( 1992 )
Site-directed mutagenesis at aspartate and glutamate residues of xylanase from Bacillus pumilus.
PMID : 1359880 : DOI : 10.1042/bj2880117 PMC : PMC1132087
To elucidate the reaction mechanism of xylanase, the identification of amino acids essential for its catalysis is of importance. Studies have indicated the possibility that the reaction mechanism of xylanase is similar to that of hen's egg lysozyme, which involves acidic amino acid residues. On the basis of this assumption, together with the three-dimensional structure of Bacillus pumilus xylanase and its amino acid sequence similarity to other xylanases of different origins, three acidic amino acids, namely Asp-21, Glu-93 and Glu-182, were selected for site-directed mutagenesis. The Asp residue was altered to either Ser or Glu, and the Glu residues to Ser or Asp. The purified mutant xylanases D21E, D21S, E93D, E93S, E182D and E182S showed single protein bands of about 26 kDa on SDS/PAGE. C.d. spectra of these mutant enzymes show no effect on the secondary structure of xylanase, except that of D21E, which shows a little variation. Furthermore, mutations of Glu-93 and Glu-182 resulted in a drastic decrease in the specific activity of xylanase as compared with mutation of Asp-21. On the basis of these results we propose that Glu-93 and Glu-182 are the best candidates for the essential catalytic residues of xylanase.
( 2003 )
CynD, the cyanide dihydratase from Bacillus pumilus: gene cloning and structural studies.
PMID : 12902273 : DOI : 10.1128/aem.69.8.4794-4805.2003 PMC : PMC169136
The cyanide dihydratase in Bacillus pumilus was shown to be an 18-subunit spiral structure by three-dimensional reconstruction of electron micrographs of negatively stained material at its optimum pH, 8.0. At pH 5.4, the subunits rearrange to form an extended left-handed helix. Gel electrophoresis of glutaraldehyde cross-linked enzyme suggests that the fundamental component of the spiral is a dimer of the 37-kDa subunit. The gene was cloned, and the recombinant enzyme was readily expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli. Purification of the recombinant enzyme was facilitated by the addition of a C-terminal six-histidine affinity purification tag. The tagged recombinant enzyme has K(m) and V(max) values similar to those published for the native enzyme. This is the first cyanide dihydratase from a gram-positive bacterium to be sequenced, and it is the first description of the structure of any member of this enzyme class. The putative amino acid sequence shares over 80% identity to the only other sequenced cyanide dihydratase, that of the gram-negative Pseudomonas stutzeri strain AK61, and is similar to a number of other bacterial and fungal nitrilases. This sequence similarity suggests that the novel short spiral structure may be typical of these enzymes. In addition, an active cyanide dihydratase from a non-cyanide-degrading isolate of B. pumilus (strain 8A3) was cloned and expressed. This suggests that cynD, the gene coding for the cyanide dihydratase, is not unique to the C1 strain of B. pumilus and is not a reflection of its origin at a mining waste site.
( 2001 )
Expression in Escherichia coli of native and chimeric phenolic acid decarboxylases with modified enzymatic activities and method for screening recombinant E. coli strains expressing these enzymes.
PMID : 11229892 : DOI : 10.1128/AEM.67.3.1063-1069.2001 PMC : PMC92695
Four bacterial phenolic acid decarboxylases (PAD) from Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus pumilus were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their activities on p-coumaric, ferulic, and caffeic acids were compared. Although these four enzymes displayed 61% amino acid sequence identity, they exhibit different activities for ferulic and caffeic acid metabolism. To elucidate the domain(s) that determines these differences, chimeric PAD proteins were constructed and expressed in E. coli by exchanging their individual carboxy-terminal portions. Analysis of the chimeric enzyme activities suggests that the C-terminal region may be involved in determining PAD substrate specificity and catalytic capacity. In order to test phenolic acid toxicity, the levels of growth of recombinant E. coli displaying and not displaying PAD activity were compared on medium supplemented with different concentrations of phenolic acids and with differing pHs. Though these acids already have a slight inhibitory effect on E. coli, vinyl phenol derivatives, created during decarboxylation of phenolic acids, were much more inhibitory to the E. coli control strain. To take advantage of this property, a solid medium with the appropriate pH and phenolic acid concentration was developed; in this medium the recombinant E. coli strains expressing PAD activity form colonies approximately five times smaller than those formed by strains devoid of PAD activity.
( 2000 )
Sequence of the gene encoding an alkaline serine proteinase of Bacillus pumilus TYO-67.
PMID : 10888358 : DOI : 10.1111/j.1348-0421.2000.tb02511.x
The complete nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding an alkaline serine proteinase (aprP) of Bacillus pumilus TYO-67 was determined. The sequence analysis showed an open reading frame of 1,149 bp (383 amino acids) that encoded a signal peptide consisting of 29 residues and a propeptide of 79 residues. The deduced 3 amino acid residues, D32, H64, and S221, were identical with 3 essential amino acids in the catalytic center of subtilases. The sequence around these residues revealed that APRP was a new member of the true subtilisin subgroup of the subtilisin family. The highest homology was found in subtilisin NAT at 64.4% in the DNA sequence. The residue S189 of APRP was different from those of other subtilases.
( 2000 )
The acetyl xylan esterase of Bacillus pumilus belongs to a family of esterases with broad substrate specificity.
PMID : 10878123 : DOI : 10.1099/00221287-146-7-1585
The Bacillus pumilus gene encoding acetyl xylan esterase (axe) was identified and characterized. The axe gene was expressed and the recombinant enzyme produced in Escherichia coli was purified and characterized. The recombinant enzyme displayed similar properties to the acetyl xylan esterase (AXE) purified from B. pumilus. The AXE primary structure was 76% identical to the cephalosporin C deacetylase of B. subtilis, and 40% to two recently identified AXEs from Thermoanaerobacterium and Thermotoga maritima. These four proteins are of similar size and represent a new family of esterases having a broad substrate specificity. The recombinant AXE was demonstrated to have activity on several acetylated substrates, including on cephalosporin C.
La Grange DC,
Van Zyl WH,
( 2000 )
Coexpression of the Bacillus pumilus beta-xylosidase (xynB) gene with the Trichoderma reesei beta xylanase 2 (xyn2) gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PMID : 10968632 :
The xynB gene encoding the Bacillus pumilus beta-xylosidase was expressed separately and jointly with the Trichoderma reesei beta-xylanase (xyn2) gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both genes were placed under the transcriptional control of the glucose-derepressible alcohol dehydrogenase 2 promoter (ADH2p) and terminator (ADH2T) sequences. The xynB gene was fused in frame to the yeast mating factor alpha1 secretion sequence (MFalpha1s) to effect secretion in S. cerevisiae. The fusion protein was designated Xlo1. Xlo1 produced in S. cerevisiae exhibited low affinity for xylobiose, but eventually hydrolyzed xylobiose and xylotriose to the monomeric constituent, D-xylose. Coproduction of Xyn2 and Xlo1 by S. cerevisiae led to a 25% increase in the amount of reducing sugars released from birchwood xylan compared to S. cerevisiae producing only the Xyn2 beta-xylanase. However, no D-xylose was produced from birchwood xylan, presumably due to very low Xlo1 beta-xylosidase activity and its low affinity for xylobiose.
( 2007 )
A new organic solvent tolerant protease from Bacillus pumilus 115b.
PMID : 17492323 : DOI : 10.1007/s10295-007-0222-8
Five out of the nine benzene-toulene-ethylbenzene-xylene (BTEX) tolerant bacteria that demonstrated high protease activity on skim milk agar were isolated. Among them, isolate 115b identified as Bacillus pumilus exhibited the highest protease production. The protease produced was stable in 25% (v/v) benzene and toluene and it was activated 1.7 and 2.5- fold by n-dodecane and n-tetradecane, respectively. The gene encoding the organic solvent tolerant protease was cloned and its nucleotide sequence determined. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,149 bp that encoded a polypeptide of 383 amino acid residues. The polypeptide composed of 29 residues of signal peptide, a propeptide of 79 residues and a mature protein of 275 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 27,846 Da. This is the only report available to date on organic solvent tolerant protease from B. pumilus.
( 2007 )
Restriction endonuclease BpuJI specific for the 5'-CCCGT sequence is related to the archaeal Holliday junction resolvase family.
PMID : 17392342 : DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkm164 PMC : PMC1874659
Type IIS restriction endonucleases (REases) recognize asymmetric DNA sequences and cleave both DNA strands at fixed positions downstream of the recognition site. REase BpuJI recognizes the asymmetric sequence 5'-CCCGT, however it cuts at multiple sites in the vicinity of the target sequence. We show that BpuJI is a dimer, which has two DNA binding surfaces and displays optimal catalytic activity when bound to two recognition sites. BpuJI is cleaved by chymotrypsin into an N-terminal domain (NTD), which lacks catalytic activity but binds specifically to the recognition sequence as a monomer, and a C-terminal domain (CTD), which forms a dimer with non-specific nuclease activity. Fold recognition approach reveals that the CTD of BpuJI is structurally related to archaeal Holliday junction resolvases (AHJR). We demonstrate that the isolated catalytic CTD of BpuJI possesses end-directed nuclease activity and preferentially cuts 3 nt from the 3'-terminus of blunt-ended DNA. The nuclease activity of the CTD is repressed in the apo-enzyme and becomes activated upon specific DNA binding by the NTDs. This leads to a complicated pattern of specific DNA cleavage in the vicinity of the target site. Bioinformatics analysis identifies the AHJR-like domain in the putative Type III enzymes and functionally uncharacterized proteins.
( 1991 )
Sequence and properties of beta-xylosidase from Bacillus pumilus IPO. Contradiction of the previous nucleotide sequence.
PMID : 1765080 : DOI : 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1991.tb16490.x
The nucleotide sequence of the beta-xylosidase (xynB) gene from Bacillus pumilus has been reported previously [Moriyama, H., Fukusaki, E., Crespo, J.C., Shinmyo, A. & Okada, H. (1987) Eur. J. Biochem. 166, 539-545]. However, the sequence identified in the present study is quite different from the previously reported one. The total length of the PstI--EcoRI fragment of a plasmid pOXN295 containing the xynB gene is 2201 bp from our sequencing, while the length of the fragment in the previous data was 2466 bp. The sequences are similar in the N-terminal (500 bp) and C-terminal (260 bp) regions, but those in the central region are completely different. From the following observations, the previous sequence seems to have no reliable experimental basis. First, the restriction sites observed for pOXN295 are quite different from the sites deduced from the sequence. Second, the amino acid composition deduced from the sequence and the composition identified by amino acid analysis of the purified beta-xylosidase are very different. It is confirmed, on the other hand, that our new sequence agrees well with these experimental data. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity from Bacillus pumilus and Escherichia coli harboring a hybrid plasmid which highly expresses the xynB gene. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 190 kDa by high performance gel filtration chromatography using TSK-G3000SW and 56 kDa by SDS/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The pH optimum was 7.0, and the optimum temperature was 40 degrees C. The Vm value was estimated to be 1.23 +/- 0.14 mukat/mg (or p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xyloside) and 0.14 +/- 0.011 mukat/mg (for xylobiose), while Km was estimated to be 3.9 +/- 0.59 mM (for p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xyloside) and 8.9 +/- 1.19 mM (for xylobiose).
( 2006 )
Functional evaluation of a novel constitutive promoter F1 of Bacillus pumilus, as a rice epiphytic strain, and construction of an efficient expression and secretion system under the control of F1.
PMID : 16799766 : DOI : 10.1007/s10529-006-9030-x
To establish a constitutive, high-efficiency expression and secretion system for Bacillus pumilus, the function of a promoter and the abilities of three signal peptides in B. pumilus DX01 were tested. F1, cloned from the rice epiphyte B. pumilus strain DX01, had strong transcription activity and was a vegetative-phase constitutive promoter. The signal sequences of Bacillus subtilis levansucrase (sacB) and subtilisin, as well as B. pumilus DX01 RNase signal sequence could drive the secretion of E. coli beta-lactamase from B. pumilus DX01 efficiently, among which the signal sequence of B. subtilis sacB was the most effective. Likewise, they could also direct the secretion of green fluorescence protein (GFP) from DX01.
( 2008 )
The expression of the serine proteinase gene of Bacillus intermedius in Bacillus subtilis.
PMID : 16782315 : DOI : 10.1016/j.micres.2006.03.003
The gene encoding for Bacillus intermedius serine proteinase was cloned and the complete nucleotide sequence was determined. Gene expression was explored in the protease-deficient strain Bacillus subtilis AJ73 during different stages of growth. Catabolite repression involved in control of proteinase expression during transition state and onset of sporulation was not efficient at the late stationary phase. Salt stress leads to induction of serine proteinase production during B. subtilis AJ73(pCS9) post-exponential growth. Expression of proteinase in B. subtilis deg-mutants may be controlled by DegU regulator. B. subtilis spo0-mutants failed to accomplish B. intermedius proteinase production. These data suggest complex network regulation of B. intermedius serine proteinase expression, including the action of spo0, degU, catabolite repression and demonstrate changes in control of enzyme biosynthesis at different stages of growth.
( 2006 )
Characterization of the family of Mistic homologues.
PMID : 16704729 : DOI : 10.1186/1472-6807-6-10 PMC : PMC1471793
Mistic is a unique Bacillus subtilis protein with virtually no detectable homologues in GenBank, which appears to integrate into the bacterial membrane despite an overall hydrophilic composition. These unusual properties have been shown to be useful for high-yield recombinant expression of other membrane proteins through fusion to the C-terminus of Mistic. To better understand the structure and function of Mistic, we systematically searched for and characterized homologous proteins among closely related bacteria. Three homologues of Mistic were found with 62% to 93% residue identity, all only 84 residues in length, corresponding to the C-terminal residues of B. subtilis Mistic. In every case, the Mistic gene was found partially overlapping a downstream gene for a K+ channel protein. Residue variation amongst these sequences is restricted to loop regions of the protein's structure, suggesting that secondary structure elements and overall fold have been conserved. Additionally, all three homologues retain the functional ability to chaperone fusion partners to the membrane. The functional core of Mistic consists of 84 moderately conserved residues that are sufficient for membrane targeting and integration. Understanding the minimal structural and chemical complexity of Mistic will lead to insights into the mechanistic underpinnings of Mistic-chaperoned membrane integration, as well as how to optimize its use for the recombinant heterologous expression of other integral membrane proteins of interest.
La Duc MT,
( 2006 )
Bacillus safensis sp. nov., isolated from spacecraft and assembly-facility surfaces.
PMID : 16902000 : DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.64189-0
Thirteen strains of a novel spore-forming, Gram-positive, mesophilic heterotrophic bacterium were isolated from spacecraft surfaces (Mars Odyssey Orbiter) and assembly-facility surfaces at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California and the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences has placed these novel isolates within the genus Bacillus, the greatest sequence similarity (99.9 %) being found with Bacillus pumilus. However, these isolates share a mere 91.2 % gyrB sequence similarity with Bacillus pumilus, rendering their 16S rRNA gene-derived relatedness suspect. Furthermore, DNA-DNA hybridization showed only 54-66 % DNA relatedness between the novel isolates and strains of B. pumilus. rep-PCR fingerprinting and previously reported matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry protein profiling clearly distinguished these isolates from B. pumilus. Phenotypic analyses also showed some differentiation between the two genotypic groups, although the fatty acid compositions were almost identical. The polyphasic taxonomic studies revealed distinct clustering of the tested strains into two distinct species. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics and the results of phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences, repetitive element primer-PCR fingerprinting and DNA-DNA hybridization, the 13 isolates represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus safensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FO-36b(T) (=ATCC BAA-1126(T)=NBRC 100820(T)).
( 2006 )
Purification and molecular characterization of subtilisin-like alkaline protease BPP-A from Bacillus pumilus strain MS-1.
PMID : 16478511 : DOI : 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2005.01851.x
The present study was conducted by screening zein-degrading bacteria in an attempt to obtain zein-degrading protease. Soil bacteria were screened by formation of a clear zone on zein plates. Characterization of a zein-degrading bacterium indicated a taxonomic affiliation to Bacillus pumilus, and was named MS-1 strain. The strain produced two different types of extracellular proteases, BPP-A and BPP-B. In this study, we purified and characterized BPP-A because it exhibited a higher ability to hydrolyze zein than BPP-B. When casein was used as the substrate, the optimal pH for BPP-A was 11.0. In BPP-A, zein was better substrate than casein at pH 13.0, whereas casein was better one than zein at pH 11.0. The bppA gene encoded a 383-amino acid pre-pro form of BPP-A, and mature BPP-A contained 275 amino acid residues. It was concluded that BPP-A belonged to the subtilisin family. A zein-degrading bacterium assigned to B. pumilus produced two different types of extracellular proteases, BPP-A and BPP-B. BPP-A exhibited an ability to hydrolyze zein in an extreme alkaline condition. This is a first report on screening for zein-degrading micro-organisms. The subtilisin-like protease BPP-A is possible to utilize as an industrial enzyme for the production of zein hydrolysates.
( 2005 )
Development of a versatile cassette for directional genome walking using cassette ligation-mediated PCR and its application in the cloning of complete lipolytic genes from Bacillus species.
PMID : 15722149 : DOI : 10.1016/j.mimet.2004.11.021
Since the invention of the PCR technology, adaptation techniques to clone DNA fragments flanking the known sequence continue to be developed. We describe a perfectly annealed cassette available in almost unlimited quantities with variable sticky-and blunt-end restriction enzyme recognition sites for efficient restriction and ligation with the restricted target genomic DNA. The cassette provides a 200-bp sequence, which is used to design a variety of cassette-specific primers. The dephosphorylation prevents cassette self-ligation and creates a nick at the cassette: target genome DNA ligation site suppressing unspecific PCR amplifications. We introduce the single-strand amplification PCR (SSA-PCR) technique where a lone known locus-specific primer is firstly used to enrich the targeted template DNA strand resulting in significant PCR product specificity during the second round conventional nested PCR. The distance between the known locus-specific primer and the nearest location of the restriction enzyme used determined the length of the obtained PCR product. We used this technique to walk downstream into the isochorismatase and upstream into the hypothetical conserved genes flanking the mature extracellular lipase gene from Bacillus licheniformis. We further demonstrated the potential of the technique as a cost-effective method during PCR-based prospecting for novel genes by designing "universal" degenerate primers that detected homologues of Family VII bacterial lipolytic genes in Bacillus species. The cassette ligation-mediated PCR was used to clone complete nucleotide sequences encoding functional lipolytic genes from B. licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus.
( 2005 )
Molecular cloning of enantioselective ester hydrolase from Bacillus pumilus DBRL-191.
PMID : 16006072 : DOI : 10.1016/j.femsle.2005.06.022
A gene from Bacillus pumilus expressed under its native promoter was cloned in Escherichia coli. Recombinant B. pumilus esterase (BPE) affects the kinetic resolution of racemic mixtures such as unsubstituted and substituted 1-(phenyl)ethanols (E approximately 33-103), ethyl 3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoate (E approximately 45-71), trans-4-fluorophenyl-3-hydroxymethyl-N-methylpiperidine (E approximately 10-13) and ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyrate (E approximately 7). The enzyme is composed of a 34-amino acid signal peptide and a 181-amino acid mature protein corresponding to a molecular weight of approximately 19.2kD and pI approximately 9.4. 3-D the structural model of the enzyme built by homology modelling using the atomic coordinates from the crystal structure of B. subtilis lipase (LipA) showed a compact minimal alpha/beta hydrolase fold.
( 2005 )
Molecular characterization of a beta-1,4-endoglucanase from an endophytic Bacillus pumilus strain.
PMID : 15538558 : DOI : 10.1007/s00253-004-1740-1
Endophytes comprise mainly microorganisms that colonize inner plant tissues, often living with the host in a symbiotic manner. Several ecological roles have been assigned to endophytic fungi and bacteria, such as antibiosis to phytopathogenic agents and plant growth promotion. Nowadays, endophytes are viewed as a new source of genes, proteins and biochemical compounds that may be used to improve industrial processes. In this study, the gene EglA was cloned from a citrus endophytic Bacillus strain. The EglA encodes a beta-1,4-endoglucanase capable of hydrolyzing cellulose under in vitro conditions. The predicted protein, EglA, has high homology to other bacterial cellulases and shows a modular structure containing a catalytic domain of the glycosyl hydrolase family 9 (GH9) and a cellulose-binding module type 3 (CBM3). The enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity, and characterized. EglA has an optimum pH range of 5-8, and remarkable heat stability, retaining more than 85% activity even after a 24-h incubation at pH 6-8.6. This characteristic is an important feature for further applications of this enzyme in biotechnological processes in which temperatures of 50-60 degrees C are required over long incubation periods.
( 2004 )
Gene cloning and expression of an alkaline serine protease with dehairing function from Bacillus pumilus.
PMID : 15386098 : DOI : 10.1007/s00284-004-4305-8
A new gene (named AP gene) encoding an alkaline serine protease with dehairing function was cloned from Bacillus pumilus UN-31-C-42 and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The expression of AP gene was induced with IPTG in Escherichia coli after the mature protease region was cloned into pET15b and SDS-PAGE showed expressed product clearly, but no alkaline protease activity was detected. In order to express the AP gene in B. subtilis, a recombinant expression plasmid was constructed which contained a promoter Bp53 (also from B. pumilus), the AP gene and an E. coli-B. subtilis shuttle vector pSUGV4. This plasmid was introduced into B. subtilis WB600 and the transformant displayed the hydrolyzed zone on a milk plate. The expressed product can be easily detected with SDS-PAGE and the fermentation fluid of the transformant showed low alkaline protease activity and dehairing activity. This is the first report of a gene cloned from B. pumilus, encoding an alkaline serine protease, which can alone accomplish the whole dehairing process.
( 2011 )
The crystal structure of the cephalosporin deacetylating enzyme acetyl xylan esterase bound to paraoxon explains the low sensitivity of this serine hydrolase to organophosphate inactivation.
PMID : 21382014 : DOI : 10.1042/BJ20101859
Organophosphorus insecticides and nerve agents irreversibly inhibit serine hydrolase superfamily enzymes. One enzyme of this superfamily, the industrially important (for �]-lactam antibiotic synthesis) AXE/CAH (acetyl xylan esterase/cephalosporin acetyl hydrolase) from the biotechnologically valuable organism Bacillus pumilus, exhibits low sensitivity to the organophosphate paraoxon (diethyl-p-nitrophenyl phosphate, also called paraoxon-ethyl), reflected in a high K(i) for it (~5 mM) and in a slow formation (t(?)~1 min) of the covalent adduct of the enzyme and for DEP (E-DEP, enzyme-diethyl phosphate, i.e. enzyme-paraoxon). The crystal structure of the E-DEP complex determined at 2.7 ? resolution (1 ?=0.1 nm) reveals strain in the active Ser???-bound organophosphate as a likely cause for the limited paraoxon sensitivity. The strain results from active-site-size limitation imposed by bulky conserved aromatic residues that may exclude as substrates esters having acyl groups larger than acetate. Interestingly, in the doughnut-like homohexamer of the enzyme, the six active sites are confined within a central chamber formed between two 60�X-staggered trimers. The exclusive access to this chamber through a hole around the three-fold axis possibly limits the size of the xylan natural substrates. The enzyme provides a rigid scaffold for catalysis, as reflected in the lack of movement associated with paraoxon adduct formation, as revealed by comparing this adduct structure with that also determined in the present study at 1.9 ? resolution for the paraoxon-free enzyme.
( 2011 )
Characterization and crystal structure of the type IIG restriction endonuclease RM.BpuSI.
PMID : 21724614 : DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkr543 PMC : PMC3185434
A type IIG restriction endonuclease, RM.BpuSI from Bacillus pumilus, has been characterized and its X-ray crystal structure determined at 2.35? resolution. The enzyme is comprised of an array of 5-folded domains that couple the enzyme's N-terminal endonuclease domain to its C-terminal target recognition and methylation activities. The REase domain contains a PD-x(15)-ExK motif, is closely superimposable against the FokI endonuclease domain, and coordinates a single metal ion. A helical bundle domain connects the endonuclease and methyltransferase (MTase) domains. The MTase domain is similar to the N6-adenine MTase M.TaqI, while the target recognition domain (TRD or specificity domain) resembles a truncated S subunit of Type I R-M system. A final structural domain, that may form additional DNA contacts, interrupts the TRD. DNA binding and cleavage must involve large movements of the endonuclease and TRD domains, that are probably tightly coordinated and coupled to target site methylation status.
( 2011 )
Cloning, expression and characterization of glycoside hydrolase family 11 endoxylanase from Bacillus pumilus ARA.
PMID : 21369910 : DOI : 10.1007/s10529-011-0568-x
An endoxylanase gene, xynA, was cloned from Bacillus pumilus ARA and expressed in Escherichia coli. The open reading frame of the xynA gene was 687 bp encoding a signal peptide and a mature xylanase with a molecular mass of 23 kDa. The enzyme was categorized as a glycosyl hydrolase family 11 member based on the sequence analysis of the putative catalytic domain. The recombinant XynA (Bpu XynA) was purified to homogeneity by Ni-NTA and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose FF. The enzyme exhibited highest activity at pH 6.6 and 50�XC. The purified Bpu XynA was stable for at least 2 h at 45�XC, and retained over 50% residual activity after being incubated at 60�XC for 1 h. The activity of the xylanase was not significantly affected by metal ions and EDTA. The K (m) and K (cat) /K (m) of Bpu XynA for oat-spelt xylan were 5.53 mg/ml and 10.14 ml/mg s at 50�XC and pH 6.6. The main product of hydrolysis by Bpu XynA was xylooligosaccharide. The results revealed that the consumption of grass xylan by B. pumilus ARA depended on the synergistic reactions of Bpu XynA and Bpu arabinosidase, and that a typical GH11 xylanase e.g. Tla XynA had capability to remove the side chain of xylan. The properties Bpu XynA make it promising for application in the production of Bifidobacterium growth-promoting factors and in feed industry.
( 1990 )
The structure of the trpE, trpD and 5' trpC genes of Bacillus pumilus.
PMID : 2110100 : DOI : 10.1016/0378-1119(90)90497-f
The nucleotide (nt) sequences of the Bacillus pumilus trpE, trpD and 5' portions of trpC genes have been determined. Genetic analysis suggested the presence of an internal promoter upstream from the trpC gene, yet no typical consensus sequences were found. The nt and amino acid sequence homologies between the B. pumilus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli trp genes are presented.
( 2010 )
Structural analysis of Bacillus pumilus phenolic acid decarboxylase, a lipocalin-fold enzyme.
PMID : 21045284 : DOI : 10.1107/S174430911003246X PMC : PMC3001637
The decarboxylation of phenolic acids, including ferulic and p-coumaric acids, to their corresponding vinyl derivatives is of importance in the flavouring and polymer industries. Here, the crystal structure of phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) from Bacillus pumilus strain UI-670 is reported. The enzyme is a 161-residue polypeptide that forms dimers both in the crystal and in solution. The structure of PAD as determined by X-ray crystallography revealed a �]-barrel structure and two �\-helices, with a cleft formed at one edge of the barrel. The PAD structure resembles those of the lipocalin-fold proteins, which often bind hydrophobic ligands. Superposition of structurally related proteins bound to their cognate ligands shows that they and PAD bind their ligands in a conserved location within the �]-barrel. Analysis of the residue-conservation pattern for PAD-related sequences mapped onto the PAD structure reveals that the conservation mainly includes residues found within the hydrophobic core of the protein, defining a common lipocalin-like fold for this enzyme family. A narrow cleft containing several conserved amino acids was observed as a structural feature and a potential ligand-binding site.
( 2010 )
Characterization of a cryptic plasmid pPZZ84 from Bacillus pumilus.
PMID : 20620162 : DOI : 10.1016/j.plasmid.2010.06.006
The complete nucleotide sequence of a cryptic plasmid pPZZ84 from Bacillus pumilus strain ZZ84 was determined. Plasmid pPZZ84 is 6817bp long with GC content of 36.7%. Seven putative open reading frames were identified. ORF7 shows 91% and 90% amino acid identity with rep proteins of pSH1452 and pPL1, respectively, members of rolling-circle replication (RCR) pC194-family. A typical pC194-family double strand origin (dso), a single-stranded origin (sso) and rap (regulator aspartate phosphatase) proteins were also identified in the plasmid. These results imply that pPZZ84 belongs to the Bacillus subtilis species group of small rolling circle (BsSRC) replicating plasmids. The plasmid copy number of pPZZ84 in B. pumilus ZZ84 was estimated to be 46 per cell, more than that of other BsSRC plasmids in their hosts.
( 2010 )
Biochemical properties of pectate lyases produced by three different Bacillus strains isolated from fermenting cocoa beans and characterization of their cloned genes.
PMID : 20543060 : DOI : 10.1128/AEM.00705-10 PMC : PMC2916476
Pectinolytic enzymes play an important role in cocoa fermentation. In this study, we characterized three extracellular pectate lyases (Pels) produced by bacilli isolated from fermenting cocoa beans. These enzymes, named Pel-22, Pel-66, and Pel-90, were synthesized by Bacillus pumilus BS22, Bacillus subtilis BS66, and Bacillus fusiformis BS90, respectively. The three Pels were produced under their natural conditions and purified from the supernatants using a one-step chromatography method. The purified enzymes exhibited optimum activity at 60 degrees C, and the half-time of thermoinactivation at this temperature was approximately 30 min. Pel-22 had a low specific activity compared with the other two enzymes. However, it displayed high affinity for the substrate, about 2.5-fold higher than those of Pel-66 and Pel-90. The optimum pHs were 7.5 for Pel-22 and 8.0 for Pel-66 and Pel-90. The three enzymes trans-eliminated polygalacturonate in a random manner to generate two long oligogalacturonides, as well as trimers and dimers. A synergistic effect was observed between Pel-22 and Pel-66 and between Pel-22 and Pel-90, but not between Pel-90 and Pel-66. The Pels were also strongly active on highly methylated pectins (up to 60% for Pel-66 and Pel-90 and up to 75% for Pel-22). Fe(2+) was found to be a better cofactor than Ca(2+) for Pel-22 activity, while Ca(2+) was the best cofactor for Pel-66 and Pel-90. The amino acid sequences deduced from the cloned genes showed the characteristics of Pels belonging to Family 1. The pel-66 and pel-90 genes appear to be very similar, but they are different from the pel-22 gene. The characterized enzymes form two groups, Pel-66/Pel-90 and Pel-22; members of the different groups might cooperate to depolymerize pectin during the fermentation of cocoa beans.
( 2011 )
Arg??? is an essential catalytic residue of Bacillus pumilus DKS1 pectate lyase to degum ramie fibre.
PMID : 20596756 : DOI : 10.1007/s10532-010-9384-6
After 24 h of incubation with only purified pectate lyase isolated from Bacillus pumilus DKS1 (EF467045), the weight loss of the ramie fibre was found to be 25%. To know the catalytic residue of pectate lyase the pel gene encoding a pectate lyase from the strain Bacillus pumilus DKS1 was cloned in E. coli XL1Blue and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The pel gene was sequenced and showed 1032 bp length. After purification using CM-Sepharose the enzyme showed molecular weight of 35 kDa and maximal enzymatic activity was observed at 60�XC and a pH range of 8.5-9.0. Both Ca?(+) and Mn?(+) ions were required for activity on Na-pectate salt substrates, while the enzyme was strongly inhibited by Zn?(+) and EDTA. The deduced nucleotide sequence of the DKS1 pectate lyase (EU652988) showed 90% homology to pectate lyases from Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 (CP000813). The 3D structure as well as the catalytic residues was predicted using EasyPred software and Catalytic Site Atlas (CSA), respectively. Site directed mutagenesis confirmed that arginine is an essential catalytic residue of DKS1 pectate lyase.
( 2010 )
Kinetic studies of Gly28:Ser mutant form of Bacillus pumilus lipase: changes in k(cat) and thermal dependence.
PMID : 20831908 : DOI : 10.1016/j.bbapap.2010.09.001
Lipases are useful catalysts for a wide variety of industrial purposes. Herein we report the stability and thermal dependence of the activity of wild-type Bacillus pumilus lipase (BplA) and four site-directed mutants designed to improve its thermal stability. The Gly28:Ser mutation produces a dramatic four-fold increase in its k(cat) and a remarkable increase in its stability. While the increase in k(cat) is temperature-independent, the increase in stability shows that the resultant interactions of this mutation have a strong enthalpic component. Thermal dependence of stability, k(cat), K(M) and k(cat)/K(M) were analysed to gain insight on the structural effects of mutations on BplA. Our results are consistent with a gain in enzyme mobility for those mutants displaying enhanced catalytic properties; the analysis of thermal dependence of kinetic parameters indicates that the mutations did not change either the catalytic mechanism or the rate-limiting step of catalysis.
( 2010 )
A novel serine metallokeratinase from a newly isolated Bacillus pumilus A1 grown on chicken feather meal: biochemical and molecular characterization.
PMID : 20012915 : DOI : 10.1007/s12010-009-8774-x
A keratinolytic enzyme (KerA1) secreted by a newly isolated Bacillus pumilus strain A1 cultivated in medium containing chicken feather meal was purified and characterized, and the gene was isolated and sequenced. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 34,000 Da by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration. The optimum pH and temperature for the purified keratinase were 9.0 and 60 degrees C, respectively, using keratin as a substrate. KerA1 showed a high stability towards nonionic surfactants. It was found to be relatively stable toward the strong anionic surfactant (SDS). The deduced amino acid sequence of the keratinase KerA1 differs from both the organic solvent tolerant protease of B. pumilus 115b and the dehairing protease of B. pumilus UN-31-C-42 by one and nine amino acids, respectively. These results suggest that this keratinase may be a useful alternative and ecofriendly route for handling the abundant amount of waste feathers and for applications in detergent formulations.
( 2009 )
Phylogeny and molecular taxonomy of the Bacillus subtilis species complex and description of Bacillus subtilis subsp. inaquosorum subsp. nov.
PMID : 19622642 : DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.009126-0
The Bacillus subtilis species complex is a tight assemblage of closely related species. For many years, it has been recognized that these species cannot be differentiated on the basis of phenotypic characteristics. Recently, it has been shown that phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene also fails to differentiate species within the complex due to the highly conserved nature of the gene, yet DNA-DNA hybridization values fall well below 70 % for the same species comparisons. As a complementary approach, we propose that phylogenetic analysis of multiple protein-coding loci can be used as a means to detect and differentiate novel Bacillus taxa. Indeed, our phylogenetic analyses revealed the existence of a previously unknown group of strains closely related to, but distinct from, Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii. Results of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the group produces a novel surfactin-like lipopeptide with mass m/z 1120.8 that is not produced by the other currently recognized subspecies. In addition, the group displayed differences in the total cellular content of the fatty acids C(16 : 0) and iso-C(17 : 1)omega10c that distinguish it from the closely related B. subtilis subsp. spizizenii. Consequently, the correlation of these novel phenotypic traits with the phylogenetic distinctiveness of this previously unknown subspecies group showed that phylogenetic analysis of multiple protein-coding loci can be used as a means to detect and differentiate novel Bacillus taxa. Therefore, we propose that this new group should be recognized as representing a novel taxon, Bacillus subtilis subsp. inaquosorum subsp. nov., with the type strain NRRL B-23052(T) (=KCTC 13429(T)=BGSC 3A28(T)).
( 2009 )
Bioproduction of lauryl lactone and 4-vinyl guaiacol as value-added chemicals in two-phase biotransformation systems.
PMID : 19444442 : DOI : 10.1007/s00253-009-2026-4
Recombinant Escherichia coli whole-cell biocatalysts harboring either a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase or ferulic acid decarboxylase were employed in organic-aqueous two-phase bioreactor systems. The feasibility of the bioproduction of water-insoluble products, viz., lauryl lactone from cyclododecanone and 4-vinyl guaiacol from ferulic acid were examined. Using hexadecane as the organic phase, 10 approximately 16 g of lauryl lactone were produced in a 3-l bioreactor that operated in a semicontinuous mode compared to 2.4 g of product in a batch mode. For the decarboxylation of ferulic acid, a new recombinant biocatalyst, ferulic acid decarboxylase derived from Bacillus pumilus, was constructed. Selected solvents as well as other parameters for in situ recovery of vinyl guaiacol were investigated. Up to 13.8 g vinyl guaiacol (purity of 98.4%) were obtained from 25 g of ferulic acid in a 2-l working volume bioreactor by using octane as organic phase. These selected examples highlight the superiority of the two-phase biotransformations systems over the conventional batch mode.
( 2008 )
The recognition domain of the BpuJI restriction endonuclease in complex with cognate DNA at 1.3-A resolution.
PMID : 18433771 : DOI : 10.1016/j.jmb.2008.03.041
Type IIS restriction endonucleases recognize asymmetric DNA sequences and cleave both DNA strands at fixed positions downstream of the recognition site. The restriction endonuclease BpuJI recognizes the asymmetric sequence 5'-CCCGT; however, it cuts at multiple sites in the vicinity of the target sequence. BpuJI consists of two physically separate domains, with catalytic and dimerization functions in the C-terminal domain and DNA recognition functions in the N-terminal domain. Here we report the crystal structure of the BpuJI recognition domain bound to cognate DNA at 1.3-A resolution. This region folds into two winged-helix subdomains, D1 and D2, interspaced by the DL subdomain. The D1 and D2 subdomains of BpuJI share structural similarity with the similar subdomains of the FokI DNA-binding domain; however, their orientations in protein-DNA complexes are different. Recognition of the 5'-CCCGT target sequence is achieved by BpuJI through the major groove contacts of amino acid residues located on both the helix-turn-helix motifs and the N-terminal arm. The role of these interactions in DNA recognition is also corroborated by mutational analysis.
( 2008 )
Novel homologs of the multiple resistance regulator marA in antibiotic-contaminated environments.
PMID : 18771790 : DOI : 10.1016/j.watres.2008.07.004
Antibiotics are commonly detected in the environment as contaminants. Exposure to antibiotics may induce antimicrobial-resistance, as well as the horizontal transfer of resistance genes in bacterial populations. We selected the resistance gene marA, mediating resistance to multiple antibiotics, and explored its distribution in sediment and water samples from surface and sewage treatment waters. Ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin (fluoroquinolones), sulphamethoxazole (sulphonamide), erythromycin, clarythromycin, and spiramycin (macrolides), lincomycin (lincosamide), and oxytetracycline (tetracycline) were measured in the same samples to determine antibiotic contamination. Bacterial populations from environmental samples were challenged with antibiotics to identify resistant isolates. The gene marA was found in almost all environmental samples and was confirmed by PCR amplification in antibiotic-resistant colonies. 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that the majority of resistant isolates belonged to the Gram-positive genus Bacillus, not previously known to possess the regulator marA. We assayed the incidence of marA in environmental bacterial populations of Escherichia coli and Bacillus by quantitative real-time PCR in correlation with the levels of antibiotics. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the possible lateral acquisition of marA by Bacillus from Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae revealing a novel marA homolog in Bacillus. Quantitative PCR assays indicate that the frequency of this gene in antropised environments seems to be related to bacterial exposure to water-borne antibiotics.
( 2008 )
Purification and characterization of an extracellular alpha-L-arabinosidase from a novel isolate Bacillus pumilus ARA and its over-expression in Escherichia coli.
PMID : 18071642 : DOI : 10.1007/s00253-007-1295-z
The alpha-L-arabinosidase, AraB, was induced when Bacillus pumilus ARA was grown at 50 degrees C in a minimal medium containing xylan. A 56-kDa protein with alpha-L-arabinosidase activity was purified from culture supernatant to gel electrophoretic homogeneity. The optimal activity was at pH 6.4 and 60 degrees C over a 10-min assay. The purified enzyme was stable over a pH range of 5.2-7.6 and had a 1-h half life at 70 degrees C. The enzyme released arabinose from oat spelt xylan. Kinetic experiments at 60 degrees C with p-nitrophenyl alpha-L-arabinofuranoside as substrate gave a K (m), and V (max) of 1.05 mM and 240 U per mg of protein. The NH(2)-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme was determined, and its gene araB was subsequently cloned, sequenced, and over-expressed in Escherichia coli. The open reading frame of araB consists of a 1,479-bp fragment encoding a protein of 472 amino acids, which belonged to family 51 of the glycoside hydrolases with an identity of 67% to the protein encoded by abfB of Bacillus subtilis 168.
( 2007 )
Toxinogenic Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis from mastitic milk.
PMID : 17611049 : DOI : 10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.05.015
To elucidate the occurrence of heat-stable toxin-producing strains among mastitic Bacillus isolates, 100 milk samples of mastitic cows from different parts of Finland were screened. Bacillus was identified as the major organism in 23 samples. Toxinogenic Bacillus isolates identified by sperm cell motility inhibition assay were isolated from six samples. Four isolates belonged to the species Bacillus pumilus and two to Bacillus licheniformis. The toxic substances were heat-stable and soluble to methanol thus being of non-protein nature. The methanol extracted substances disrupted the sperm cell plasma membrane permeability barrier at exposure concentrations of 1-15 microg ml(-1) (B. pumilus) or 20-30 microg ml(-1) (B. licheniformis). The toxic properties of the two mastitic B. licheniformis strains were similar to those of B. licheniformis strains known to produce the lipopeptide lichenysin A and the synthetase genes lchAA, lchAB and lchAC for lichenysin were found in the mastitic strains by PCR. Toxin synthetase genes for the syntheses of lichenysin or surfactin were searched but not found in the toxic B. pumilus strains. The ribopatterns of the mastitic B. pumilus and B. licheniformis isolates were similar to those of the toxinogenic strains described earlier from food poisoning incidents and contaminated indoor air. B. licheniformis and B. pumilus survive pasteurization and other heat treatments as spores. Toxin-producing strains of these species in the dairy production chain may thus be of food safety concern.
( 2007 )
Molecular subtyping and characterization of psychrotolerant endospore-forming bacteria in two New York State fluid milk processing systems.
PMID : 17969618 : DOI : 10.4315/0362-028x-70.10.2354
Psychrotolerant endospore-forming bacteria Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp. are important spoilage organisms in fluid milk. A recently developed rpoB subtyping method was applied to characterize the diversity and phylogenetic relationships among Bacillus and related sporeformers associated with milk processing systems. Milk samples representing the processing continuum from raw milk to pasteurized products were collected from two fluid milk processing plants, held at 6 degrees C up to the code date that had been established by each processing plant (i.e., either 18 or 21 days), and plated for bacterial enumeration throughout storage. Bacterial colonies selected to represent the visible diversity in colony morphology on enumeration plates were examined further. Among 385 bacterial isolates characterized, 35% were Bacillus spp., and 65% were Paenibacillus spp. A total of 92 rpoB allelic types were identified among these isolates, indicating considerable diversity among endospore-forming spoilage organisms present in fluid milk systems. Of the 92 allelic types identified, 19 were isolated from samples collected from both processing plants. The same rpoB allelic types were frequently identified in paired raw milk and packaged product samples, indicating that Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp. can enter dairy processing systems through raw milk. Certain subtypes were found exclusively in pasteurized samples, including those that were temporally independent, suggesting the possibility of in-plant sources for these spoilage organisms, including through the persistence of selected subtypes in processing plants. Development of effective control strategies for the diverse array of psychrotolerant endospore-forming organisms that currently limit the shelf lives of high-temperature short-time fluid milk products will require comprehensive, integrated efforts along the entire milk processing continuum.
( 1991 )
Complex between the subtilisin from a mesophilic bacterium and the leech inhibitor eglin-C.
PMID : 1793542 : DOI : 10.1107/s0108768191004202
The alkaline proteinase from the mesophilic bacterium Bacillus mesentericus has been crystallized in a 1:1 complex with the inhibitor eglin-C from the medical leech. The crystals have cell dimensions of a = 43.0, b = 71.9, c = 48.3 A and beta = 110.0 degrees and are in the space group P2(1). Three-dimensional data to 2.0 A have been recorded on film from a single crystal. The orientation and position of the complex in the unit cell have been established using the refined coordinates of subtilisin Carlsberg and of eglin-C as independent models. The structure of the complex has been refined by restrained least-squares minimization. The crystallographic R factor (= sigma[magnitude of Fo - magnitude of Fc[/sigma magnitude of Fo) is 15.1% including two Ca2+ ions and 312 water molecules. The structure is discussed in terms of its physicochemical properties in solution and its relation to other Bacillus subtilisins.
( 2007 )
Bacillus pumilus SG2 isolated from saline conditions produces and secretes two chitinases.
PMID : 17897213 : DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2007.03340.x
Isolation and characterization of chitinases from a halotolerant Bacillus pumilus. Bacillus pumilus strain SG2 was isolated from saline conditions. It is able to produce chitinase activity at high salt concentration. SDS-PAGE analysis of the B. pumilus SG2 culture supernatant showed two major bands that were induced by chitin. The amino acid sequence of the two proteins, designated ChiS and ChiL, showed a high homology with the chitinase of B. subtilis CHU26, and chitinase A of B. licheniformis, respectively. N-terminal signal peptide of both proteins was also determined. The molecular weight and isoelectric point of the chitinases were determined to be 63 and 74 kDa, and 4.5 and 5.1, for ChiS and ChiL respectively. The genes encoding for both chitinases were isolated and their sequence determined. The regulation of the chitinase genes is under the control of the catabolite repression system. Secreted chitinase genes and their flanking region on the genome of B. pumilus SG2 have been identified and sequenced. This is the first report of a multiple chitinases-producing B. pumilus halotolerant strain. We have identified two chitinases by using a reverse genetics approach. The chitinases show resistance to salt.
( 2017 )
A functional endonuclease Q exists in the bacterial domain: identification and characterization of endonuclease Q from Bacillus pumilus.
PMID : 28095753 : DOI : 10.1080/09168451.2016.1277946
DNA base deamination occurs spontaneously under physiological conditions and is promoted by high temperature. Therefore, hyperthermophiles are expected to have efficient repair systems of the deaminated bases in their genomes. Endonuclease Q (EndoQ) was originally identified from the hyperthermophlic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, as a hypoxanthine-specific endonuclease recently. Further biochemical analyses revealed that EndoQ also recognizes uracil, xanthine, and the AP site in DNA, and is probably involved in a specific repair process for damaged bases. Initial phylogenetic analysis showed that an EndoQ homolog is found only in the Thermococcales and some of the methanogens in Archaea, and is not present in most members of the domains Bacteria and Eukarya. A better understanding of the distribution of the EndoQ-mediated repair system is, therefore, of evolutionary interest. We showed here that an EndoQ-like polypeptide from Bacillus pumilus, belonging to the bacterial domain, is functional and has similar properties with the archaeal EndoQs.
( 2017 )
A report on extensive lateral genetic reciprocation between arsenic resistant Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus strains analyzed using RAPD-PCR.
PMID : 27956257 : DOI : 10.1016/j.ympev.2016.12.010
The study involves isolation of arsenic resistant bacteria from soil samples. The characterization of bacteria isolates was based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The phylogenetic consanguinity among isolates was studied employing rpoB and gltX gene sequence. RAPD-PCR technique was used to analyze genetic similarity between arsenic resistant isolates. In accordance with the results Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus strains may exhibit extensive horizontal gene transfer. Arsenic resistant potency in Bacillus sonorensis and high arsenite tolerance in Bacillus pumilus strains was identified. The RAPD-PCR primer OPO-02 amplified a 0.5kb DNA band specific to B. pumilus 3ZZZ strain and 0.75kb DNA band specific to B. subtilis 3PP. These unique DNA bands may have potential use as SCAR (Sequenced Characterized Amplified Region) molecular markers for identification of arsenic resistant B. pumilus and B. subtilis strains.
( 2016 )
Structural insight into DNA-assembled oligochromophores: crystallographic analysis of pyrene- and phenanthrene-modified DNA in complex with BpuJI endonuclease.
PMID : 27422870 : DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkw644 PMC : PMC5009758
The use of the DNA duplex as a supramolecular scaffold is an established approach for the assembly of chromophore aggregates. In the absence of detailed structural insight, the characterization of thus assembled oligochromophores is, today, largely based on solution-phase spectroscopy. Here, we describe the crystal structures of three DNA-organized chromophore aggregates. DNA hybrids containing non-nucleosidic pyrene and phenanthrene building blocks were co-crystallized with the recently described binding domain of the restriction enzyme BpuJI. Crystal structures of these complexes were determined at 2.7, 1.9 and 1.6 ? resolutions. The structures reveal aromatic stacking interactions between pyrene and/or phenanthrene units within the framework of the B-DNA duplex. In hybrids containing a single modification in each DNA strand near the end of the duplex, the two polyaromatic hydrocarbons are engaged in a face-to-face stacking orientation. Due to crystal packing and steric effects, the terminal GC base pair is disrupted in all three crystal structures, which results in a non-perfect stacking arrangement of the aromatic chromophores in two of the structures. In a hybrid containing a total of three pyrenes, crystal lattice induced end-to-end stacking of individual DNA duplexes leads to the formation of an extended aromatic �k-stack containing four co-axially arranged pyrenes. The aromatic planes of the stacked pyrenes are oriented in a parallel way. The study demonstrates the value of co-crystallization of chemically modified DNA with the recombinant binding domain of the restriction enzyme BpuJI for obtaining detailed structural insight into DNA-assembled oligochromophores.
( 2016 )
An Alkaline Protease from Bacillus pumilus MP 27: Functional Analysis of Its Binding Model toward Its Applications As Detergent Additive.
PMID : 27536284 : DOI : 10.3389/fmicb.2016.01195 PMC : PMC4971029
A proteolytic strain of Bacillus pumilus MP 27 was isolated from water samples of Southern ocean produced alkaline protease. Since protease production need expensive ingredients, an economically viable process was developed by using low cost carbon source, wheat straw, supplemented with peptone. This protease was active within temperature ranges 10-70�XC at pH 9. This process was optimized by response surface methodology using a Box Bekhman design by Design Expert 7.0 software that increased the protease activity to 776.5 U/ml. Moreover, the enzyme was extremely stable at a broad range of temperature and pH retaining 69% of its activity at 50�XC and 70% at pH 11. The enzyme exhibited excellent compatibility with surfactants and commercial detergents, showing 87% stability with triton X-100 and 100% stability with Tide commercial detergent. The results of the wash performance analysis demonstrated considerably good de-staining at 50 and 4�XC with low supplementation (109 U/ml). Molecular modeling of the protease revealed the presence of serine proteases, subtilase family and serine active site and further docking supported the association of catalytic site with the various substrates. Certainly, such protease can be considered as a good detergent additive in detergent industry with a possibility to remove the stains effectively even in a cold wash.
( 2016 )
Heterologous expression and characterization of a new heme-catalase in Bacillus subtilis 168.
PMID : 27016935 : DOI : 10.1007/s10295-016-1758-2
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an inherent consequence to all aerobically living organisms that might lead to the cells being lethal and susceptible to oxidative stress. Bacillus pumilus is characterized by high-resistance oxidative stress that stimulated our interest to investigate the heterologous expression and characterization of heme-catalase as potential biocatalyst. Results indicated that recombinant enzyme significantly exhibited the high catalytic activity of 55,784 U/mg expressed in Bacillus subtilis 168 and 98.097 ?mol/min/mg peroxidatic activity, the apparent K m of catalytic activity was 59.6 �� 13 mM with higher turnover rate (K cat = 322.651 �� 10(3) s(-1)). The pH dependence of catalatic and peroxidatic activity was pH 7.0 and pH 4.5 respectively with temperature dependence of 40 �XC and the recombinant heme-catalase exhibited a strong Fe(2+) preference. It was further revealed that catalase KatX2 improved the resistance oxidative stress of B. subtilis. These findings suggest that this B. pumilus heme-catalase can be considered among the industrially relevant biocatalysts due to its exceptional catalytic rate and high stability and it can be a potential candidate for the improvement of oxidative resistance of industrially produced strains.
( 2016 )
Identification of two new keratinolytic proteases from a Bacillus pumilus strain using protein analysis and gene sequencing.
PMID : 27363997 : DOI : 10.1186/s13568-016-0213-0 PMC : PMC4929112
The Bacillus strain (CCUG 66887) has a high capacity to excrete keratinase with the ability to degrade both alpha- and beta keratin. In this study we aimed to show the characteristics of the keratinolytic protease and to identify its gene by using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry methods (nanoHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) followed by Mascot data base search. The results showed that the enzyme in fact consists of two different keratinases, both with a molecular mass of 38 kDa. Further, DNA sequencing generated the open reading frame (ORF) of one of the genes (Ker1), and de novo genome sequencing identified the ORF of the second gene (Ker2). The two keratinase genes contain 1153 base pairs each and have a gene similarity of 67 %. In addition, the Bacillus strain was classified as Bacillus pumilus and its genes were annotated in the GeneBank at NCBI (accession: CP011109.1). Amino acid sequences alignment with known B. pumilus proteases indicated that the two keratinases of B. pumilus strain C4 are subtilisin-like serine proteases belonging to the Protease S8 family. Taken together, these result suggest the two keratinases as promising candidates for enzymatic processing of keratinous wastes in waste refinery.
( 2015 )
The Kolumbo submarine volcano of Santorini island is a large pool of bacterial strains with antimicrobial activity.
PMID : 25627249 : DOI : 10.1007/s00203-015-1086-3
Microbes in hydrothermal vents with their unique secondary metabolism may represent an untapped potential source of new natural products. In this study, samples were collected from the hydrothermal field of Kolumbo submarine volcano in the Aegean Sea, in order to isolate bacteria with antimicrobial activity. Eight hundred and thirty-two aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were isolated and then differentiated through BOX-PCR analysis at the strain level into 230 genomic fingerprints, which were screened against 13 different type strains (pathogenic and nonpathogenic) of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Forty-two out of 176 bioactive-producing genotypes (76 %) exhibited antimicrobial activity against at least four different type strains and were selected for 16S rDNA sequencing and screening for nonribosomal peptide (NRPS) and polyketide (PKS) synthases genes. The isolates were assigned to genus Bacillus and Proteobacteria, and 20 strains harbored either NRPS, PKS type I or both genes. This is the first report on the diversity of culturable mesophilic bacteria associated with antimicrobial activity from Kolumbo area; the extremely high proportion of antimicrobial-producing strains suggested that this unique environment may represent a potential reservoir of novel bioactive compounds.
( 2015 )
Unprecedented access of phenolic substrates to the heme active site of a catalase: substrate binding and peroxidase-like reactivity of Bacillus pumilus catalase monitored by X-ray crystallography and EPR spectroscopy.
PMID : 25663126 : DOI : 10.1002/prot.24777
Heme-containing catalases and catalase-peroxidases catalyze the dismutation of hydrogen peroxide as their predominant catalytic activity, but in addition, individual enzymes support low levels of peroxidase and oxidase activities, produce superoxide, and activate isoniazid as an antitubercular drug. The recent report of a heme enzyme with catalase, peroxidase and penicillin oxidase activities in Bacillus pumilus and its categorization as an unusual catalase-peroxidase led us to investigate the enzyme for comparison with other catalase-peroxidases, catalases, and peroxidases. Characterization revealed a typical homotetrameric catalase with one pentacoordinated heme b per subunit (Tyr340 being the axial ligand), albeit in two orientations, and a very fast catalatic turnover rate (kcat = 339,000 s(-1)). In addition, the enzyme supported a much slower (kcat = 20 s(-1)) peroxidatic activity utilizing substrates as diverse as ABTS and polyphenols, but no oxidase activity. Two binding sites, one in the main access channel and the other on the protein surface, accommodating pyrogallol, catechol, resorcinol, guaiacol, hydroquinone, and 2-chlorophenol were identified in crystal structures at 1.65-1.95 ?. A third site, in the heme distal side, accommodating only pyrogallol and catechol, interacting with the heme iron and the catalytic His and Arg residues, was also identified. This site was confirmed in solution by EPR spectroscopy characterization, which also showed that the phenolic oxygen was not directly coordinated to the heme iron (no low-spin conversion of the Fe(III) high-spin EPR signal upon substrate binding). This is the first demonstration of phenolic substrates directly accessing the heme distal side of a catalase.
( 2015 )
A novel intracellular nitrogen-fixing symbiosis made by Ustilago maydis and Bacillus spp.
PMID : 25754368 : DOI : 10.1111/nph.13359
We observed that the maize pathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis grew in nitrogen (N)-free media at a rate similar to that observed in media containing ammonium nitrate, suggesting that it was able to fix atmospheric N2 . Because only prokaryotic organisms have the capacity to reduce N2 , we entertained the possibility that U. maydis was associated with an intracellular bacterium. The presence of nitrogenase in the fungus was analyzed by acetylene reduction, and capacity to fix N2 by use of (15) N2 . Presence of an intracellular N2 -fixing bacterium was analyzed by PCR amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA and nifH genes, and by microscopic observations. Nitrogenase activity and (15) N incorporation into the cells proved that U. maydis fixed N2 . Light and electron microscopy, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments revealed the presence of intracellular bacteria related to Bacillus pumilus, as evidenced by sequencing of the PCR-amplified fragments. These observations reveal for the first time the existence of an endosymbiotic N2 -fixing association involving a fungus and a bacterium.
( 2014 )
Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus MTCC B6033.
PMID : 24744340 : DOI : 10.1128/genomeA.00327-14 PMC : PMC3990756
Bacillus pumilus is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium isolated from the soil. B. pumilus strain B6033 was originally selected as a biocatalyst for the stereospecific oxidation of �]-lactams. Here, we present a 3.8-Mb assembly of its genome, which is the second fully assembled genome of a B. pumilus strain.
( 2014 )
An alkali-thermostable xylanase from Bacillus pumilus functionally expressed in Kluyveromyces lactis and evaluation of its deinking efficiency.
PMID : 24709528 : DOI : 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.03.037
This work aimed at studying the recombinant expression of an alkali- and thermo-stable xylanase from Bacillus pumilus in Kluyveromyces lactis and its use in deinking of civic paper waste. Efficient expression with a 3-fold increase in the activity than the native organism was achieved. An inducer concentration of 2.5% and medium pH of 9.0 was the best for enzyme expression. Purified enzyme showed an optimum activity at temperatures 50 and 60�XC and pH 9.0 and 10.0, respectively. At pH 12.0, enzyme retained 74% and 26% activity after 2 and 3h of incubation, respectively. After incubation at 50 and 60�XC for 1h, the enzyme showed 100% retention of activity, and remained active for 4h at 60�XC retaining 23% residual activity. Partially purified recombinant enzyme showed higher deinking efficiency (273%) of laser print waste paper than crude xylanase from Bacillus and commercial acidic enzyme. This xylanase with superior stability characteristics could be a suitable candidate in paper and pulp industries.
( 2014 )
Characterization and a point mutational approach of a psychrophilic lipase from an arctic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus.
PMID : 24563306 : DOI : 10.1007/s10529-014-1475-8
A bacterium with lipolytic activity was isolated from the Chukchi Sea within the Arctic Ocean. The lipase BpL5 from the isolate, Bacillus pumilus ArcL5, belongs to subfamily 4 of lipase family I. The optimum pH and temperature of the recombinant enzyme BpL5, as expressed in Escherichia coli, were 9.0 and 20 �XC, respectively. The enzyme retained 85 % of its activity at 5 �XC. There was a significant difference between temperatures for maximal activity (20 �XC) and for protein denaturation (approx. 45 �XC). The enzyme preferred middle-chain (C8) p-nitrophenyl substrates. Two mutants, S139A and S139Y, were rationally designed based on the 3D-structure model, and their activities were compared with that of the wild type. The both mutants showed significantly improved activity against tricaprylin.
Cabrera Crespo J,
( 1987 )
Structure and expression of genes coding for xylan-degrading enzymes of Bacillus pumilus.
PMID : 2440680 : DOI : 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1987.tb13547.x
The complete nucleotide sequence of the beta-xylosidase gene (xynB) of Bacillus pumilus IPO and its flanking regions was established. A 1617-bp open reading frame for beta-xylosidase, a homodimer enzyme, was observed. The amino acid sequence of the N-terminal region and the molecular mass 62607 Da) of the beta-xylosidase subunit, deduced from the DNA sequence, agreed with the result obtained with the purified enzyme. The Shine-Dalgarno sequence was found 8 bp upstream of the initiation codon, ATG. The xylanase gene (xynA) of the same strain was 4.6 kbp downstream of the 3' end of xynB, and its DNA sequence was reported in our previous paper [Fukusaki, E., Panbangred, W., Shinmyo, A. & Okada, H. (1984) FEBS Lett. 171, 197-201]. The results of the Northern hybridization suggested that the mRNA of xynA and xynB were produced separately. The 5' and 3' ends of the xynA and xynB gene were mapped with nuclease S1. The '-10' regions for promoter sequences of both genes were similar to the consensus sequence for B. subtilis RNA polymerases, the '-35' regions were different from all the known promoters for B. subtilis RNA polymerases.
( 2013 )
Phylogenetic diversity of the Bacillus pumilus group and the marine ecotype revealed by multilocus sequence analysis.
PMID : 24244618 : DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0080097 PMC : PMC3823796
Bacteria closely related to Bacillus pumilus cannot be distinguished from such other species as B. safensis, B. stratosphericus, B. altitudinis and B. aerophilus simply by 16S rRNA gene sequence. In this report, 76 marine strains were subjected to phylogenetic analysis based on 7 housekeeping genes to understand the phylogeny and biogeography in comparison with other origins. A phylogenetic tree based on the 7 housekeeping genes concatenated in the order of gyrB-rpoB-pycA-pyrE-mutL-aroE-trpB was constructed and compared with trees based on the single genes. All these trees exhibited a similar topology structure with small variations. Our 79 strains were divided into 6 groups from A to F; Group A was the largest and contained 49 strains close to B. altitudinis. Additional two large groups were presented by B. safensis and B. pumilus respectively. Among the housekeeping genes, gyrB and pyrE showed comparatively better resolution power and may serve as molecular markers to distinguish these closely related strains. Furthermore, a recombinant phylogenetic tree based on the gyrB gene and containing 73 terrestrial and our isolates was constructed to detect the relationship between marine and other sources. The tree clearly showed that the bacteria of marine origin were clustered together in all the large groups. In contrast, the cluster belonging to B. safensis was mainly composed of bacteria of terrestrial origin. Interestingly, nearly all the marine isolates were at the top of the tree, indicating the possibility of the recent divergence of this bacterial group in marine environments. We conclude that B. altitudinis bacteria are the most widely spread of the B. pumilus group in marine environments. In summary, this report provides the first evidence regarding the systematic evolution of this bacterial group, and knowledge of their phylogenetic diversity will help in the understanding of their ecological role and distribution in marine environments.
( 1985 )
Chloramphenicol-induced translation of cat-86 mRNA requires two cis-acting regulatory regions.
PMID : 2414270 : PMC : PMC214308
Sequences essential to the chloramphenicol-inducible expression of cat-86, a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene, reside in a 144-base pair (bp) regulatory region that intervenes between the cat-86 coding sequence and its promoter. A key regulatory element within the 144-bp segment consists of a pair of inverted-repeat sequences that immediately precede the cat-86 coding region and span the ribosome-binding site for the gene. Because of the location of the inverted repeats, cat-86 transcripts are predicted to sequester the ribosome-binding site in a stable RNA stem-loop structure which should block translation of cat-86 mRNA. Chloramphenicol induction of gene expression is believed to result from ribosome-mediated destabilization of the RNA stem-loop structure, which frees the cat-86 ribosome-binding site, thereby allowing translation. In this study we demonstrated that deletion of 85 bp from the 5' end of the 144-bp regulatory region abolishes inducible expression of cat-86, although the gene is transcribed. This deletion leaves intact both the inverted repeats and the cat-86 coding sequence, and the deletion mutation is not complementable. Therefore, inducible regulation of cat-86 requires the inverted repeats plus an upstream, cis-acting regulatory region. The cis-acting region is believed to control translation of cat-86 mRNA by its essential participation in chloramphenicol-induced opening of the RNA stem-loop. cat-86 deleted for the 85-bp regulatory region and therefore virtually unexpressed was used to select for mutations that restore expression to the gene. An analysis of one mutant plasmid showed that the cat-86 gene is constitutively expressed and that this results from a duplication of the DNA sequence that spans the ribosome-binding site. The duplication provides cat-86 with two ribosome-binding sites. One of these sites is predicted to be sequestered in an RNA stem-loop, and the other is not involved in RNA secondary structure.
( 2012 )
�^-Glutamyl transpeptidase from Bacillus pumilus KS 12: decoupling autoprocessing from catalysis and molecular characterization of N-terminal region.
PMID : 22305170 : DOI : 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2011.08.005
Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase from Bacillus pumilus KS12 (GGTBP) was cloned, expressed in pET-28-E. coli expression system as a heterodimeric enzyme with molecular weights of 45 and 20 kDa for large and small subunit, respectively. It was purified by nickel affinity chromatography with hydrolytic and transpeptidase activity of 1.82 U/mg and 4.35 U/mg, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that GGTBP was most closely related to Bacillus licheniformis GGT and had all the catalytic residues and nucleophiles for autoprocessing recognized from E. coli. It was optimally active at pH 8 and 60�XC. It exhibited pH stability from pH 6-9 and high thermostability with t(1/2) of 15 min at 70�XC. It had K(m), V(max) of 0.045 mM, 4.35 �gmol/mg/min, respectively. Decoupling of autoprocessing by co-expressing large and small subunit in pET-Duet1-E. coli expression system yielded active enzyme with transpeptidase activity of 5.31 U/mg. Though N-terminal truncations of rGGTBP upto 95 aa did not affect autoprocessing of GGT however activity was lost with truncation beyond 63 aa.
( 2012 )
Evidence for two putative holin-like peptides encoding genes of Bacillus pumilus strain WAPB4.
PMID : 22231453 : DOI : 10.1007/s00284-011-0074-3
An open reading frame encoding a 71-amino acid BhlA bacteriocin-related holin-like peptide was present upstream of 86-amino acid holin-like peptide, xhlB, encoding gene in the genome of Bacillus pumilus strain WAPB4. Analysis of BhlA using TMHMM server suggested one putative transmembrane domain at the N-terminal part and a number of highly charged amino acid residues at the C-terminal part. XhlB of B. pumilus strain WAPB4 composed of two putative transmembrane domains separated by a �]-turn, and numerous charged residues in the C-terminus. The dual start motifs were found in both BhlA and XhlB. Structural analysis of their sequence revealed features characteristic for holin. To analyze the effect of BhlA on bacteria cell, its ORF was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Expression of holin-like peptide, BhlA, was found to be toxic to the host cell. The site of action of BhlA is on the cell membrane and caused bacterial death by cell membrane disruption as clearly demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy or TEM.
( 1990 )
The structure of the trpE, trpD and 5' trpC genes of Bacillus pumilus.
PMID : 2227447 : DOI : 10.1016/0378-1119(90)90483-8
( 1977 )
Host function specified by Bacillus pumilus plasmid pPL7065.
PMID : 907334 : DOI : 10.1128/aac.12.3.435 PMC : PMC429933
Plasmid pPL7065 (approximately 4.7 x 10(6) daltons; approximately 20 copies per chromosome) determines the production of, and immunity or resistance to, a killing activity in strains of Bacillus pumilus. Plasmid pPL7065 is compatible with plasmid pPL576 (approximately 28 x 10(6) daltons; approximately 2 copies per chromosome).
( 1997 )
Cloning of the Bacillus pumilus beta-xylosidase gene (xynB) and its expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PMID : 9114518 :
A genomic DNA library of the bacterium Bacillus pumilus PLS was constructed and the beta-xylosidase gene (xynB) was amplified from a 3-kb genomic DNA fragment with the aid of the polymerase chain reaction technique. The amplified xynB gene was inserted between the yeast alcohol dehydrogenase II gene promoter (ADH2P) and terminator (ADH2T) sequences on a multicopy episomal plasmid (pDLG11). The xynB gene was also fused in-frame to the secretion signal sequence of the yeast mating pheromone alpha-factor (MF alpha 1S) before insertion between the ADH2P and ADH2T sequences on a similar multicopy episomal plasmid (pDLG12). The resulting construct ADH2P-MF alpha 1S-xynB-ADH2T was designated XLO1. Both plasmids pDLG11 and PDLG12 were introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae but only the expression of the XLO1 gene yielded biologically functional beta-xylosidase. The total beta-xylosidase activity remained cell-associated with a maximum activity of 0.09 nkat/ml obtained when the recombinant S. cerevisiae strain was grown for 143 h in synthetic medium. The temperature and pH optima of the recombinant Xlo1 enzyme were 45-50 degrees C and pH 6.6 respectively. The enzyme was thermostable at 45 degrees C; however, at 60 degrees C most of the Xlo1 was inactive after 5 min.
( 1996 )
A new enzyme superfamily - the phosphopantetheinyl transferases.
PMID : 8939709 :
All polyketide synthases, fatty acid synthases, and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases require posttranslational modification of their constituent acyl carrier protein domain(s) to become catalytically active. The inactive apoproteins are converted to their active holo-forms by posttranslational transfer of the 4'-phosphopantetheinyl (P-pant) moiety of coenzyme A to the sidechain hydroxyl of a conserved serine residue in each acyl carrier protein domain. The first P-pant transferase to be cloned and characterized was the recently reported Escherichia coli enzyme ACPS, responsible for apo to holo conversion of fatty acid synthase. Surprisingly, initial searches of sequence databases did not reveal any proteins with significant peptide sequence similarity with ACPS. Through refinement of sequence alignments that indicated low level similarity with the ACPS peptide sequence, we identified two consensus motifs shared among several potential ACPS homologs. This has led to the identification of a large family of proteins having 12-22 % similarity with ACPS, which are putative P-pant transferases. Three of these proteins, E. coli EntD and o195, and B. subtilis Sfp, have been overproduced, purified and found to have P-pant transferase activity, confirming that the observed low level of sequence homology correctly predicted catalytic function. Three P-pant transferases are now known to be present in E. coli (ACPS, EntD and o195); ACPS and EntD are specific for the activation of fatty acid synthase and enterobactin synthetase, respectively. The apo-protein substrate for o195 has not yet been identified. Sfp is responsible for the activation of the surfactin synthetase. The specificity of ACPS and EntD for distinct P-pant-requiring enzymes suggests that each P-pant-requiring synthase has its own partner enzyme responsible for apo to holo activation of its acyl carrier domains. This is the first direct evidence that in organisms containing multiple P-pant-requiring pathways, each pathway has its own posttranslational modifying activity.
( 1995 )
Review: biocatalytic transformations of ferulic acid: an abundant aromatic natural product.
PMID : 8821508 :
In this review we examine the fascinating array of microbial and enzymatic transformations of ferulic acid. Ferulic acid is an extremely abundant, preformed phenolic aromatic chemical found widely in nature. Ferulic acid is viewed as a commodity scale, renewable chemical feedstock for biocatalytic conversion to other useful aromatic chemicals. Most attention is focused on bioconversions of ferulic acid itself. Topics covered include cinnamoyl side-chain cleavage; nonoxidative decarboxylation; mechanistic details of styrene formation; purification and characterization of ferulic acid decarboxylase; conversion of ferulic acid to vanillin; O-demethylation; and reduction reactions. Biotransformations of vinylguaiacol are discussed, and selected biotransformations of vanillic acid including oxidative and nonoxidative decarboxylation are surveyed. Finally, enzymatic oxidative dimerization and polymerization reactions are reviewed.
( 1995 )
Cloning, sequencing, and expression in Escherichia coli of the Bacillus pumilus gene for ferulic acid decarboxylase.
PMID : 8534115 : PMC : PMC167759
The Bacillus pumilus gene encoding a ferulic acid decarboxylase (fdc) was identified and isolated by its ability to promote ferulic acid decarboxylation in Escherichia coli DH5 alpha. The DNA sequence of the fdc gene was determined, and the recombinant enzyme produced in E. coli was purified and characterized.
( 1976 )
Bacillus pumilus plasmid pPL10: properties and insertion into Bacillus subtilis 168 by transformation.
PMID : 821919 : PMC : PMC232989
Bacillus pumilus ATCC 12140 harbors 10 or more copies per chromosome of each two small plasmids. Variants of this strain were isolated which were sensitive to a killing activity produced by the plasmid-containing parent. Each of 24 such sensitive (S) variants tested lacked detectable levels of supercoiled deoxyribonucleic acid. Transduction of S variants to the Kill+ phenotype was performed using phage PBP1 propagated on a mutant of ATCC 12140, designated strain L10, that remained Kill+ but retained only a single plasmid species (plasmid pPL10; molecular weight, approximately 4.4 X 10(6), approximately 20 copies per chromosome; RHO = 1.698). Resulting Kill+ transductants of S variants contained a single plasmid species having a size and copy number comparable to that of pPL10. Transfer of pPL10 from strain L10 TO B. pumilus strain NRS 576 was accomplished by transduction with selection for the Kill+ phenotype. Strain NRS 576 naturally harbors about two copies per chromosome of a 28-million-dalton plasmid, pPL576. In Kill + transductants of NRS 576, plasmids pPL10 and pPL576 stably coexisted at a ratio of about 11 molecules of pPL10 to 1 molecule of pPL576. Therefore, pPL576 and pPL10 are compatible plasmids. B. subtilis 168 is naturally resistant to pPl10- determined killing activity. Plasmid pPl10 was therefore inserted into B-subtilis 168 by transformation, using an indirect selection procedure and a spoB mutant as recipient. The plasmid is stably maintained at an estimated 10 copies per chromosome in the spore- recipient and in spore+ transformants. pPL10 is sensitive to cleavage by the endonucleases Hind III and EcoR1.
( 1995 )
Phosphate regulation of biosynthesis of extracellular RNases of endospore-forming bacteria.
PMID : 8001670 : DOI : 10.1016/0014-5793(94)01316-s
The gene for the extracellular ribonuclease of B. pumilus KMM62 (RNase Bp) has been cloned and sequenced. The structural gene for this enzyme is similar to those of the extracellular ribonucleases of B. intermedius 7P (binase) and B. amyloliquefaciens H2 (barnase), as are the regulatory regions of binase and RNase Bp. The regulatory region of the barnase gene, however, is quite different from the other two. In the promoter of the genes for binase and RNase Bp, but not in that for barnase, is a region similar to the Pho box of E. coli. We have established that inorganic phosphate suppresses the synthesis of the binase and RNase Bp, but does not effect the synthesis of barnase.
( 1994 )
Characterization of spo0A homologues in diverse Bacillus and Clostridium species identifies a probable DNA-binding domain.
PMID : 7885226 : DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2958.1994.tb02176.x
Spo0A is a phosphorylation-activated transcription factor of Bacillus subtilis. It is a member of the response regulator superfamily of bacterial signal transduction proteins and controls many of the changes in gene expression that occur during the transition into stationary phase and during the initiation of sporulation. To identify the domains of Spo0A most critical for determining its structural and functional features, presumptive homologues of the spo0A gene were characterized in a collection of eight Bacillus species and six Clostridium species representing phylogenetically diverse members of these genera. An alignment of the partial or complete DNA sequences of these homologues revealed three regions of especially high conservation in the effector domain. We speculate that the most highly conserved of these corresponds to the recognition helix of a putative helix-turn-helix motif, and, therefore, represents the actual DNA-containing surface of the protein. In the case of homologues identified in Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium acetobutylicum and retrieved by polymerase chain reaction amplification, we confirmed by gene-disruption analysis that the homologue actually is required for initiation of sporulation. Apparent homologues of the B. subtilis spoIVB gene were also discovered immediately upstream from the spo0A homologues in all Bacillus and Clostridium species examined. The discovery of homologues of B. subtilis sporulation genes in these diverse species implies that the gene products required for specifying pathways of sporulation-specific gene activation and for determining key morphogenetic changes may be highly conserved and suggests that an approach similar to that undertaken here might be used as a general strategy to retrieve and compare their gene sequences. Exhaustive efforts to detect a spo0A-like gene in non-endospore formers, including close relatives of Bacillus such as Listeria and Staphylococcus, were uniformly unsuccessful, suggesting that regulation of gene activity during the transition into stationary phase mediated by Spo0A-like proteins may be exclusive to the endospore-forming bacteria.
( 1995 )
The mtrB gene of Bacillus pumilus encodes a protein with sequence and functional homology to the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) of Bacillus subtilis.
PMID : 7836324 : DOI : 10.1128/jb.177.3.839-842.1995 PMC : PMC176668
The mtrB gene from Bacillus pumilus encodes a 76-amino-acid polypeptide with 77% identity to the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) from Bacillus subtilis. B. pumilus TRAP binds trp leader RNA from either B. subtilis or B. pumilus in a tryptophan-dependent manner. Altering threonine 52 to alanine eliminated RNA-binding activity of B. pumilus TRAP.
Polverino De Laureto P,
( 1995 )
Purification and characterization of ferulate and p-coumarate decarboxylase from Bacillus pumilus.
PMID : 7887611 : PMC : PMC167286
Bacillus pumilus PS213 isolated from bovine ruminal fluid was able to transform ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid to 4-vinylguaiacol and 4-vinylphenol, respectively, by nonoxidative decarboxylation. The enzyme responsible for this activity has been purified and characterized. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of crude extract from a culture induced by ferulic acid or p-coumaric acid shows three bands that are not present in the crude extract of an uninduced culture, while the purified enzyme shows a single band of 23 kDa; the molecular mass calculated by size exclusion chromatography is 45 kDa. Enzyme activity is optimal at 37 degrees C and pH 5.5 and is not enhanced by any cation. Kinetic studies indicated a Km of 1.03 mM and a Vmax of 0.19 mmol.min-1/mg.liter-1 for ferulic acid and a Km of 1.38 mM and a Vmax of 0.22 mmol.min-1/mg.liter-1 for p-coumaric acid.
( 1983 )
Nucleotide sequence of a Bacillus pumilus gene specifying chloramphenicol acetyltransferase.
PMID : 6315534 : DOI : 10.1016/0378-1119(83)90076-8
Gene cat-86 of Bacillus pumilus, specifying chloramphenicol-inducible chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, was previously cloned in Bacillus subtilis on plasmid pUB110. The nucleotide sequence of cat-86 indicates that the gene encodes a protein of 220 amino acids and contains TTG as the translations-initiation codon. The proteins specified by cat-86 and the cat genes present on pC194, pC221 and Tn9 appear to share regions of amino acid sequence similarity. cat-86 is a structural gene on the B. subtilis expression plasmid pPL608. Restriction sites exist within the gene that should permit the product of inserted heterologous coding sequences to be synthesized in B. subtilis as fusion proteins.
( 1984 )
Regulatory regions that control expression of two chloramphenicol-inducible cat genes cloned in Bacillus subtilis.
PMID : 6327638 : PMC : PMC215510
Plasmid pPL603 is a promoter cloning vector for Bacillus subtilis and consists of a 1.1-kilobase fragment of Bacillus pumilus DNA inserted between the EcoRI and BamHI sites of pUB110. The gene cat-86, specifying chloramphenicol-inducible chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, is located on the 1.1-kilobase cloned DNA. When pPL603 is present in B. subtilis, cat-86 is unexpressed during vegetative growth but expressed during sporulation. The regulation of cat-86 in pPL603 is due to sequences within two restriction fragments, designated P1 and R1, that precede the main coding portion of the gene. The P1 fragment promotes transcription of cat-86 only during sporulation, whereas the adjacent R1 fragment lacks promoter function but contains sequences essential to chloramphenicol inducibility. A second B. pumilus gene, cat-66, was cloned in B. subtilis and is expressed throughout the vegetative growth and sporulation cycle. The cat-66 coding region is preceded by two adjacent restriction fragments designated as P2 and R2. P1 and P2 are identical in size and share 95% conservation of base sequence. R1 and R2 are also identical in size and share 91% conservation of base sequence. Fragment substitution experiments demonstrate that R2 can functionally replace R1. The substitution of P2 for P1 promotes cat-86 expression throughout vegetative growth and sporulation. Analysis of a derivative of pPL603 in which P2 has replaced P1 demonstrates that P2 promotes transcription of cat-86 during vegetative growth and that P2 contains the start site for transcription of cat-86. Thus, P1 and P2 differ strikingly in vegetative promoter function, yet they differ by single-base substitutions at only 11 positions of 203.
( 1974 )
Biochemical studies of two Bacillus pumilus plasmids.
PMID : 4420778 : PMC : PMC245787
Bacillus pumilus NRS 576 harbored an estimated two copies per chromosome of a covalently closed, circular (CCC) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule, the 576 plasmid. The 576 plasmid has a buoyant density of 1.698 g/cm(3) and a molecular weight of about 28 x 10(6). Plasmid copy number remained about the same in both exponentially growing and stationary-phase cells. Spontaneous variants of NRS 576 that formed spores at an elevated frequency were designated as W mutants. W mutants appeared to have lost the 576 plasmid on the basis of the following: W mutants (38 tested) lacked detectable CCC DNA, and the majority of the plasmid homologous sequences in bulk NRS 576 DNA were absent from bulk W mutant DNA. B. pumilus ATCC 7065 harbored at least 10 copies per chromosome of a CCC DNA element, the 7065 plasmid. The 7065 plasmid has a buoyant density of 1.696 g/cm(3) and a molecular weight of about 6 x 10(6). Although the copy number of the plasmid appeared to remain the same in exponentially growing and stationary-phase cells, an additional CCC form of higher molecular weight was detected in stationary-phase cells.
( 2019 )
Molecular Characterization and Toxin Profiles of Bacillus spp. Isolated from Retail Fish and Ground Beef.
PMID : 30690739 : DOI : 10.1111/1750-3841.14445
Bacillus species are common in the environment due to their spore-forming ability and nutritional versatility and cause food contamination. Bacilli play a significant role in foodborne illnesses and food spoilage. In this study, 52 Bacillus isolates from retail fish and ground beef were identified and differentiated based on 16S rRNA, gyrB, and rpoB gene sequencing. The presence of genes encoding emetic toxin (ces), hemolytic enterotoxin hemolysin BL (hbl), nonhemolytic enterotoxin (nhe) and cytotoxin K (cytK1) was assessed in all Bacillus isolates. The ability of the Bacillus isolates to produce several extracellular enzymes that contribute to pathogenicity and food spoilage was investigated. The 16S rRNA, rpoB, and gyrB gene sequence similarities of the Bacillus isolates tested were 96.1%, 83.2%, and 77.5%, respectively. The gyrB gene demonstrated a higher degree of sequence variation than the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes. The prevalence of Bacillus isolates producing at least two of the genes of the HBL and NHE complexes was 23.1% and 15.4%, respectively. Of the B. cereus isolates, 10 (41.7%) possessed two or more enterotoxin genes. None of the isolates carried the ces and cytK1 genes. All isolates were positive for the production of enzymes such as protease, lipase, gelatinase, and DNase. However, only 92.3% of the tested isolates were positive for amylase. In conclusion, our results revealed that the presence of genes involved in toxin production and enzyme production in meat-originated B. cereus and other Bacillus isolates may cause spoilage of food and pose a health risk for consumers. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Bacillus species can be found in various foods due to their ubiquitous nature. Bacillus spp., especially B. cereus, are associated with food poisoning and other infections in humans. Toxins and many extracellular enzymes produced by Bacillus spp. are the causative agents of foodborne outbreaks, food spoilage, and low-quality food with significantly reduced edibility. This study highlights the characterization of Bacillus spp. and presence of potentially pathogenic Bacillus species in meats.
( 1986 )
Regulatory elements common to the Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis trp operons.
PMID : 3091579 : DOI : 10.1128/jb.167.3.792-798.1986 PMC : PMC215943
The trp operon regulatory region of Bacillus pumilus was cloned and sequenced. The cloned B. pumilus trp promoter-leader region functioned in Bacillus subtilis to express the adjacent leukocyte interferon A gene on a multicopy transcriptional fusion plasmid, pBpIFI. In strains carrying this plasmid, anthranilate synthetase levels were elevated, possible due to titration of a B. subtilis trp regulatory factor by multiple copies of the transcript of the plasmid-borne B. pumilus trp leader region. The B. pumilus trp promoter was recognized efficiently in vitro by B. subtilis sigma 43 RNA polymerase. Approximately 12% of the transcripts produced in vitro terminated in the leader region immediately following synthesis of a transcript structure resembling rho-independent terminators of enteric bacteria. An analogous terminator exists in the B. subtilis trp leader transcript. Nucleotide sequence comparison of the B. pumilus and B. subtilis trp leader regions revealed conservation of these and other sequences that could form transcript secondary structures postulated to regulate transcription termination in B. subtilis (H. Shimotsu, M.I. Kuroda, C. Yanofsky, and D.J. Henner, J. Bacteriol. 166:461-471, 1986). We propose that two elements implicated in B. subtilis trp operon regulation are conserved in the related organism B. pumilus: alternative transcription antiterminator and terminator structures in the leader transcript, and a trans-acting factor present in limiting amounts that is required for transcription termination in the leader region.
( 2013 )
Biodiversity of aerobic endospore-forming bacterial species occurring in Yanyanku and Ikpiru, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa used to produce food condiments in Benin.
PMID : 23571124 : DOI : 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2013.02.008
Yanyanku and Ikpiru made by the fermentation of Malcavene bean (Hibiscus sabdariffa) are used as functional additives for Parkia biglobosa seed fermentations in Benin. A total of 355 aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEFB) isolated from Yanyanku and Ikpiru produced in northern and southern Benin were identified using phenotypic and genotypic methods, including GTG5-PCR, M13-PCR, 16S rRNA, gyrA and gyrB gene sequencing. Generally, the same 5-6 species of the genus Bacillus predominated: Bacillus subtilis (17-41% of isolates), Bacillus cereus (8-39%), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (9-22%), Bacillus licheniformis (3-26%), Bacillus safensis (8-19%) and Bacillus altitudinis (0-19%). Bacillus aryabhattai, Bacillus flexus, and Bacillus circulans (0-2%), and species of the genera Lysinibacillus (0-14%), Paenibacillus (0-13%), Brevibacillus (0-4%), and Aneurinibacillus (0-3%) occurred sporadically. The diarrheal toxin encoding genes cytK-1, cytK-2, hblA, hblC, and hblD were present in 0%, 91% 15%, 34% and 35% of B. cereus isolates, respectively. 9% of them harbored the emetic toxin genetic determinant, cesB. This study is the first to identify the AEFB of Yanyanku and Ikpiru to species level and perform a safety evaluation based on toxin gene detections. We further suggest, that the gyrA gene can be used for differentiating the closely related species Bacillus pumilus and B. safensis.
( 2013 )
CotA, a multicopper oxidase from Bacillus pumilus WH4, exhibits manganese-oxidase activity.
PMID : 23577125 : DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0060573 PMC : PMC3618234
Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) are a family of enzymes that use copper ions as cofactors to oxidize various substrates. Previous research has demonstrated that several MCOs such as MnxG, MofA and MoxA can act as putative Mn(II) oxidases. Meanwhile, the endospore coat protein CotA from Bacillus species has been confirmed as a typical MCO. To study the relationship between CotA and the Mn(II) oxidation, the cotA gene from a highly active Mn(II)-oxidizing strain Bacillus pumilus WH4 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain M15. The purified CotA contained approximately four copper atoms per molecule and showed spectroscopic properties typical of blue copper oxidases. Importantly, apart from the laccase activities, the CotA also displayed substantial Mn(II)-oxidase activities both in liquid culture system and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum Mn(II) oxidase activity was obtained at 53�XC in HEPES buffer (pH 8.0) supplemented with 0.8 mM CuCl2. Besides, the addition of o-phenanthroline and EDTA both led to a complete suppression of Mn(II)-oxidizing activity. The specific activity of purified CotA towards Mn(II) was 0.27 U/mg. The Km, Vmax and kcat values towards Mn(II) were 14.85��1.17 mM, 3.01��10(-6)��0.21 M�Pmin(-1) and 0.32��0.02 s(-1), respectively. Moreover, the Mn(II)-oxidizing activity of the recombinant E. coli strain M15-pQE-cotA was significantly increased when cultured both in Mn-containing K liquid medium and on agar plates. After 7-day liquid cultivation, M15-pQE-cotA resulted in 18.2% removal of Mn(II) from the medium. Furthermore, the biogenic Mn oxides were clearly observed on the cell surfaces of M15-pQE-cotA by scanning electron microscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first report that provides the direct observation of Mn(II) oxidation with the heterologously expressed protein CotA, Therefore, this novel finding not only establishes the foundation for in-depth study of Mn(II) oxidation mechanisms, but also offers a potential biocatalyst for Mn(II) removal.
( 1990 )
Primary structure of a zinc protease from Bacillus mesentericus strain 76.
PMID : 2302386 : DOI : 10.1021/bi00454a029
The amino acid sequence of the neutral zinc protease from Bacillus mesentericus strain 76 (MCP 76) has been determined by using peptides derived from digests with trypsin, chymotrypsin, and cyanogen bromide and from cleavage with o-iodosobenzoic acid. The peptides were purified by means of gel filtration and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and analyzed by automatic sequencing. The protein contains 300 amino acid residues. It proved to be identical with the neutral protease deduced from the DNA precursor sequence of Bacillus subtilis. The residues for zinc and substrate binding are conserved, whereas the number of calcium binding sites is reduced compared to thermolysin. A classification of the neutral zinc protease is discussed.
( 2013 )
Improved activity and thermostability of Bacillus pumilus lipase by directed evolution.
PMID : 23313890 : DOI : 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2012.12.016
To improve enzymatic activity of Bacillus pumilus lipases, DNA shuffling was applied to two lipase genes from local B. pumilus isolates. Using a high-throughput activity assay, the mutant with highest activity was selected. This chimeric mutant (L3-3), carrying two crossover positions and three point mutations, has a specific activity 6.4 and 8.2 times higher than the two parent enzymes. The mutant also is more tolerant to various detergents and organic solvents, and has a 9 times longer half-life at 50 �XC. Homology modeling of mutant L3-3, based on the highly homologous B. subtilis lipase A, shows that the increased thermostability is likely due to structural rigidification and reduced surface hydrophobicity. Increased specific activity may result from the location of mutations close to the active site. Together, our results show that it is possible to evolve, by DNA shuffling, B. pumilus lipase variants with improved applicability as biocatalysts, even if the two parent enzymes are highly similar.
( 2013 )
Improving genetic immobilization of a cellulase on yeast cell surface for bioethanol production using cellulose.
PMID : 22915066 : DOI : 10.1002/jobm.201100602
In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was genetically engineered to harbor the capability of utilizing celluloses for bioethanol production by displaying active cellulolytic enzymes on the cell surface. An endo-1,4-�]-glucanase gene egX was cloned from Bacillus pumilus C-9 and its expression products, the EGX cellulases, were displayed on the cell surface of S. cerevisiae by fusing egX with aga2 that encodes the binding subunit of the S. cerevisiae cell wall protein �\-agglutinin. To achieve high gene copies and stability, multicopy integration was obtained by integrating the fusion aga2-egX gene into the rDNA region of the S. cerevisiae chromosome. To achieve high expression and surface display efficiency, the aga2-egX gene was expressed under the control of a strong promoter. The presence of the enzymatically active cellulase fusion proteins on the S. cerevisiae cell surface was verified by carboxymethyl cellulase activity assay and immunofluorescence microscopy. This work presented a promising strategy to genetically engineer yeasts to perform efficient fermentation of cellulosic materials for bioethanol production.
( 2012 )
phoR sequences as a phylogenetic marker to differentiate the species in the Bacillus subtilis group.
PMID : 23145827 : DOI : 10.1139/w2012-106
Bacillus subtilis and its closely related species are indistinguishable from one another by morphological characteristics and 16S rDNA sequences. In this study, the partial phoR sequence was tested to determine the phylogenetic relationship of species in the B. subtilis group. Degenerate primers were developed according to the relatively conserved nucleotide sequences of phoR and the linked gene phoP in the B. subtilis group. The primers amplified a 1100 bp phoR fragment from strains representative of 6 species in the B. subtilis group. Based on the sequenced fragments, 26 type strains comprising these 6 species were clearly distinguished. At the intraspecies level, the phoR sequence similarities were 90%-100%, but at the interspecies level, the phoR sequence similarities were 32.8%-75%. Compared with the gyrB sequence, the phoR sequences showed a larger divergence especially at the interspecies levels. Therefore, the phoR sequence may be an efficient alternative marker for phylogenetic and taxonomic analysis of species in the B. subtilis group. Twenty-three Bacillus undomesticated isolates were tested for identification and phylogenetic analysis based on the phoR and gyrB sequences. The 23 isolates could be clearly delineated into 4 distinct groups, 10 as B. subtilis, 3 as B. mojavensis, 2 as B. atrophaeus, and 8 as B. amyloliquefaciens.
( 1998 )
Cloning and analysis of the four genes coding for Bpu10I restriction-modification enzymes.
PMID : 9461472 : DOI : 10.1093/nar/26.4.1084 PMC : PMC147350
The Bpu 10I R-M system from Bacillus pumilus 10, which recognizes the asymmetric 5'-CCTNAGC sequence, has been cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli . The system comprises four adjacent, similarly oriented genes encoding two m5C MTases and two subunits of Bpu 10I ENase (34.5 and 34 kDa). Both bpu10IR genes either in cis or trans are needed for the manifestation of R. Bpu 10I activity. Subunits of R. Bpu 10I, purified to apparent homogeneity, are both required for cleavage activity. This heterosubunit structure distinguishes the Bpu 10I restriction endonuclease from all other type II restriction enzymes described previously. The subunits reveal 25% amino acid identity. Significant similarity was also identified between a 43 amino acid region of R. Dde I and one of the regions of higher identity shared between the Bpu 10I subunits, a region that could possibly include the catalytic/Mg2+binding center. The similarity between Bpu 10I and Dde I MTases is not limited to the conserved motifs (CM) typical for m5C MTases. It extends into the variable region that lies between CMs VIII and IX. Duplication of a progenitor gene, encoding an enzyme recognizing a symmetric nucleotide sequence, followed by concerted divergent evolution, may provide a possible scenario leading to the emergence of the Bpu 10I ENase, which recognizes an overall asymmetric sequence and cleaves within it symmetrically.
( 1997 )
Cloning and expression of the glutamate racemase gene of Bacillus pumilus.
PMID : 9354391 : DOI : 10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a021709
A glutamate racemase gene (murI) was found in Bacillus pumilus cells and cloned into Escherichia coli WM335, a D-glutamate auxotroph, by means of a genetic complement method. MurI of B. pumilus encodes a 272-amino acid protein with an unusual initiation codon, TTG. The deduced amino acid sequence shows significant similarity with those of glutamate racemases from E. coli (ratio of identical residues, 28%), Pediococcus pentosaceus (44%), and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (49%). B. pumilus MurI was expressed as a fusion protein connected to the N-terminal 12 residues of beta-galactosidase; the fusion protein showed glutamate racemase activity, and resembled the enzyme of P. pentosaceus in physicochemical and enzymological properties.