( 2003 )
Taxonomic re-evaluation of whorl-forming Streptomyces (formerly Streptoverticillium) species by using phenotypes, DNA-DNA hybridization and sequences of gyrB, and proposal of Streptomyces luteireticuli (ex Katoh and Arai 1957) corrig., sp. nov., nom. rev.
PMID : 13130042 : DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.02238-0
The taxonomic status of 64 strains of whorl-forming Streptomyces (formerly Streptoverticillium) species was re-evaluated and strains were reclassified on the basis of their phenotypes, DNA-DNA hybridization data and partial sequences of gyrB, the structural gene of the B subunit of DNA gyrase. These strains, which consisted of 46 species and eight subspecies with validly published names and 13 species whose names have not been validly published [including 10 strains examined by the International Streptomyces Project (ISP)], were divided into two groups, namely typical and atypical whorl-forming Streptomyces species, based on their phenotypes and gyrB gene sequences. The typical whorl-forming species (59 strains) were divided into six major clusters of three or more species, seven minor clusters of two species and five single-member clusters, based on the threshold value of 97 % gyrB sequence similarity. Major clusters were typified by Streptomyces abikoensis, Streptomyces cinnamoneus, Streptomyces distallicus, Streptomyces griseocarneus, Streptomyces hiroshimensis and Streptomyces netropsis. Phenotypically, members of each cluster resembled each other closely except for the S. distallicus cluster, which was divided phenotypically into the S. distallicus and Streptomyces stramineus subclusters, and the S. netropsis cluster, which was divided into the S. netropsis and Streptomyces eurocidicus subclusters. Strains in each minor cluster closely resembled each other phenotypically. DNA-DNA relatedness between the representative species and others in each major cluster and/or subcluster, and between strains in the minor clusters, was >70 %, indicating that the major clusters and/or subclusters and the minor clusters each comprise a single species. It was concluded that 59 strains of typical whorl-forming Streptomyces species consisted of the following 18 species, including subjective synonym(s): S. abikoensis, Streptomyces ardus, Streptomyces blastmyceticus, S. cinnamoneus, S. eurocidicus, S. griseocarneus, S. hiroshimensis, Streptomyces lilacinus, 'Streptomyces luteoreticuli', Streptomyces luteosporeus, Streptomyces mashuensis, Streptomyces mobaraensis, Streptomyces morookaense, S. netropsis, Streptomyces orinoci, S. stramineus, Streptomyces thioluteus and Streptomyces viridiflavus.
( 2010 )
Coevolution of antibiotic production and counter-resistance in soil bacteria.
PMID : 20067498 : DOI : 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2009.02125.x
We present evidence for the coexistence and coevolution of antibiotic resistance and biosynthesis genes in soil bacteria. The distribution of the streptomycin (strA) and viomycin (vph) resistance genes was examined in Streptomyces isolates. strA and vph were found either within a biosynthetic gene cluster or independently. Streptomyces griseus strains possessing the streptomycin cluster formed part of a clonal complex. All S. griseus strains possessing solely strA belonged to two clades; both were closely related to the streptomycin producers. Other more distantly related S. griseus strains did not contain strA. S. griseus strains with only vph also formed two clades, but they were more distantly related to the producers and to one another. The expression of the strA gene was constitutive in a resistance-only strain whereas streptomycin producers showed peak strA expression in late log phase that correlates with the switch on of streptomycin biosynthesis. While there is evidence that antibiotics have diverse roles in nature, our data clearly support the coevolution of resistance in the presence of antibiotic biosynthetic capability within closely related soil dwelling bacteria. This reinforces the view that, for some antibiotics at least, the primary role is one of antibiosis during competition in soil for resources.
( 2009 )
Detection, distribution, and organohalogen compound discovery implications of the reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent halogenase gene in major filamentous actinomycete taxonomic groups.
PMID : 19447951 : DOI : 10.1128/AEM.02958-08 PMC : PMC2708417
Halogenases have been shown to play a significant role in biosynthesis and introducing the bioactivity of many halogenated secondary metabolites. In this study, 54 reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH(2))-dependent halogenase gene-positive strains were identified after the PCR screening of a large collection of 228 reference strains encompassing all major families and genera of filamentous actinomycetes. The wide distribution of this gene was observed to extend to some rare lineages with higher occurrences and large sequence diversity. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed that strains containing highly homologous halogenases tended to produce halometabolites with similar structures, and halogenase genes are likely to propagate by horizontal gene transfer as well as vertical inheritance within actinomycetes. Higher percentages of halogenase gene-positive strains than those of halogenase gene-negative ones contained polyketide synthase genes and/or nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes or displayed antimicrobial activities in the tests applied, indicating their genetic and physiological potentials for producing secondary metabolites. The robustness of this halogenase gene screening strategy for the discovery of particular biosynthetic gene clusters in rare actinomycetes besides streptomycetes was further supported by genome-walking analysis. The described distribution and phylogenetic implications of the FADH(2)-dependent halogenase gene present a guide for strain selection in the search for novel organohalogen compounds from actinomycetes.
( 1997 )
Molecular detection of streptomycin-producing streptomycetes in Brazilian soils.
PMID : 9097426 : PMC : PMC168423
Actinomycetes were isolated from soybean rhizosphere soil collected as two field sites in Brazil. All the isolates were identified as Streptomyces species and were screened for streptomycin production and the presence of two genes, strA and strB1, known to be involved in streptomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseus. Antibiotic resistance profiles were determined for 53 isolates from cultivated and uncultivated sites, and approximately half the strains were streptomycin resistance. Clustering by the unweighted pair group method with averages indicated the presence of two major clusters, with the majority of resistant strains from cultivated sites being placed in cluster 1. Only representatives from this cluster contained strA. Streptomycetes containing strA and strB1 were phenotypically diverse, and only half could be assigned to known species. Sequence comparison of 16S rRNA and trpBA (tryptophan synthetase) genes revealed that streptomycin- producing streptomycetes were phylogenetically diverse. It appeared that a population of streptomycetes had colonized the rhizosphere and that a proportion of these were capable of streptomycin production.