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1. Williams  SJ, Mark  BL, Vocadlo  DJ, James  MN, Withers  SG,     ( 2002 )

Aspartate 313 in the Streptomyces plicatus hexosaminidase plays a critical role in substrate-assisted catalysis by orienting the 2-acetamido group and stabilizing the transition state.

The Journal of biological chemistry 277 (42)
PMID : 12171933  :   DOI  :   10.1074/jbc.M206481200    
Abstract >>
SpHex, a retaining family 20 glycosidase from Streptomyces plicatus, catalyzes the hydrolysis of N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminides. Accumulating evidence suggests that the hydrolytic mechanism involves substrate-assisted catalysis wherein the 2-acetamido substituent acts as a nucleophile to form an oxazolinium ion intermediate. The role of a conserved aspartate residue (D313) in the active site of SpHex was investigated through kinetic and structural analyses of two variant enzymes, D313A and D313N. Three-dimensional structures of the wild-type and variant enzymes in product complexes with N-acetyl-d-glucosamine revealed substantial differences. In the D313A variant the 2-acetamido group was found in two conformations of which only one is able to aid in catalysis through anchimeric assistance. The mutation D313N results in a steric clash in the active site between Asn-313 and the 2-acetamido group preventing the 2-acetamido group from providing anchimeric assistance, consistent with the large reduction in catalytic efficiency and the insensitivity of this variant to chemical rescue. By comparison, the D313A mutation results in a shift in a shift in the pH optimum and a modest decrease in activity that can be rescued by using azide as an exogenous nucleophile. These structural and kinetic data provide evidence that Asp-313 stabilizes the transition states flanking the oxazoline intermediate and also assists to correctly orient the 2-acetamido group for catalysis. Based on analogous conserved residues in the family 18 chitinases and family 56 hyaluronidases, the roles played by the Asp-313 residue is likely general for all hexosaminidases using a mechanism involving substrate-assisted catalysis.
KeywordMeSH Terms
2. Mark  BL, Vocadlo  DJ, Zhao  D, Knapp  S, Withers  SG, James  MN,     ( 2001 )

Biochemical and structural assessment of the 1-N-azasugar GalNAc-isofagomine as a potent family 20 beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase inhibitor.

The Journal of biological chemistry 276 (45)
PMID : 11522797  :   DOI  :   10.1074/jbc.M107154200    
Abstract >>
Azasugar inhibitors of the isofagomine class are potent competitive inhibitors of configuration-retaining beta-glycosidases. This potency results from the formation of a strong electrostatic interaction between a protonated endocyclic nitrogen at the "anomeric" center of the inhibitor and the catalytic nucleophile of the enzyme. Although the majority of retaining beta-glycosidases use a mechanism involving a carboxylate residue as a nucleophile, Streptomyces plicatus beta-N-acetylhexos-aminidase (SpHEX) and related family 20 glycosidases lack such a catalytic residue and use instead the carbonyl oxygen of the 2-acetamido group of the substrate as a nucleophile to "attack" the anomeric center. Thus, a strong electrostatic interaction between the inhibitor and enzyme is not expected to occur; nonetheless, the 1-N-azasugar (2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-acetamido-3,4-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-piperidinium hydrochloride (GalNAc-isofagomine.HCl), which was synthesized and assayed for its ability to inhibit SpHEX, was found to be a potent competitive inhibitor of the enzyme (K(i) = 2.7 microm). A crystallographic complex of GalNAc-isofagomine bound to SpHEX was solved and refined to 1.75 A and revealed that the lack of a strong electrostatic interaction between the "anomeric" center of GalNAc-isofagomine and SpHEX is compensated for by a novel 2.8-A hydrogen bond formed between the equatorial proton of the endocyclic nitrogen of the azasugar ring and the carboxylate of the general acid-base residue Glu-314 of SpHEX. This interaction appears to contribute to the unexpected potency of GalNAc-isofagomine toward SpHEX.
KeywordMeSH Terms
3. Mark  BL, Vocadlo  DJ, Knapp  S, Triggs-Raine  BL, Withers  SG, James  MN,     ( 2001 )

Crystallographic evidence for substrate-assisted catalysis in a bacterial beta-hexosaminidase.

The Journal of biological chemistry 276 (13)
PMID : 11124970  :   DOI  :   10.1074/jbc.M011067200    
Abstract >>
beta-Hexosaminidase, a family 20 glycosyl hydrolase, catalyzes the removal of beta-1,4-linked N-acetylhexosamine residues from oligosaccharides and their conjugates. Heritable deficiency of this enzyme results in various forms of GalNAc-beta(1,4)-[N-acetylneuraminic acid (2,3)]-Gal-beta(1,4)-Glc-ceramide gangliosidosis, including Tay-Sachs disease. We have determined the x-ray crystal structure of a beta-hexosaminidase from Streptomyces plicatus to 2.2 A resolution (Protein Data Bank code). beta-Hexosaminidases are believed to use a substrate-assisted catalytic mechanism that generates a cyclic oxazolinium ion intermediate. We have solved and refined a complex between the cyclic intermediate analogue N-acetylglucosamine-thiazoline and beta-hexosaminidase from S. plicatus to 2.1 A resolution (Protein Data Bank code). Difference Fourier analysis revealed the pyranose ring of N-acetylglucosamine-thiazoline bound in the enzyme active site with a conformation close to that of a (4)C(1) chair. A tryptophan-lined hydrophobic pocket envelopes the thiazoline ring, protecting it from solvolysis at the iminium ion carbon. Within this pocket, Tyr(393) and Asp(313) appear important for positioning the 2-acetamido group of the substrate for nucleophilic attack at the anomeric center and for dispersing the positive charge distributed into the oxazolinium ring upon cyclization. This complex provides decisive structural evidence for substrate-assisted catalysis and the formation of a covalent, cyclic intermediate in family 20 beta-hexosaminidases.
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4. Cui  T, Rao  V,     ( 1999 )

Mutations of endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H active site residueAs sp130 anG glu132: activities and conformations.

Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society 8 (11)
PMID : 10595536  :   DOI  :   10.1110/ps.8.11.2338     PMC  :   PMC2144190    
Abstract >>
Endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H hydrolyzes the beta-(1-4)-glycosidic link of the N,N'-diacetylchitobiose core of high-mannose and hybrid asparagine-linked oligosaccharides. Seven mutants of the active site residues, Asp130 and Glu132, have been prepared, assayed, and crystallized. They include single site mutants of each residue to the corresponding amide, to Ala and to the alternate acidic residue, and to the double amide mutant. The mutants of Asp130 are more active than the corresponding Glu132 mutants, consistent with the assignment of the latter residue as the primary catalytic residue. The amide mutants are more active than the alternate acidic residue mutants, which in turn are more active than the Ala mutants. The structures of the Asn mutant of Asp130 and the double mutant are very similar to that of the wild-type enzyme. Several residues surrounding the mutated residues, including some that form part of the core of the beta-barrel and especially Tyr168 and Tyr244, adopt a very different conformation in the structures of the other two mutants of Asp130 and in the Asp mutant of Glu132. The results show that the residues in the upper layers of the beta-barrel can organize into two very distinct packing arrangements that depend on subtle electrostatic and steric differences and that greatly affect the geometry of the substrate-binding cleft. Consequently, the relative activities of several of the mutants are defined by structural changes, leading to impaired substrate binding, in addition to changes in functionality.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Aspartic Acid
Glutamic Acid
5. Robbins  PW, Overbye  K, Albright  C, Benfield  B, Pero  J,     ( 1992 )

Cloning and high-level expression of chitinase-encoding gene of Streptomyces plicatus.

Gene 111 (1)
PMID : 1532161  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0378-1119(92)90604-n    
Abstract >>
A chitinase (Cht)-encoding gene from Streptomyces plicatus was previously cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli [Robbins et al., J. Biol. Chem., 263 (1988) 442-447]. We have sequenced this gene, compared its sequence with other genes encoding Cht and have explored its expression and regulation when reintroduced into Streptomyces lividans on multicopy plasmids. We have also cloned two other Streptomyces Cht-encoding genes and a beta-hexosaminidase-encoding gene in E. coli by expression in the lambda ZAP-Bluescript vector. The hexosaminidase and one of the Chts were expressed directly from the genomic library in E. coli at a high level as chimeric fusions with the beta-galactosidase alpha-complementing peptide encoded by the vector. Direct cloning and high-level expression of such chimeric proteins, which overcomes the difficulties associated with expressing Streptomyces genes in E. coli, should generally be possible wherever large numbers of transformants can be conveniently screened.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
6. Santana  AG, Vadlamani  G, Mark  BL, Withers  SG,     ( 2016 )

N-Acetyl glycals are tight-binding and environmentally insensitive inhibitors of hexosaminidases.

Chemical communications (Cambridge, England) 52 (51)
PMID : 27253678  :   DOI  :   10.1039/c6cc02520j    
Abstract >>
Mono-, di- and trisaccharide derivatives of 1,2-unsaturated N-acetyl-d-glucal have been synthesized and shown to function as tight-binding inhibitors/slow substrates of representative hexosaminidases. Turnover is slow and not observed in the thioamide analogue, allowing determination of the 3-dimensional structure of the complex. Inhibition is insensitive to pH and to mutation of key catalytic residues, consistent with the uncharged character of the inhibitor. These properties could render this inhibitor class less prone to development of resistance.
KeywordMeSH Terms
7. Rao  V, Guan  C, Van Roey  P,     ( 1995 )

Crystal structure of endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H at 1.9 A resolution: active-site geometry and substrate recognition.

Structure (London, England : 1993) 3 (5)
PMID : 7663942  :  
Abstract >>
Endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H (Endo H), an endoglycosidase secreted by Streptomyces plicatus, hydrolyzes the glycosidic bond between the core N-acetyglucosamine residues of asparagine-linked high-mannose oligosaccharides. Endo H is a commonly used reagent in glycobiology research, including the characterization of oligosaccharides in glycoproteins. On-going crystallographic studies of Endo H and related endoglycosidases are aimed at identifying the molecular features that determine the different substrate specificities of these enzymes. The three-dimensional structure of Endo H has been determined to 1.9 A resolution. The overall fold of the enzyme is that of an irregular (alpha/beta)8-barrel comprising eight beta-strand/loop/alpha-helix units. Units 5 and 6 have very short loop sections at the top of the molecule and their alpha-helices are replaced by sections of extended geometry. The loop of unit 2 includes a small two-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet. A shallow curved cleft runs across the surface of the molecule from the area of units 5 and 6, over the core of the beta-barrel to the area of the beta-sheet of loop 2. This cleft contains the putative catalytic residues Asp130 and Glu132 above the core of the beta-barrel. These residues are surrounded by several aromatic residues. The loop 2 area of the cleft is formed by neutral polar residues, mostly asparagines. The structure of Endo H is very similar to that of Endo F1, a closely related endoglycosidase secreted by Flavobacterium meningosepticum. Detailed comparison of the structures of Endo H and Endo F1 supports the model previously proposed for substate binding and recognition, in which the area of loop 2 determines the substrate specificity and the alpha-helices of units 5 and 6 are missing to accommodate the protein moiety of the substrate.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Models, Molecular
Protein Conformation
8. Robbins  PW, Trimble  RB, Wirth  DF, Hering  C, Maley  F, Maley  GF, Das  R, Gibson  BW, Royal  N, Biemann  K,     ( 1984 )

Primary structure of the Streptomyces enzyme endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H.

The Journal of biological chemistry 259 (12)
PMID : 6429133  :  
Abstract >>
We report the DNA and primary amino acid sequences of the Streptomyces plicatus enzyme endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H. Peptide sequence information was derived from enzyme isolated from Streptomyces culture medium using a combination of mass spectrometric methods and conventional techniques, including Edman degradation and carboxypeptidase Y digestion. The DNA sequence was determined by analysis of the Endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H gene cloned into the Escherichia coli plasmid pBR322 (Robbins, P. W., Wirth , D. F., and Hering , C. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 10640-10644). The enzyme from Streptomyces medium is 271 (or 269) amino acids in length and has a ragged NH2-terminal sequence beginning primarily with Ala-Pro-Val or Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro-Val. DNA resection experiments as well as the DNA sequence itself suggest that a proenzyme or, more probably, " prepro " enzyme may be the primary product of translation. The long 42 (or 44) residue leader sequence of the preproenzyme shows striking similarities to leader sequences found on proteins secreted by Bacillus species. The leader sequence is partially removed by E. coli and, as reported previously, endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H made in E. coli appears in both the periplasmic space and in the cell.
KeywordMeSH Terms
9. Robbins  PW, Albright  C, Benfield  B,     ( 1988 )

Cloning and expression of a Streptomyces plicatus chitinase (chitinase-63) in Escherichia coli.

The Journal of biological chemistry 263 (1)
PMID : 3275646  :  
Abstract >>
4-Methylumbelliferyl (4-MU) glycosides of N-acetylglucosamine oligosaccharides were used as substrates to detect expression of a Streptomyces chitinase in Escherichia coli. Low levels of enzyme were detected when S. plicatus DNA was cloned into a bacteriophage lambda vector (EMBL-4). Subcloning into E. coli plasmids also gave low but detectable levels of enzyme expression. High level expression was achieved by resection of the cloned S. plicatus DNA with Bal31 followed by in-frame fusion to the amino-terminal peptide sequence of beta-galactosidase found in the pUC vectors. The Streptomyces chitinase was secreted into the periplasmic space of E. coli, and its signal sequence was removed. We characterized the activity of the cloned enzyme and compared it to three other purified Streptomyces plicatus chitinases with respect to hydrolysis of the 4-MU oligosaccharides. We found that two of the enzymes form 4-methylumbelliferone much more rapidly from the 4-MU disaccharide than from the trisaccharide. These same enzymes convert the 4-MU trisaccharide primarily to diacetylchitobiose and the 4-MU monosaccharide, a nonfluorescent product. The latter compound is not hydrolyzed appreciably by any of the enzymes. On the basis of these results, we suggest a new definition of "exo" and "endo" chitinase that differs from that found in the literature. We propose that exochitinase activity be defined as processive action starting at the nonreducing ends of chitin chains with release of successive diacetylchitobiose units, and that endochitinase activity be defined as random cleavage at internal points in chitin chains.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Cloning, Molecular
Genes, Bacterial
Transcription, Genetic
10.     ( 1998 )

Structural and functional characterization of Streptomyces plicatus beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase by comparative molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis.

The Journal of biological chemistry 273 (31)
PMID : 9677388  :   DOI  :   10.1074/jbc.273.31.19618    
Abstract >>
We have sequenced the Streptomyces plicatus beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase (SpHex) gene and identified the encoded protein as a member of family 20 glycosyl hydrolases. This family includes human beta-N-acetylhexosaminidases whose deficiency results in various forms of GM2 gangliosidosis. Based upon the x-ray structure of Serratia marcescens chitobiase (SmChb), we generated a three-dimensional model of SpHex by comparative molecular modeling. The overall structure of the enzyme is very similar to homology modeling-derived structures of human beta-N-acetylhexosaminidases, with differences being confined mainly to loop regions. From previous studies of the human enzymes, sequence alignments of family 20 enzymes, and analysis of the SmChb x-ray structure, we selected and mutated putative SpHex active site residues. Arg162 --> His mutation increased Km 40-fold and reduced Vmax 5-fold, providing the first biochemical evidence for this conserved Arg residue (Arg178 in human beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase A (HexA) and Arg349 in SmChb) as a substrate-binding residue in a family 20 enzyme, a finding consistent with our three-dimensional model of SpHex. Glu314 --> Gln reduced Vmax 296-fold, reduced Km 7-fold, and altered the pH profile, consistent with it being the catalytic acid residue as suggested by our model and other studies. Asp246 --> Asn reduced Vmax 2-fold and increased Km only 1.2-fold, suggesting that Asp246 may play a lesser role in the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme. Taken together with the x-ray structure of SmChb, these studies suggest a common catalytic mechanism for family 20 glycosyl hydrolases.
KeywordMeSH Terms

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