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1. Hatano  K, Nishii  T, Kasai  H,     ( 2003 )

Taxonomic re-evaluation of whorl-forming Streptomyces (formerly Streptoverticillium) species by using phenotypes, DNA-DNA hybridization and sequences of gyrB, and proposal of Streptomyces luteireticuli (ex Katoh and Arai 1957) corrig., sp. nov., nom. rev.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 53 (Pt 5)
PMID : 13130042  :   DOI  :   10.1099/ijs.0.02238-0    
Abstract >>
The taxonomic status of 64 strains of whorl-forming Streptomyces (formerly Streptoverticillium) species was re-evaluated and strains were reclassified on the basis of their phenotypes, DNA-DNA hybridization data and partial sequences of gyrB, the structural gene of the B subunit of DNA gyrase. These strains, which consisted of 46 species and eight subspecies with validly published names and 13 species whose names have not been validly published [including 10 strains examined by the International Streptomyces Project (ISP)], were divided into two groups, namely typical and atypical whorl-forming Streptomyces species, based on their phenotypes and gyrB gene sequences. The typical whorl-forming species (59 strains) were divided into six major clusters of three or more species, seven minor clusters of two species and five single-member clusters, based on the threshold value of 97 % gyrB sequence similarity. Major clusters were typified by Streptomyces abikoensis, Streptomyces cinnamoneus, Streptomyces distallicus, Streptomyces griseocarneus, Streptomyces hiroshimensis and Streptomyces netropsis. Phenotypically, members of each cluster resembled each other closely except for the S. distallicus cluster, which was divided phenotypically into the S. distallicus and Streptomyces stramineus subclusters, and the S. netropsis cluster, which was divided into the S. netropsis and Streptomyces eurocidicus subclusters. Strains in each minor cluster closely resembled each other phenotypically. DNA-DNA relatedness between the representative species and others in each major cluster and/or subcluster, and between strains in the minor clusters, was >70 %, indicating that the major clusters and/or subclusters and the minor clusters each comprise a single species. It was concluded that 59 strains of typical whorl-forming Streptomyces species consisted of the following 18 species, including subjective synonym(s): S. abikoensis, Streptomyces ardus, Streptomyces blastmyceticus, S. cinnamoneus, S. eurocidicus, S. griseocarneus, S. hiroshimensis, Streptomyces lilacinus, 'Streptomyces luteoreticuli', Streptomyces luteosporeus, Streptomyces mashuensis, Streptomyces mobaraensis, Streptomyces morookaense, S. netropsis, Streptomyces orinoci, S. stramineus, Streptomyces thioluteus and Streptomyces viridiflavus.
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2. Gao  P, Huang  Y,     ( 2009 )

Detection, distribution, and organohalogen compound discovery implications of the reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent halogenase gene in major filamentous actinomycete taxonomic groups.

Applied and environmental microbiology 75 (14)
PMID : 19447951  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.02958-08     PMC  :   PMC2708417    
Abstract >>
Halogenases have been shown to play a significant role in biosynthesis and introducing the bioactivity of many halogenated secondary metabolites. In this study, 54 reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH(2))-dependent halogenase gene-positive strains were identified after the PCR screening of a large collection of 228 reference strains encompassing all major families and genera of filamentous actinomycetes. The wide distribution of this gene was observed to extend to some rare lineages with higher occurrences and large sequence diversity. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed that strains containing highly homologous halogenases tended to produce halometabolites with similar structures, and halogenase genes are likely to propagate by horizontal gene transfer as well as vertical inheritance within actinomycetes. Higher percentages of halogenase gene-positive strains than those of halogenase gene-negative ones contained polyketide synthase genes and/or nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes or displayed antimicrobial activities in the tests applied, indicating their genetic and physiological potentials for producing secondary metabolites. The robustness of this halogenase gene screening strategy for the discovery of particular biosynthetic gene clusters in rare actinomycetes besides streptomycetes was further supported by genome-walking analysis. The described distribution and phylogenetic implications of the FADH(2)-dependent halogenase gene present a guide for strain selection in the search for novel organohalogen compounds from actinomycetes.
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