an O-methyltransferase, catalyzing the methylation of the C-9 carboxy group of TCM E to yield TCM A2, and that tcmG is responsible for the hydroxylation of TCM A2 at positions C-4, C-4a, and C-12a to give TCM C. These are the final two steps of TCM C biosynthesis.
( 1993 )
The tcmVI region of the tetracenomycin C biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces glaucescens encodes the tetracenomycin F1 monooxygenase, tetracenomycin F2 cyclase, and, most likely, a second cyclase.
PMID : 8244926 : DOI : 10.1128/jb.175.23.7571-7580.1993 PMC : PMC206913
Certain mutations in the tcmVI region of the Streptomyces glaucescens chromosome affect formation of the D ring of the polyketide antibiotic tetracenomycin C (TCM C). This region lies immediately upstream from the TCM C polyketide synthase genes (tcmKLM), and the nucleotide sequence reveals the presence of three small genes, tcmH, tcmI, and tcmJ. On the basis of the phenotypes of mutants and the effects of these genes, when coupled on a plasmid with the tcmKLMN177 genes (tcmN177 is a 3'-truncated version of tcmN), on the production of TCM intermediates in a TCM- mutant, the tcmH gene encodes the C-5 monooxygenase that converts TCM F1 to TCM D3, the tcmI gene encodes the D-ring cyclase that converts TCM F2 to TCM F1 (mutations in this gene are responsible for the type VI phenotype), and the tcmJ gene most likely encodes the B-ring cyclase that acts in the biosynthesis of TCM F2. Furthermore, it appears that the N-terminal domain of the tcmN gene product (encoded by the tcmN177 gene) acts later in the biosynthesis of TCM F2 than the product of tcmJ, suggesting that the N-terminal domain of the TcmN protein is the C-ring cyclase.
( 1994 )
Triple hydroxylation of tetracenomycin A2 to tetracenomycin C in Streptomyces glaucescens. Overexpression of the tcmG gene in Streptomyces lividans and characterization of the tetracenomycin A2 oxygenase.
PMID : 7982994 :
Nucleotide sequence analysis of the tcmG gene has suggested that the TcmG protein is responsible for the triple-hydroxylation of tetracenomycin (Tcm) A2 to Tcm C in Streptomyces glaucescens (Decker, H., Motamedi, H., and Hutchinson, C.R. (1993) J. Bacteriol. 175, 3876-3886). The heterologous expression of the tcmG gene in Streptomyces lividans and the purification and characterization of TcmG protein, which we have named Tcm A2 oxygenase, are described here. NH2-terminal amino acid analysis of the purified enzyme led to the revision of the translational start site of tcmG to a TTG, 33 base pairs downstream of the GTG site assigned initially on the basis of nucleotide sequence analysis. Tcm A2 oxygenase is a monomeric protein in solution and contains 1 mol of non-covalently bound FAD; the apoenzyme can be partially reconstituted in vitro by addition of FAD. Tcm A2 oxygenase exhibits an optimal pH of 9.0-9.5 and prefers NADPH over NADH as an electron donor. The apparent K'm of the enzyme for Tcm A2, NADH, and NADPH are 1.81 +/- 0.38, 260 +/- 19, and 82.1 +/- 17 microM, respectively, and the apparent V'max for the reaction is 14.7 +/- 1.1 nmol Tcm C/min.mg. Purification and characterization of Tcm A2 oxygenase provide direct evidence to support the notion that the angular hydroxy groups of naphthacenequinones like Tcm C are introduced from 18O2 via a mono- or dioxygenase process.
( 1993 )
Tetracenomycin F2 cyclase: intramolecular aldol condensation in the biosynthesis of tetracenomycin C in Streptomyces glaucescens.
PMID : 8218177 : DOI : 10.1021/bi00092a026
Tetracenomycin (Tcm) F2 cyclase, which catalyzes the cyclization of the anthrone Tcm F2 to the naphthacenone Tcm F1 in the biosynthesis of the anthracycline antibiotic Tcm C in Streptomyces glaucescens, has been purified to homogeneity and characterized. The N-terminal sequence of the enzyme establishes that it is encoded by the tcmI gene, whose deduced product has a molecular weight of 12,728. SDS-PAGE analysis gave a single band with a molecular weight of 12,500, whereas gel-filtration chromatography yielded a molecular weight of 37,500, indicating that the Tcm F2 cyclase is a homotrimer in solution. Under pH > or = 8.0, the enzyme catalyzes the cyclization of Tcm F2 to Tcm F1 and has a Km of 121 +/- 18.2 microM and Vmax of 704 +/- 62.3 nmol.min-1.mg-1. In contrast, under pH < or = 6.5, it catalyzes the cyclization of Tcm F2 to 9-decarboxy Tcm F1, a known shunt metabolite of the Tcm C biosynthetic pathway. Tcm F2 cyclase represents the first discrete enzyme for carbon-carbon bond formation via an intramolecular aldol condensation-dehydration mechanism, a key biochemical operation proposed in the early steps of the biosynthesis of all aromatic polyketides.
( 1995 )
Malonyl-coenzyme A:acyl carrier protein acyltransferase of Streptomyces glaucescens: a possible link between fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis.
PMID : 7626609 : DOI : 10.1021/bi00029a015
Streptomyces glaucescens, a Gram-positive soil bacterium, produces the polyketide antibiotic tetracenomycin (Tcm) C. To study possible biochemical connections between the biosynthesis of bacterial fatty acids and polyketides, the abundant acyl carrier protein (ACP) detected throughout the growth of the tetracenomycin (Tcm) C-producing S. glaucescens was purified to homogeneity and found to behave like many other ACPs from bacteria and plants (apparent M(r) of 20,000 on gel filtration chromatography, apparent M(r) of 3400-4800 on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions, and pI approximately 3.8). By using an oligodeoxynucleotide synthesized in accordance with the sequence of residues 25-36 of the ACP, the fabC gene encoding this protein was cloned, and expression of this gene in Escherichia coli yielded the ACP entirely as the active holoenzyme. Sequence analysis of 4.3 kilobases (kb) of DNA flanking fabC revealed the presence of three other genes oriented in the same transcriptional direction in the order fabD, fabH, fabC, and fabB. Each of the four genes is predicted to encode proteins with high sequence similarity to the following components of the E. coli fatty acid synthase (FAS): the FabD malonyl-coenzyme A:ACP acyltransferase (MAT), FabH 3-oxoacyl:ACP synthase III, AcpP ACP, and FabB 3-oxoacyl:ACP synthase I. Expression of the S. glaucescens fabD gene in E. coli produced active MAT able to catalyze in vitro the transfer of radioactive malonate from malonyl-coenzyme A to the E. coli AcpP and S. glaucescens FabC ACPs, as well as to the TcmM ACP component of the Tcm type II polyketide synthase [Shen, B., et al. (1992) J. Bacteriol 174, 3818-3821]. Expression of fabD also restored the high-temperature growth of the E. coli fabD89 mutant that bears a temperature-sensitive MAT. The latter finding and the close similarity between the organization of the S. glaucescens fabDHCB and E. coli FAS-encoding genes (fabH/fabD/fabG/acpP/fabF) suggest that the S. glaucescens genes encode FAS enzymes. Moreover, on the basis of its in vitro activity, it is possible that the S. glaucescens FabD MAT is responsible for charging the TcmM ACP with malonate in vivo, a key step in the synthesis of the deca(polyketide) precursor of Tcm C. This implies the existence of a functional connection between fatty acid and polyketide metabolism in this bacterium.
( 1987 )
The promoter of the Streptomyces glaucescens mel operon.
PMID : 3118334 : DOI : 10.1093/nar/15.19.8106 PMC : PMC306330
( 1987 )
Characterisation of the hydroxystreptomycin phosphotransferase gene (sph) of Streptomyces glaucescens: nucleotide sequence and promoter analysis.
PMID : 3039305 : DOI : 10.1007/bf00330442
The nucleotide sequence of a 1384 bp fragment containing the coding and promoter sequences of the streptomycin phosphotransferase gene (sph) of the hydroxystreptomycin-producing Streptomyces glaucescens was determined. Evidence for an ATG as translation start codon for sph was derived from a comparison with the amino-terminal amino acid sequence of an aminoglycoside phosphotransferase (aphD gene product) of S. griseus, exhibiting a high degree of amino acid homology to the deduced amino acid sequence of the S. glaucescens sph gene product. Transcriptional start and termination sites for the sph gene were identified by primer extension and/or nuclease S1 mapping experiments. The promoter region of the sph gene appears to be complex since tandemly arranged promoters (orfIp1, orfIp2) initiating transcription of a likely coding region (ORFI) in the opposite direction overlap sph promoter sequences. The presumptive sphp and orfIp1 promoters show considerable sequence similarities in the -10 region to Escherichia coli consensus promoter sequences but no homology to E. coli or Streptomyces -35 regions.
( 1985 )
Primary structure of tyrosinase from Streptomyces glaucescens.
PMID : 3002431 : DOI : 10.1021/bi00343a003
The complete amino acid sequence of Streptomyces glaucescens tyrosinase is reported. The molecule consists of 273 amino acids and has a Mr of 30 900 including two copper atoms. The primary structure was determined by a combination of amino acid and DNA sequence analysis. Peptide sequence information was derived from the cyanogen bromide, tryptic, and thermolytic fragments of apotyrosinase by automated Edman degradation and aminopeptidase M and carboxypeptidase C digestions. The nucleotide sequence of the tyrosinase gene cloned into the PvuII site of pBR322 was determined. The enzyme contains no apparent leader peptide despite the fact that it is secreted into the culture medium. As observed for a number of different Streptomyces genes, the tyrosinase gene shows a strong preference (97%) for codons ending in G or C. A comparison of the amino acid sequence of Streptomyces glaucescens tyrosinase with that of Neurospora crassa tyrosinase reveals an overall sequence homology of only 24.2%. However, the sequence homology is much higher in those regions thought to be involved in metal binding of the binuclear active site copper of this monooxygenase.
( 1998 )
The StrQ protein encoded in the gene cluster for 5'-hydroxystreptomycin of Streptomyces glaucescens GLA.0 is a alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate cytidylyltransferase (CDP-D-glucose synthase).
PMID : 9990325 : DOI : 10.1046/j.1432-1327.1998.2581059.x
The gene strQ was identified as the last gene of a putative transcription unit, strB1FGHPQ, located in the gene cluster for the production of 5'-hydroxy-streptomycin (OH-Sm) in Streptomyces glaucescens GLA.0. [In contrast, the corresponding operon in the str/sts-gene cluster of the Sm-producer Streptomyces griseus, strB1FGHIK, differs in the two distal genes; Mansouri, K. & Piepersberg, W. (1991) Mol. Gen. Genet. 228, 459-469]. The deduced StrQ protein exhibited similarities to members of the enzyme family of hexose-1-phosphate nucleotidylyltransferases (NDP-hexose synthases or pyrophosphorylases), with the strongest similarity to the subfamily of alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate cytidylyltransferases (CDP-D-glucose synthases). The StrQ protein was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified protein revealed an enzyme activity of that of a CDP-D-glucose synthase and a substrate specificity restricted to CTP and alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate. The K(m) and Vmax values determined for CTP are 44 microM and 920 microM and for alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate 195 microM and 1.06 mM, respectively. The CDP-D-glucose synthase activity was also detected in cells of S. glaucescens under the conditions of antibiotic production, but was absent from cells of the streptomycin producer S. griseus N2-3-11. Also, the genomes of several strains of S. griseus did not seem to possess strQ-related genes. In contrast, hybridisation experiments indicated that genes homologous to strQ were probably present in various other actinomycetes producing aminoglycosides. A possible function of the StrQ protein in the OH-Sm biosynthetic pathway of GLA.0 is discussed.
( 1998 )
Characterization of beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III from Streptomyces glaucescens and its role in initiation of fatty acid biosynthesis.
PMID : 9721286 : PMC : PMC107458
The Streptomyces glaucescens fabH gene, encoding beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (beta-ketoacyl-ACP) synthase (KAS) III (FabH), was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the resulting gene product was purified to homogeneity by metal chelate chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the purified protein revealed an Mr of 37,000, while gel filtration analysis determined a native Mr of 72,000 +/- 3,000 (mean +/- standard deviation), indicating that the enzyme is homodimeric. The purified recombinant protein demonstrated both KAS activity and acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA):ACP transacylase (ACAT) activity in a 1:0.12 ratio. The KAS and ACAT activities were both sensitive to thiolactomycin inhibition. The KAS activity of the protein demonstrated a Km value of 3.66 microM for the malonyl-ACP substrate and an unusual broad specificity for acyl-CoA substrates, with Km values of 2.4 microM for acetyl-CoA, 0.71 microM for butyryl-CoA, and 0.41 microM for isobutyryl-CoA. These data suggest that the S. glaucescens FabH is responsible for initiating both straight- and branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in Streptomyces and that the ratio of the various fatty acids produced by this organism will be dictated by the ratios of the various acyl-CoA substrates that can react with FabH. Results from a series of in vivo directed biosynthetic experiments in which the ratio of these acyl-CoA substrates was varied are consistent with this hypothesis. An additional set of in vivo experiments using thiolactomycin provides support for the role of FabH and further suggests that a FabH-independent pathway for straight-chain fatty acid biosynthesis operates in S. glaucescens.