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1. Chen  CH, Cheng  JC, Cho  YC, Hsu  WH,     ( 2005 )

A gene cluster for the fatty acid catabolism from Pseudonocardia autotrophica BCRC12444.

Biochemical and biophysical research communications 329 (3)
PMID : 15752735  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.02.052    
Abstract >>
Genes involved in fatty acid degradation (fad) were isolated from Pseudonocardia autotrophica BBRC12444. Six open reading frames and a bi-directional promoter region were identified by DNA sequence analyses and primer extension. The fad gene cluster included five ORFs, designated fadA, fadB, fadR, fadC, and fadD. Base on their amino acid sequence identity, the gene products were identified as acyl-CoA ligase (FadA), enoyl-CoA hydratase (FadB), transcriptional regulator (FadR), cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (FadC), and ferredoxin (FadD). Regulatory protein, FadR, could bind to an operator sequence located in the divergent promoter region between fadR and fadC genes, implicating the control of fatty acid degradation. The real-time quantitative PCR assays revealed that the expression of the fadA, fadB, fadR, and fadC genes was induced by long chain fatty acids and repressed by glucose. All results demonstrated that the fad gene cluster participated in the pathway of the fatty acid catabolism. This is the first bacterial fad gene cluster to be reported.
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2. Fujii  Y, Norihisa  K, Fujii  T, Aritoku  Y, Kagawa  Y, Sallam  KI, Johdo  O, Arisawa  A, Tamura  T,     ( 2011 )

Construction of a novel expression vector in Pseudonocardia autotrophica and its application to efficient biotransformation of compactin to pravastatin, a specific HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor.

Biochemical and biophysical research communications 404 (1)
PMID : 21144838  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.12.013    
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The novel plasmid vector (pTAOR4-Rev) suitable for gene expression in actinomycete strains of Pseudonocardia autotrophica was constructed from 2 P. autotrophica genetic elements, the novel replication origin and the acetone-inducible promoter. The replication origin was isolated from the endogenous plasmid of strain DSM 43082 and the acetone-inducible promoter was determined by analysis of the upstream region of an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase gene homologue in strain NBRC 12743. P. autotrophica strains transformed with pTAOR4-P450, carrying a gene for cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, expressed P450 from the acetone-inducible promoter, as verified by SDS-PAGE and spectral analysis. The biotransformation test of acetone-induced resting cells prepared from a strain of P. autotrophica carrying pTAOR4 that harbors a compactin (CP)-hydroxylating P450 gene revealed 3.3-fold increased production of pravastatin (PV), a drug for hypercholesterolemia. Biotransformation of CP by the same strain in batch culture yielded PV accumulation of 14.3 g/l after 100 h. The expression vector pTAOR4-Rev and its function-enhancing derivatives provide a versatile approach to industrial biotransformation by Pseudonocardia strains, which can be good hosts for P450 monooxygenase expression.
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3. Fujii  Y, Kabumoto  H, Nishimura  K, Fujii  T, Yanai  S, Takeda  K, Tamura  N, Arisawa  A, Tamura  T,     ( 2009 )

Purification, characterization, and directed evolution study of a vitamin D3 hydroxylase from Pseudonocardia autotrophica.

Biochemical and biophysical research communications 385 (2)
PMID : 19450562  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.05.033    
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Vitamin D(3) (VD(3)) is a fat-soluble prohormone that plays a crucial role in bone metabolism, immunity, and control of cell proliferation and cell differentiation in mammals. The actinomycete Pseudonocardia autotrophica is capable of bioconversion of VD(3) into its physiologically active forms, namely, 25(OH)VD(3) or 1alpha,25(OH)(2)VD(3). In this study, we isolated and characterized Vdh (vitamin D(3) hydroxylase), which hydroxylates VD(3) from P. autotrophica NBRC 12743. The vdh gene encodes a protein containing 403 amino acids with a molecular weight of 44,368Da. This hydroxylase was found to be homologous with the P450 belonging to CYP107 family. Vdh had the same ratio of the V(max) values for VD(3) 25-hydroxylation and 25(OH)VD(3) 1alpha-hydroxylation, while other enzymes showed preferential regio-specific hydroxylation on VD(3). We characterized a collection of Vdh mutants obtained by random mutagenesis and obtained a Vdh-K1 mutant by the combination of four amino acid substitutions. Vdh-K1 showed one-order higher VD(3) 25-hydroxylase activity than the wild-type enzyme. Biotransformation of VD(3) into 25(OH)VD(3) was successfully accomplished with a Vdh-expressed recombinant strain of actinobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis. Vdh may be a useful enzyme for the production of physiologically active forms of VD(3) by a single cytochrome P450.
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Directed Molecular Evolution
4. Kim  BG, Lee  MJ, Seo  J, Hwang  YB, Lee  MY, Han  K, Sherman  DH, Kim  ES,     ( 2009 )

Identification of functionally clustered nystatin-like biosynthetic genes in a rare actinomycetes, Pseudonocardia autotrophica.

Journal of industrial microbiology & biotechnology 36 (11)
PMID : 19697072  :   DOI  :   10.1007/s10295-009-0629-5    
Abstract >>
The polyene antibiotics, including nystatin, pimaricin, amphotericin, and candicidin, comprise a family of very valuable antifungal polyketide compounds, and they are typically produced by soil actinomycetes. Previously, using a polyene cytochrome P450 hydroxylase-specific genome screening strategy, Pseudonocardia autotrophica KCTC9441 was determined to contain genes potentially encoding polyene biosynthesis. Here, sequence information of an approximately 125.7-kb contiguous DNA region in five overlapping cosmids isolated from the P. autotrophica KCTC9441 genomic library revealed a total of 23 open reading frames, which are presumably involved in the biosynthesis of a nystatin-like compound tentatively named NPP. The deduced roles for six multi-modular polyketide synthase (PKS) catalytic domains were found to be highly homologous to those of previously identified nystatin biosynthetic genes. Low NPP productivity suggests that the functionally clustered NPP biosynthetic pathway genes are tightly regulated in P. autotrophica. Disruption of a NPP PKS gene completely abolished both NPP biosynthesis and antifungal activity against Candida albicans, suggesting that polyene-specific genome screening may constitute an efficient method for isolation of potentially valuable previously identified polyene genes and compounds from various rare actinomycetes widespread in nature.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Fungal
Multigene Family
5. Ban  JG, Woo  MW, Lee  BR, Lee  MJ, Choi  SS, Kim  ES,     ( 2014 )

A novel regio?specific cyclosporin hydroxylase gene revealed through the genome mining of Pseudonocardia autotrophica.

Journal of industrial microbiology & biotechnology 41 (5)
PMID : 24659179  :   DOI  :   10.1007/s10295-014-1432-5    
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The regio-specific hydroxylation at the 4th N-methyl leucine of the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin A (CsA) was previously proposed to be mediated by a unique cytochrome P450 hydroxylase (CYP), CYP-sb21 from the rare actinomycetes Sebekia benihana. Interestingly, a different rare actinomycetes species, Pseudonocardia autotrophica, was found to possess a different regio-selectivity, the preferential hydroxylation at the 9th N-methyl leucine of CsA. Through an in silico analysis of the whole genome of P. autotrophica, we describe here the classification of 31 total CYPs in P. autotrophica. Three putative CsA CYP genes, showing the highest sequence homologies with CYPsb21, were successfully inactivated using PCR-targeted gene disruption. Only one knock-out mutant, �GCYP-pa1, failed to convert CsA to its hydroxylated forms. The hydroxylation activity of CsA by CYP-pa1 was confirmed by CYP-pa1 gene complementation as well as heterologous expression in the CsA non-hydroxylating Streptomyces coelicolor. Moreover, the cyclosporine regio-selectivity of CYP-pa1 expressed in the �GCYP-sb21 S. benihana mutant strain was also confirmed unchanged through cross complementation. These results show that preferential regio-specific hydroxylation at the 9th N-methyl leucine of CsA is carried out by a specific P450 hydroxylase gene in P. autotrophica, CYP-pa1, setting the stage for the biotechnological application of CsA regioselective hydroxylation.
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6. Lee  MJ, Kong  D, Han  K, Sherman  DH, Bai  L, Deng  Z, Lin  S, Kim  ES,     ( 2012 )

Structural analysis and biosynthetic engineering of a solubility-improved and less-hemolytic nystatin-like polyene in Pseudonocardia autotrophica.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology 95 (1)
PMID : 22382166  :   DOI  :   10.1007/s00253-012-3955-x    
Abstract >>
Polyene antibiotics such as nystatin are a large family of very valuable antifungal polyketide compounds typically produced by soil actinomycetes. Previously, using a polyene cytochrome P450 hydroxylase-specific genome screening strategy, Pseudonocardia autotrophica KCTC9441 was determined to contain an approximately 125.7-kb region of contiguous DNA with a total of 23 open reading frames, which are involved in the biosynthesis and regulation of a structurally unique polyene natural product named NPP. Here, we report the complete structure of NPP, which contains an aglycone identical to nystatin and harbors a unique di-sugar moiety, mycosaminyl-(�\1-4)-N-acetyl-glucosamine. A mutant generated by inactivation of a sole glycosyltransferase gene (nppDI) within the npp gene cluster can be complemented in trans either by nppDI-encoded protein or by its nystatin counterpart, NysDI, suggesting that the two sugars might be attached by two different glycosyltransferases. Compared with nystatin (which bears a single sugar moiety), the di-sugar containing NPP exhibits approximately 300-fold higher water solubility and 10-fold reduced hemolytic activity, while retaining about 50% antifungal activity against Candida albicans. These characteristics reveal NPP as a promising candidate for further development into a pharmacokinetically improved, less-cytotoxic polyene antifungal antibiotic.
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7.     ( 1994 )

Cloning and nucleotide sequence of a bacterial cytochrome P-450VD25 gene encoding vitamin D-3 25-hydroxylase.

Biochimica et biophysica acta 1219 (1)
PMID : 8086461  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0167-4781(94)90266-6    
Abstract >>
The gene encoding an enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation at position 25 of vitamin D-3 was cloned from an actinomycete strain, Amycolata autotrophica, by use of a host-vector system of Streptomyces lividans. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence revealed that this enzyme, tentatively named P-450VD25, contains several regions of strong similarity with amino acid sequences of cytochromes P-450 from a variety of organisms, primarily in the regions of an oxygen-binding site and a heme ligand pocket. Especially, P-450VD25 shows end-to-end similarity in amino acid sequence to P-450dNIR of Fusarium oxysporum and P-450SU2 of Streptomyces griseolus. The recombinant S. lividans strain containing the P-450VD25 gene on a multicopy plasmid converted vitamin D-3 in the medium into 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 at a maximum yield of 10%.
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