( 1991 )
A survey of the heat shock response in four Streptomyces species reveals two groEL-like genes and three groEL-like proteins in Streptomyces albus.
PMID : 1682303 : DOI : 10.1128/jb.173.22.7374-7381.1991 PMC : PMC209247
A survey of the heat shock response was carried out in a series of streptomycetes. Four major heat shock proteins (HSPs) were observed in each of four species (Streptomyces albus, S. lividans, S. parvulus, S. viridochromogenes) after pulse labeling with [35S]methionine and analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Three corresponded to the major procaryotic HSPs Lon, DnaK, and GroEL on the basis of their apparent molecular masses (94 to 100, 70, and 56 to 58 kDa, respectively). In addition, a smaller protein (16 to 18 kDa) was detected in all species but was most dramatically induced in S. albus. Consequently, studies focused on this species. As in other procaryotic systems, thermal induction (elicited by a shift from 30 degrees C to 41 degrees C) of the 70- and 94-kDa proteins was transient and expression returned to uninduced levels after 60 min. In contrast, the 56- to 58-kDa (GroEL) and 18-kDa proteins (HSP18) remained induced for more than 2 h. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis allowed resolution of at least eight S. albus HSPs. HSP56-58 was composed of multiple acidic protein species, whereas HSP18 appeared to be basic. In spite of these differences in their physical characteristics, the N-terminal peptide sequence of HSP18 was similar to those of GroEL-like proteins found in other organisms and identical to one of the HSP56-58 species. In fact, N-terminal amino acid analysis of the S. albus 56- to 58-kDa species showed that it was composed of two proteins that differed in 3 of 10 positions, an observation that was supported by the detection of two groEL-like genes by Southern hybridization. The amino acid sequence of one of these proteins was identical to that of HSP18. Pulse-chase experiments did not reveal evidence of posttranslational processing of either HSP56-58 or HSP18.
( 2006 )
Utilization of the methoxymalonyl-acyl carrier protein biosynthesis locus for cloning the oxazolomycin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces albus JA3453.
PMID : 16707707 : DOI : 10.1128/JB.00173-06 PMC : PMC1482894
Oxazolomycin (OZM), a hybrid peptide-polyketide antibiotic, exhibits potent antitumor and antiviral activities. Using degenerate primers to clone genes encoding methoxymalonyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) biosynthesis as probes, a 135-kb DNA region from Streptomyces albus JA3453 was cloned and found to cover the entire OZM biosynthetic gene cluster. The involvement of the cloned genes in OZM biosynthesis was confirmed by deletion of a 12-kb DNA fragment containing six genes for methoxymalonyl-ACP biosynthesis from the specific region of the chromosome, as well as deletion of the ozmC gene within this region, to generate OZM-nonproducing mutants.
( 2004 )
Phylogenetic analysis of the genera Streptomyces and Kitasatospora based on partial RNA polymerase beta-subunit gene (rpoB) sequences.
PMID : 15023980 : DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.02941-0
The RNA polymerase beta-subunit genes (rpoB) of 67 Streptomyces strains, representing 57 species, five Kitasatospora strains and Micromonospora echinospora KCTC 9549 were partially sequenced using a pair of rpoB PCR primers. Among the streptomycetes, 99.7-100 % similarity within the same species and 90.2-99.3 % similarity at the interspecific level were observed by analysis of the determined rpoB sequences. The topology of the phylogenetic tree based on rpoB sequences was similar to that of 16S rDNA. The five Kitasatospora strains formed a stable monophyletic clade and a sister group to the clade comprising all Streptomyces species. Although there were several discrepancies in the details, considerable agreement was found between the results of rpoB analysis and those of numerical phenetic classification. This study demonstrates that analysis of rpoB can be used as an alternative genetic method in parallel to conventional taxonomic methods, including numerical phenetic and 16S rDNA analyses, for the phylogenetic analyses of the genera Streptomyces and Kitasatospora.
( 2008 )
Genetic organization of the putative salbostatin biosynthetic gene cluster including the 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone synthase gene in Streptomyces albus ATCC 21838.
PMID : 18648803 : DOI : 10.1007/s00253-008-1591-2
The cyclization of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate to 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone, catalyzed by the 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone synthases, is the first committed step in the biosynthesis of C(7)N-aminocyclitol-containing natural products, such as validamycin and acarbose. These natural products contain in their structures a valienamine unit, which is important for their biological activity. The same core unit is also found in salbostatin, a related pseudodisaccharide that has strong trehalase inhibitory activity. In silico analysis of the putative biosynthetic gene cluster of salbostatin from Streptomyces albus ATCC 21838 revealed 20 open reading frames, including an acbC homolog gene (salQ), which is believed to be involved in the biosynthesis of salbostatin. The salQ gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and the catalytic function of the recombinant protein was confirmed to be a 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone synthase. In addition, SalF, SalL, SalM, SalN, SalO, and SalR were found to be homologous to AcbR, AcbM, AcbL, AcbN, AcbO, and AcbP from the acarbose pathway, respectively, which suggests that the biosynthesis of C(7)N-aminocyclitol moiety of salbostatin may be very similar to that of acarbose.
( 2008 )
A multilocus phylogeny of the Streptomyces griseus 16S rRNA gene clade: use of multilocus sequence analysis for streptomycete systematics.
PMID : 18175701 : DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.65224-0
Streptomycetes are a complex group of actinomycetes that produce diverse bioactive metabolites of commercial significance. Systematics can provide a useful framework for identifying species that may produce novel metabolites. However, previously proposed approaches to the systematics of Streptomyces have suffered from either poor interlaboratory comparability or insufficient resolution. In particular, the Streptomyces griseus 16S rRNA gene clade is the most challenging and least defined group within the genus Streptomyces in terms of phylogeny. Here we report the results of a multilocus sequence analysis scheme developed to address the phylogeny of this clade. Sequence fragments of six housekeeping genes, atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB, trpB and 16S rRNA, were obtained for 53 reference strains that represent 45 valid species and subspecies. Analysis of each individual locus confirmed the suitability of loci and the congruence of single-gene trees for concatenation. Concatenated trees of three, four, five and all six genes were constructed, and the stability of the topology and discriminatory power of each tree were analysed. It can be concluded from the results that phylogenetic analysis based on multilocus sequences is more accurate and robust for species delineation within Streptomyces. A multilocus phylogeny of six genes proved to be optimal for elucidating the interspecies relationships within the S. griseus 16S rRNA gene clade. Our multilocus sequence analysis scheme provides a valuable tool that can be applied to other Streptomyces clades for refining the systematic framework of this genus.
( 2007 )
Multiple regulatory genes in the salinomycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces albus CCM 4719.
PMID : 18062184 : DOI : 10.1007/bf02932090
A DNA fragment containing part of the salinomycin biosynthetic gene cluster from industrial strain Streptomyces albus CCM 4719 was cloned. Sequence analysis of the 25.809-kbp fragment revealed the presence of 8 open reading frames (ORFs), including two large ORFs encoding three modular sets of oligoketide synthase, followed by three genes (salRI, salRII, salRIII) encoding transcriptional regulators. The first two regulators, SalRI and SalRII, belonged to the novel LAL family of large transcriptional regulators. SalRIII was highly similar to the NysRIV, AmphRIV, and FscRI transcriptional regulators from the oligoene macrolides nystatin, amphotericin, and R008/candicidin clusters, respectively.
( 2017 )
Crystal Structure of StnA for the Biosynthesis of Antitumor Drug Streptonigrin Reveals a Unique Substrate Binding Mode.
PMID : 28074848 : DOI : 10.1038/srep40254 PMC : PMC5225493
Streptonigrin methylesterase A (StnA) is one of the tailoring enzymes that modify the aminoquinone skeleton in the biosynthesis pathway of Streptomyces species. Although StnA has no significant sequence homology with the reported �\/�]-fold hydrolases, it shows typical hydrolytic activity in vivo and in vitro. In order to reveal its functional characteristics, the crystal structures of the selenomethionine substituted StnA (SeMet-StnA) and the complex (S185A mutant) with its substrate were resolved to the resolution of 2.71 ? and 2.90 ?, respectively. The overall structure of StnA can be described as an �\-helix cap domain on top of a common �\/�] hydrolase domain. The substrate methyl ester of 10'-demethoxystreptonigrin binds in a hydrophobic pocket that mainly consists of cap domain residues and is close to the catalytic triad Ser185-His349-Asp308. The transition state is stabilized by an oxyanion hole formed by the backbone amides of Ala102 and Leu186. The substrate binding appears to be dominated by interactions with several specific hydrophobic contacts and hydrogen bonds in the cap domain. The molecular dynamics simulation and site-directed mutagenesis confirmed the important roles of the key interacting residues in the cap domain. Structural alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis indicate that StnA represents a new subfamily of lipolytic enzymes with the specific binding pocket located at the cap domain instead of the interface between the two domains.
( 2014 )
Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces albus and related species using multilocus sequence analysis and proposals to emend the description of Streptomyces albus and describe Streptomyces pathocidini sp. nov.
PMID : 24277863 : DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.058107-0 PMC : PMC4851252 DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.058107-0 PMC : PMC4851252
In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811(T) forms a cluster with five other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these other species, including Streptomyces almquistii NRRL B-1685(T), Streptomyces flocculus NRRL B-2465(T), Streptomyces gibsonii NRRL B-1335(T) and Streptomyces rangoonensis NRRL B-12378(T) are quite similar. This cluster is of particular taxonomic interest because Streptomyces albus is the type species of the genus Streptomyces. The related strains were subjected to multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) utilizing partial sequences of the housekeeping genes atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB and trpB and confirmation of previously reported phenotypic characteristics. The five strains formed a coherent cluster supported by a 100 % bootstrap value in phylogenetic trees generated from sequence alignments prepared by concatenating the sequences of the housekeeping genes, and identical tree topology was observed using various different tree-making algorithms. Moreover, all but one strain, S. flocculus NRRL B-2465(T), exhibited identical sequences for all of the five housekeeping gene loci sequenced, but NRRL B-2465(T) still exhibited an MLSA evolutionary distance of 0.005 from the other strains, a value that is lower than the 0.007 MLSA evolutionary distance threshold proposed for species-level relatedness. These data support a proposal to reclassify S. almquistii, S. flocculus, S. gibsonii and S. rangoonensis as later heterotypic synonyms of S. albus with NRRL B-1811(T) as the type strain. The MLSA sequence database also demonstrated utility for quickly and conclusively confirming that numerous strains within the ARS Culture Collection had been previously misidentified as subspecies of S. albus and that Streptomyces albus subsp. pathocidicus should be redescribed as a novel species, Streptomyces pathocidini sp. nov., with the type strain NRRL B-24287(T).
( 2012 )
Ribosomal and protein coding gene based multigene phylogeny on the family Streptomycetaceae.
PMID : 22154623 : DOI : 10.1016/j.syapm.2011.08.007
The phylogenetic relationship among the three genera of the family Streptomycetaceae was examined using the small and large subunit ribosomal RNA genes, and the gyrB, rpoB, trpB, atpD and recA genes. The total stretches of the analyzed ribosomal genes were 4.2kb, and those of five protein coding genes were 4.5 kb. The resultant phylogenetic trees confirmed that each genus formed an independent clade in the majority of cases. The G+C contents of rRNA genes were 56.9-58.9 mol%, and those of protein coding genes were 65.4-72.4 mol%, the latter being closer to those of the genomic DNAs. The average nucleotide sequence identity between the organisms were 94.1-96.4% for rRNA genes and 85.7-90.6% for protein coding genes, thus indicating that protein coding genes can give higher resolution than rRNA genes. In addition, the protein coding gene trees were more stable than the rRNA gene trees, supported by higher bootstrap values and other treeing algorithms. Moreover, the genome data of six Streptomyces species indicated that many protein coding genes exhibited higher correlations with genome relatedness. The combined gene sequences were also shown to give a better resolution with higher stability than any single genes, though not necessarily more correlated with genome relatedness. It is evident from this study that the rRNA gene based phylogeny can be misleading, and also that protein coding genes have a number of advantages over the rRNA genes as the phylogenetic markers including a high correlation with the genome relatedness.
( 2012 )
Cloning and characterization of the polyether salinomycin biosynthesis gene cluster of Streptomyces albus XM211.
PMID : 22156425 : DOI : 10.1128/AEM.06701-11 PMC : PMC3272990
Salinomycin is widely used in animal husbandry as a food additive due to its antibacterial and anticoccidial activities. However, its biosynthesis had only been studied by feeding experiments with isotope-labeled precursors. A strategy with degenerate primers based on the polyether-specific epoxidase sequences was successfully developed to clone the salinomycin gene cluster. Using this strategy, a putative epoxidase gene, slnC, was cloned from the salinomycin producer Streptomyces albus XM211. The targeted replacement of slnC and subsequent trans-complementation proved its involvement in salinomycin biosynthesis. A 127-kb DNA region containing slnC was sequenced, including genes for polyketide assembly and release, oxidative cyclization, modification, export, and regulation. In order to gain insight into the salinomycin biosynthesis mechanism, 13 gene replacements and deletions were conducted. Including slnC, 7 genes were identified as essential for salinomycin biosynthesis and putatively responsible for polyketide chain release, oxidative cyclization, modification, and regulation. Moreover, 6 genes were found to be relevant to salinomycin biosynthesis and possibly involved in precursor supply, removal of aberrant extender units, and regulation. Sequence analysis and a series of gene replacements suggest a proposed pathway for the biosynthesis of salinomycin. The information presented here expands the understanding of polyether biosynthesis mechanisms and paves the way for targeted engineering of salinomycin activity and productivity.
( 1997 )
Disruption of hspR, the repressor gene of the dnaK operon in Streptomyces albus G.
PMID : 9004222 : DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2958.1997.1811563.x
hspR is the distal gene of the Streptomyces albus dnaK operon. It encodes a protein similar to GlnR, the repressor of the Bacillus subtilis glutamine synthetase gene. Transcriptional analysis showed that disruption of hspR led to constitutive high-level expression of the dnaK operon, SDS-PAGE analysis revealed over-production and accumulation of the chaperone DnaK at low temperature HSP94, a heat-inducible protein cross-reacting with anti-CipB antibodies, was also shown to be constitutively overexpressed at low temperature in the hspR mutant. Those features were lost when the mutant was complemented in trans by an intact copy of hspR. The hspR mutant was impaired in its growth on solid rich medium: colonies grow slowly at 30 degrees C. However, formation of aerial mycelium and sporulation was not prevented. In liquid culture growth curves of the mutant and the wild type were similar. The kinetics of groEL gene induction were not modified by the hspR null mutation, indicating that HspR was not directly involved in the control of groEL transcription. Thus, in contrast with B. subtilis and other Gram-positive bacteria, transcription of Streptomyces dnaK and groEL operons is not controlled by the same regulator.
( 1994 )
Sequence of the Streptomyces albus G lipase-encoding gene reveals the presence of a prokaryotic lipase family.
PMID : 8026751 : DOI : 10.1016/0378-1119(94)90220-8
An extracellular lipase (Lip)-encoding gene from Streptomyces albus G has been cloned and sequenced. It encodes a Lip with 82% sequence identity to another previously cloned Lip from a Streptomyces species not closely related. These two sequences can be aligned with 33% identity to the sequence of Lip1 from the antarctic psychrotroph Moraxella TA144 [G. Feller et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 18 (1990) 6431]. An alignment of the three sequences revealed amino-acid substitutions which might be responsible for the greater thermal stability of the Streptomyces lipases. The presence of this lip gene family in several members of the Streptomyces genus was also shown.
( 2013 )
Characterization of streptonigrin biosynthesis reveals a cryptic carboxyl methylation and an unusual oxidative cleavage of a N-C bond.
PMID : 23301954 : DOI : 10.1021/ja3069243
Streptonigrin (STN, 1) is a highly functionalized aminoquinone alkaloid with broad and potent antitumor activity. Here, we reported the biosynthetic gene cluster of STN identified by genome scanning of a STN producer Streptomyces flocculus CGMCC4.1223. This cluster consists of 48 genes determined by a series of gene inactivations. On the basis of the structures of intermediates and shunt products accumulated from five specific gene inactivation mutants and feeding experiments, the biosynthetic pathway was proposed, and the sequence of tailoring steps was preliminarily determined. In this pathway, a cryptic methylation of lavendamycin was genetically and biochemically characterized to be catalyzed by a leucine carboxyl methyltransferase StnF2. A [2Fe-2S](2+) cluster-containing aromatic ring dioxygenase StnB1/B2 system was biochemically characterized to catalyze a regiospecific cleavage of the N-C8' bond of the indole ring of the methyl ester of lavendamycin. This work provides opportunities to illuminate the enzymology of novel reactions involved in this pathway and to create, using genetic and chemo-enzymatic methods, new streptonigrinoid analogues as potential therapeutic agents.