( 2007 )
The Streptomyces violaceusniger clade: a home for Streptomycetes with rugose ornamented spores.
PMID : 17407000 : DOI : 10.1007/s10482-007-9146-6 DOI : 10.1007/s10482-007-9146-6
The taxonomic status of 16 strains received as Streptomyces hygroscopicus, Streptomyces melanosporofaciens, Streptomyces sparsogenes, Streptomyces sporoclivatus and Streptomyces violaceusniger was evaluated in a polyphasic study. Eleven of the organisms formed a distinct clade in the Streptomyces 16S rRNA gene tree with the type strains of Streptomyces asiaticus, Streptomyces cangkringensis, Streptomyces indonesiensis, Streptomyces javensis, Streptomyces malaysiensis, Streptomyces rhizosphaericus, Streptomyces yatensis and Streptomyces yogyakartensis, the members of this group produced rugose ornamented spores in spiral spore chains. The eleven strains were assigned to three established and four novel species, namely Streptomyces albiflaviniger sp. nov., Streptomyces demainii sp. nov., Streptomyces geldanamycininus sp. nov., Streptomyces griseiniger sp. nov., and Streptomyces hygroscopicus, Streptomyces melanosporofaciens and Streptomyces violaceusniger. It is also proposed that S. sporoclivatus becomes a subjective synonym of S. melanosporofaciens. S. sparsogenes NRRL 2940(T), which produced ridged ornamented spores in spiral spore chains, formed a distinct phyletic line in the Streptomyces 16S rRNA gene tree and was readily distinguished from the other strains using a range of phenotypic properties. S. violaceusniger strains NRRL 8097, NRRL B-5799, NRRL 2834 and ISP 5182 fell outside the S. violaceusniger 16S rRNA gene clade and formed either smooth or ridged ornamented spores in either flexuous or spiral spore chains. These organisms were distinguished from one another and from their closest phylogenetic neighbors and were considered to merit species status as Streptomyces auratus sp. nov., Streptomyces phaeoluteichromatogenes sp. nov., Streptomyces phaeogriseichromatogenes sp. nov., and Streptomyces phaeoluteigriseus sp. nov., respectively.
( 2011 )
Genetic screening strategy for rapid access to polyether ionophore producers and products in actinomycetes.
PMID : 21421776 : DOI : 10.1128/AEM.02915-10 PMC : PMC3126441
Polyether ionophores are a unique class of polyketides with broad-spectrum activity and outstanding potency for the control of drug-resistant bacteria and parasites, and they are produced exclusively by actinomycetes. A special epoxidase gene encoding a critical tailoring enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of these compounds has been found in all five of the complete gene clusters of polyether ionophores published so far. To detect potential producer strains of these antibiotics, a pair of degenerate primers was designed according to the conserved regions of the five known polyether epoxidases. A total of 44 putative polyether epoxidase gene-positive strains were obtained by the PCR-based screening of 1,068 actinomycetes isolated from eight different habitats and 236 reference strains encompassing eight major families of Actinomycetales. The isolates spanned a wide taxonomic diversity based on 16S rRNA gene analysis, and actinomycetes isolated from acidic soils seemed to be a promising source of polyether ionophores. Four genera were detected to contain putative polyether epoxidases, including Micromonospora, which has not previously been reported to produce polyether ionophores. The designed primers also detected putative epoxidase genes from diverse known producer strains that produce polyether ionophores unrelated to the five published gene clusters. Moreover, phylogenetic and chemical analyses showed a strong correlation between the sequence of polyether epoxidases and the structure of encoded polyethers. Thirteen positive isolates were proven to be polyether ionophore producers as expected, and two new analogues were found. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using this epoxidase gene screening strategy to aid the rapid identification of known products and the discovery of unknown polyethers in actinomycetes.
( 2009 )
Cloning and heterologous expression of the cyclooctatin biosynthetic gene cluster afford a diterpene cyclase and two p450 hydroxylases.
PMID : 19635410 : DOI : 10.1016/j.chembiol.2009.06.007
Cyclooctatin, a diterpene characterized by a 5-8-5 fused ring system, is a potent inhibitor of lysophospholipase. Here we report the cloning and characterization of a complete cyclooctatin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces melanosporofaciens MI614-43F2 and heterologous production of cyclooctatin in S. albus. Sequence analysis coupled with subcloning and gene deletion revealed that the minimal cyclooctatin biosynthetic gene cluster consists of four genes, cotB1 to cotB4, encoding geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) synthase, terpene cyclase (CotB2), and two cytochromes P450, respectively. Incubation of the recombinant CotB2 with GGDP resulted in the formation of cyclooctat-9-en-7-ol, an unprecedented tricyclic diterpene alcohol. The present study establishes the complete biosynthetic pathway of cyclooctatin and provides insights into both the stereospecific diterpene cyclization mechanism of the GGDP cyclase and the molecular bases for the stereospecific and regiospecific hydroxylation.
( 2014 )
The first structure of a bacterial diterpene cyclase: CotB2.
PMID : 24914964 : DOI : 10.1107/S1399004714005513
Sesquiterpenes and diterpenes are a diverse class of secondary metabolites that are predominantly derived from plants and some prokaryotes. The properties of these natural products encompass antitumor, antibiotic and even insecticidal activities. Therefore, they are interesting commercial targets for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Owing to their structural complexity, these compounds are more efficiently accessed by metabolic engineering of microbial systems than by chemical synthesis. This work presents the first crystal structure of a bacterial diterpene cyclase, CotB2 from the soil bacterium Streptomyces melanosporofaciens, at 1.64 ? resolution. CotB2 is a diterpene cyclase that catalyzes the cyclization of the linear geranylgeranyl diphosphate to the tricyclic cyclooctat-9-en-7-ol. The subsequent oxidation of cyclooctat-9-en-7-ol by two cytochrome P450 monooxygenases leads to bioactive cyclooctatin. Plasticity residues that decorate the active site of CotB2 have been mutated, resulting in alternative monocyclic, dicyclic and tricyclic compounds that show bioactivity. These new compounds shed new light on diterpene cyclase reaction mechanisms. Furthermore, the product of mutant CotB2(W288G) produced the new antibiotic compound (1R,3E,7E,11S,12S)-3,7,18-dolabellatriene, which acts specifically against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This opens a sustainable route for the industrial-scale production of this bioactive compound.