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1. Hatano  K, Nishii  T, Kasai  H,     ( 2003 )

Taxonomic re-evaluation of whorl-forming Streptomyces (formerly Streptoverticillium) species by using phenotypes, DNA-DNA hybridization and sequences of gyrB, and proposal of Streptomyces luteireticuli (ex Katoh and Arai 1957) corrig., sp. nov., nom. rev.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 53 (Pt 5)
PMID : 13130042  :   DOI  :   10.1099/ijs.0.02238-0    
Abstract >>
The taxonomic status of 64 strains of whorl-forming Streptomyces (formerly Streptoverticillium) species was re-evaluated and strains were reclassified on the basis of their phenotypes, DNA-DNA hybridization data and partial sequences of gyrB, the structural gene of the B subunit of DNA gyrase. These strains, which consisted of 46 species and eight subspecies with validly published names and 13 species whose names have not been validly published [including 10 strains examined by the International Streptomyces Project (ISP)], were divided into two groups, namely typical and atypical whorl-forming Streptomyces species, based on their phenotypes and gyrB gene sequences. The typical whorl-forming species (59 strains) were divided into six major clusters of three or more species, seven minor clusters of two species and five single-member clusters, based on the threshold value of 97 % gyrB sequence similarity. Major clusters were typified by Streptomyces abikoensis, Streptomyces cinnamoneus, Streptomyces distallicus, Streptomyces griseocarneus, Streptomyces hiroshimensis and Streptomyces netropsis. Phenotypically, members of each cluster resembled each other closely except for the S. distallicus cluster, which was divided phenotypically into the S. distallicus and Streptomyces stramineus subclusters, and the S. netropsis cluster, which was divided into the S. netropsis and Streptomyces eurocidicus subclusters. Strains in each minor cluster closely resembled each other phenotypically. DNA-DNA relatedness between the representative species and others in each major cluster and/or subcluster, and between strains in the minor clusters, was >70 %, indicating that the major clusters and/or subclusters and the minor clusters each comprise a single species. It was concluded that 59 strains of typical whorl-forming Streptomyces species consisted of the following 18 species, including subjective synonym(s): S. abikoensis, Streptomyces ardus, Streptomyces blastmyceticus, S. cinnamoneus, S. eurocidicus, S. griseocarneus, S. hiroshimensis, Streptomyces lilacinus, 'Streptomyces luteoreticuli', Streptomyces luteosporeus, Streptomyces mashuensis, Streptomyces mobaraensis, Streptomyces morookaense, S. netropsis, Streptomyces orinoci, S. stramineus, Streptomyces thioluteus and Streptomyces viridiflavus.
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2. Zocher  G, Winkler  R, Hertweck  C, Schulz  GE,     ( 2007 )

Structure and action of the N-oxygenase AurF from Streptomyces thioluteus.

Journal of molecular biology 373 (1)
PMID : 17765264  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.jmb.2007.06.014    
Abstract >>
Nitro groups are found in a number of bioactive compounds. Most of them arise by a stepwise mono-oxygenation of amino groups. One of the involved enzymes is AurF participating in the biosynthesis of aureothin. Its structure was established at 2.1 A resolution showing a homodimer with a binuclear manganese cluster. The enzyme preparation, which yielded the analyzed crystals, showed activity using in vitro and in vivo assays. Chain fold and cluster are homologous with ribonucleotide reductase subunit R2 and related enzymes. The two manganese ions and an iron content of about 15% were established by anomalous X-ray diffraction. A comparison of the cluster with more common di-iron clusters suggested an additional histidine in the coordination sphere to cause the preference for manganese over iron. There is no oxo-bridge. The substrate p-amino-benzoate was modeled into the active center. The model is supported by mutant activity measurements. It shows the geometry of the reaction and explains the established substrate spectrum.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Protein Structure, Quaternary
3. He  J, Hertweck  C,     ( 2003 )

Iteration as programmed event during polyketide assembly; molecular analysis of the aureothin biosynthesis gene cluster.

Chemistry & biology 10 (12)
PMID : 14700630  :  
Abstract >>
Analysis of the type I modular polyketide synthase (PKS) involved in the biosynthesis of the rare nitroaryl polyketide metabolite aureothin (aur) from Streptomyces thioluteus HKI-227 has revealed only four modules to catalyze the five polyketide chain extensions required. By heterologous expression of the aur PKS cluster, direct evidence was obtained that these modules were sufficient to support aureothin biosynthesis. It appears that one module catalyzes two successive cycles of chain extension, one of the first examples of a PKS in which such iteration or "stuttering" is required to produce the normal polyketide product. In addition, lack of a specified loading domain implicates a novel PKS priming mechanism involving the unique p-nitrobenzoate starter unit. The 27 kb aur gene cluster also encodes a novel N-oxidase, which may represent the first member of a new family of such enzymes.
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4. Zocher  G, Richter  ME, Mueller  U, Hertweck  C,     ( 2011 )

Structural fine-tuning of a multifunctional cytochrome P450 monooxygenase.

Journal of the American Chemical Society 133 (7)
PMID : 21280577  :   DOI  :   10.1021/ja110146z    
Abstract >>
AurH is a unique cytochrome P450 monooxygenase catalyzing the stepwise formation of a homochiral oxygen heterocycle, a key structural and pharmacophoric component of the antibiotic aureothin. The exceptional enzymatic reaction involves a tandem oxygenation process including a regio- and stereospecific hydroxylation, followed by heterocyclization. For the structural and biochemical basis of this unparalleled sequence, four crystal structures of AurH variants in different conformational states and in complex with the P450 inhibitor ancymidol were solved, which represent the first structures of the CYP151A group. Structural data in conjunction with computational docking, site-directed mutagenesis, and chemical analyses unveiled a switch function when recognizing the two substrates, deoxyaureothin and the hydroxylated intermediate, thus allowing the second oxygenation-heterocyclization step. Furthermore, we were able to modify the chemo- and regioselectivity of AurH, yielding mutants that catalyze the regioselective six-electron transfer of a nonactivated methyl group to a carboxylic acid via hydroxyl and aldehyde intermediates.
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5. Zhai  Y, Bai  S, Liu  J, Yang  L, Han  L, Huang  X, He  J,     ( 2016 )

Identification of an unusual type II thioesterase in the dithiolopyrrolone antibiotics biosynthetic pathway.

Biochemical and biophysical research communications 473 (1)
PMID : 27018252  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.03.105    
Abstract >>
Dithiolopyrrolone group antibiotics characterized by an electronically unique dithiolopyrrolone heterobicyclic core are known for their antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal and antitumor activities. Recently the biosynthetic gene clusters for two dithiolopyrrolone compounds, holomycin and thiomarinol, have been identified respectively in different bacterial species. Here, we report a novel dithiolopyrrolone biosynthetic gene cluster (aut) isolated from Streptomyces thioluteus DSM 40027 which produces two pyrrothine derivatives, aureothricin and thiolutin. By comparison with other characterized dithiolopyrrolone clusters, eight genes in the aut cluster were verified to be responsible for the assembly of dithiolopyrrolone core. The aut cluster was further confirmed by heterologous expression and in-frame gene deletion experiments. Intriguingly, we found that the heterogenetic thioesterase HlmK derived from the holomycin (hlm) gene cluster in Streptomyces clavuligerus significantly improved heterologous biosynthesis of dithiolopyrrolones in Streptomyces albus through coexpression with the aut cluster. In the previous studies, HlmK was considered invalid because it has a Ser to Gly point mutation within the canonical Ser-His-Asp catalytic triad of thioesterases. However, gene inactivation and complementation experiments in our study unequivocally demonstrated that HlmK is an active distinctive type II thioesterase that plays a beneficial role in dithiolopyrrolone biosynthesis.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Biosynthetic gene cluster
Heterologous expression
In-frame gene deletion
Type II thioesterase
6. Han  JH, Cho  MH, Kim  SB,     ( 2012 )

Ribosomal and protein coding gene based multigene phylogeny on the family Streptomycetaceae.

Systematic and applied microbiology 35 (1)
PMID : 22154623  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.syapm.2011.08.007    
Abstract >>
The phylogenetic relationship among the three genera of the family Streptomycetaceae was examined using the small and large subunit ribosomal RNA genes, and the gyrB, rpoB, trpB, atpD and recA genes. The total stretches of the analyzed ribosomal genes were 4.2kb, and those of five protein coding genes were 4.5 kb. The resultant phylogenetic trees confirmed that each genus formed an independent clade in the majority of cases. The G+C contents of rRNA genes were 56.9-58.9 mol%, and those of protein coding genes were 65.4-72.4 mol%, the latter being closer to those of the genomic DNAs. The average nucleotide sequence identity between the organisms were 94.1-96.4% for rRNA genes and 85.7-90.6% for protein coding genes, thus indicating that protein coding genes can give higher resolution than rRNA genes. In addition, the protein coding gene trees were more stable than the rRNA gene trees, supported by higher bootstrap values and other treeing algorithms. Moreover, the genome data of six Streptomyces species indicated that many protein coding genes exhibited higher correlations with genome relatedness. The combined gene sequences were also shown to give a better resolution with higher stability than any single genes, though not necessarily more correlated with genome relatedness. It is evident from this study that the rRNA gene based phylogeny can be misleading, and also that protein coding genes have a number of advantages over the rRNA genes as the phylogenetic markers including a high correlation with the genome relatedness.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, rRNA
7. Wang  L, Zhu  M, Zhang  Q, Zhang  X, Yang  P, Liu  Z, Deng  Y, Zhu  Y, Huang  X, Han  L, Li  S, He  J,     ( 2017 )

Diisonitrile Natural Product SF2768 Functions As a Chalkophore That Mediates Copper Acquisition in Streptomyces thioluteus.

ACS chemical biology 12 (12)
PMID : 29131568  :   DOI  :   10.1021/acschembio.7b00897    
Abstract >>
A nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster (sfa) was identified in Streptomyces thioluteus to direct the biosynthesis of the diisonitrile antibiotic SF2768. Its biosynthetic pathway was reasonably proposed based on bioinformatics analysis, metabolic profiles of mutants, and the elucidation of the intermediate and shunt product structures. Bioinformatics-based alignment found a putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter related to iron import within the biosynthetic gene cluster, which implied that the product might be a siderophore. However, characterization of the metal-binding properties by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS), metal-ligand titration, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and chrome azurol S (CAS) assays revealed that the final product SF2768 and its diisonitrile derivatives specifically bind copper, rather than iron, to form stable complexes. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis revealed that the intracellular cupric content of S. thioluteus significantly increased upon incubation with the copper-SF2768 complex, direct evidence for the copper acquisition function of SF2768. Further in vivo functional characterization of the transport elements for the copper-SF2768 complexes not only confirmed the chalkophore identity of the compound but also gave initial clues into the copper uptake mechanism of this nonmethanotrophic microorganism.
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