( 2008 )
Genetic diversity of Streptomyces spp. causing common scab of potato in eastern Canada.
PMID : 18947953 : DOI : 10.1016/j.syapm.2008.09.002
Common scab is an important disease of potato caused by Streptomyces scabies and other closely related species. In this study, the genetic diversity of Streptomyces spp. causing common scab of potato in eastern Canada was for the first time investigated. Forty-one Streptomyces spp. isolates were retrieved from necrotic lesions of potato tubers harvested from different regions of the Canadian provinces New-Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince-Edward-Island. Most isolates were closely related to known pathogenic S. scabies strains on the basis of partial 16S ribosomal (r) RNA and rpoB gene sequence analyses. Two isolates were identified as pathogenic species of Streptomyces acidiscabies. To our knowledge, this species has never been previously isolated in these areas. Genome fingerprinting studies using repetitive elements (rep) polymerase chain reactions (PCR) revealed 10 distinct genetic groups in eastern Canada. The geographical distribution of the genetic groups was region-dependant. Pathogenicity- and virulence-related genes (txtA, txtC, and tomA) were PCR-amplified from each isolate, and nucleotide sequence analysis of partial gene fragments revealed slight polymorphisms in both txtA and txtC genes. No genetic variation was noted in the partial tomA gene sequences.
( 2014 )
Insights into the bioactivity of mensacarcin and epoxide formation by MsnO8.
PMID : 24554499 : DOI : 10.1002/cbic.201300704
Mensacarcin, a potential antitumour drug, is produced by Streptomyces bottropensis. The structure consists of a three-membered ring system with many oxygen atoms. Of vital importance in this context is an epoxy moiety in the side chain of mensacarcin. Our studies with different mensacarcin derivatives have demonstrated that this epoxy group is primarily responsible for the cytotoxic effect of mensacarcin. In order to obtain further information about this epoxy moiety, inactivation experiments in the gene cluster were carried out to identify the epoxy-forming enzyme. Therefore the cosmid cos2, which covers almost the complete type II polyketide synthase (PKS) gene cluster, was heterologously expressed in Streptomyces albus. This led to production of didesmethylmensacarcin, due to the fact that methyltransferase genes are missing in the cosmid. Further gene inactivation experiments on this cosmid showed that MsnO8, a luciferase-like monooxygenase, introduces the epoxy group at the end of the biosynthesis of mensacarcin. In addition, the protein MsnO8 was purified, and its crystal structure was determined to a resolution of 1.80 ?.
( 2018 )
Enzymology of Anthraquinone-�^-Pyrone Ring Formation in Complex Aromatic Polyketide Biosynthesis.
PMID : 30151879 : DOI : 10.1002/anie.201806729
Aromatic-fused �^-pyrones are structural features of many bioactive natural products and valid scaffolds for medicinal chemistry. However, the enzymology of their formation has not been completely established. Now it is demonstrated that TxnO9, a CalC-like protein belonging to a START family, functions as an unexpected anthraquinone-�^-pyrone synthase involved in the biosynthesis of antitumor antibiotic trioxacarcin A (TXN-A). Structural analysis by NMR identified a likely substrate/product-binding mode and putative key active sites of TxnO9, which allowed an enzymatic mechanism to be proposed. Moreover, a subset of uncharacterized homologous proteins bearing an unexamined Lys-Thr dyad exhibit the same function. Therefore, the functional assignment and mechanistic investigation of this �^-pyrone synthase elucidated an undescribed step in TXN-A biosynthesis, and the discovery of this new branch of polyketide heterocyclases expands the functions of the START superfamily.