( 2003 )
The crystal structure and stereospecificity of levodione reductase from Corynebacterium aquaticum M-13.
PMID : 12621044 : DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M208146200
The (6R)-2,2,6-trimethyl-1,4-cyclohexanedione (levodione) reductase (LVR) of the soil isolate bacterium Corynebacterium aquaticum M-13 is a NAD(H)-linked enzyme that catalyzes reversible oxidoreduction between (4R)-hydroxy-(6R)-2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexanone (actinol) and levodione. Here the crystal structure of a ternary complex of LVR with NADH and its inhibitor 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol has been determined by molecular replacement and refined at 1.6-A resolution with a crystallographic R factor of 0.199. The overall structure is similar to those of other short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductase enzymes. The positions of NADH and 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol indicate the binding site of the substrate and identify residues that are likely to be important in the catalytic reaction. Modeling of the substrate binding in the active site suggests that the specificity of LVR is determined by electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged surface of Glu-103 of LVR and the positively charged surface on the re side of levodione. Mutant LVR enzymes in which Glu-103 is substituted with alanine (E103A), glutamine (E103Q), asparagines (E103N), or aspartic acid (E103D) show a 2-6-fold increase in Km values as compared with wild-type LVR and a much lower enantiomeric excess of the reaction products (60%) than the wild-type enzyme (95%). Together, these data indicate that Glu-103 has an important role in determining the stereospecificity of LVR.
( 2001 )
Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression in Escherichia coli of the gene encoding monovalent cation-activated levodione reductase from Corynebacterium aquaticum M-13.
PMID : 11388460 : DOI : 10.1271/bbb.65.830
The gene encoding (6R)-2,2,6-trimethyl-1,4-cyclohexanedione (levodione) reductase was cloned from the genomic DNA of the soil isolate bacterium Corynebacterium aquaticum M-13. The gene contained an open reading frame consisting of 801 nucleotides corresponding to 267 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence showed approximately 35% identity with other short chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily enzymes. The probable NADH-binding site and three catalytic residues (Ser-Tyr-Lys) were conserved. The enzyme was sufficiently produced in recombinant Escherichia coli cells using an expression vector pKK223-3, and purified to homogeneity by two-column chromatography steps. The enzyme purified from E. coli catalyzed stereo- and regio-selective reduction of levodione, and was strongly activated by monovalent cations, such as K+, Na+, and NH4+, as was the case of that from C. aquaticum M-13. To our knowledge, this is the first sequencing report of a monovalent cation-activated SDR enzyme.
( 2000 )
Cloning and sequencing of a part of the heat shock protein 65 gene (hsp65) of "Tropheryma whippelii" and its use for detection of "T. whippelii" in clinical specimens by PCR.
PMID : 10834984 : PMC : PMC86774
Using broad-spectrum primers, we have amplified, cloned, and sequenced a 620-bp fragment of the "Tropheryma whippelii" heat shock protein 65 gene (hsp65) from the heart valve of a patient with Whipple's endocarditis. The deduced amino acid sequence shows high similarity to those from actinobacteria, confirming that "T. whippelii" is indeed a member of this phylum. Based on the nucleotide sequence, we have developed a "T. whippelii"-specific seminested PCR. Seventeen patients shown to be positive by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) PCR and/or internal transcribed spacer (ITS) PCR were also positive by hsp65 PCR. All 33 control specimens from patients without Whipple's disease and negative for "T. whippelii" by both seminested 16S rDNA and ITS PCR remained negative. All amplicons digested with XhoI revealed an identical restriction pattern. Eight of the 17 hsp65 amplicons representing all three previously described ITS types were sequenced. Three of the amplicons showed slight differences, but none of the mutations detected affected the amino acid sequence of the corresponding protein. We conclude that the hsp65 gene is a suitable target for the specific detection of "T. whippelii." Its product represents a putative antigen for a future serodiagnostic assay.
( 1999 )
Purification and characterization of monovalent cation-activated levodione reductase from Corynebacterium aquaticum M-13.
PMID : 10508066 : PMC : PMC91584
(6R)-2,2,6-Trimethyl-1,4-cyclohexanedione (levodione) reductase was isolated from a cell extract of the soil isolate Corynebacterium aquaticum M-13. This enzyme catalyzed regio- and stereoselective reduction of levodione to (4R,6R)-4-hydroxy-2,2, 6-trimethylcyclohexanone (actinol). The relative molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 142,000 Da by high-performance gel permeation chromatography and 36,000 Da by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme required NAD(+) or NADH as a cofactor, and it catalyzed reversible oxidoreduction between actinol and levodione. The enzyme was highly activated by monovalent cations, such as K(+), Na(+), and NH(4)(+). The NH(2)-terminal and partial amino acid sequences of the enzyme showed that it belongs to the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductase family. This is the first report of levodione reductase.