( 2003 )
Three-dimensional structures of thermophilic beta-1,4-xylanases from Chaetomium thermophilum and Nonomuraea flexuosa. Comparison of twelve xylanases in relation to their thermal stability.
PMID : 12653995 : DOI : 10.1046/j.1432-1033.2003.03496.x
The crystal structures of thermophilic xylanases from Chaetomium thermophilum and Nonomuraea flexuosa were determined at 1.75 and 2.1 A resolution, respectively. Both enzymes have the overall fold typical to family 11 xylanases with two highly twisted beta-sheets forming a large cleft. The comparison of 12 crystal structures of family 11 xylanases from both mesophilic and thermophilic organisms showed that the structures of different xylanases are very similar. The sequence identity differences correlated well with the structural differences. Several minor modifications appeared to be responsible for the increased thermal stability of family 11 xylanases: (a) higher Thr : Ser ratio (b) increased number of charged residues, especially Arg, resulting in enhanced polar interactions, and (c) improved stabilization of secondary structures involved the higher number of residues in the beta-strands and stabilization of the alpha-helix region. Some members of family 11 xylanases have a unique strategy to improve their stability, such as a higher number of ion pairs or aromatic residues on protein surface, a more compact structure, a tighter packing, and insertions at some regions resulting in enhanced interactions.
( 2005 )
Thermostable xylanases, Xyn10A and Xyn11A, from the actinomycete Nonomuraea flexuosa: isolation of the genes and characterization of recombinant Xyn11A polypeptides produced in Trichoderma reesei.
PMID : 15650852 : DOI : 10.1007/s00253-004-1797-x
Two endoxylanases, Nf Xyn11A and Nf Xyn10A, were cloned from a Nonomuraea flexuosa (previously Actinomadura flexuosa) DSM43186 genomic expression library in Escherichia coli. The coding sequences of xyn11A and xyn10A consist of 344 and 492 amino acids, respectively. The catalytic domains belong to family 11 and family 10 of glycoside hydrolases. The C-termini share strong amino acid sequence similarity to carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) families CBM2 and CBM13, respectively. Native Nf Xyn11A, and recombinant Xyn11A expressed in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei, were purified from cultivation media and characterized. The molecular masses of the full-length enzymes determined by mass spectrometry were 32.9 kDa and 33.4 kDa, the recombinant enzyme having higher molecular mass due to glycosylation. In addition, shorter polypeptides with molecular masses of 23.8 kDa and 22.0 kDa were characterized from the T. reesei culture medium, both lacking the C-terminal CBM and the 22.0 kDa polypeptide also lacking most of the linker region. The recombinant polypeptides were similar to each other in terms of specific activity, pH and temperature dependence. However, the 23.8 kDa and 22.0 kDa polypeptides were more thermostable at 80 degrees C than the full-length enzyme. All polypeptide forms were effective in pretreatment of softwood kraft pulp at 80 degrees C.
( 2011 )
Computational design of an endo-1,4-beta-xylanase ligand binding site.
PMID : 21349882 : DOI : 10.1093/protein/gzr006 PMC : PMC3092692
The field of computational protein design has experienced important recent success. However, the de novo computational design of high-affinity protein-ligand interfaces is still largely an open challenge. Using the Rosetta program, we attempted the in silico design of a high-affinity protein interface to a small peptide ligand. We chose the thermophilic endo-1,4-�]-xylanase from Nonomuraea flexuosa as the protein scaffold on which to perform our designs. Over the course of the study, 12 proteins derived from this scaffold were produced and assayed for binding to the target ligand. Unfortunately, none of the designed proteins displayed evidence of high-affinity binding. Structural characterization of four designed proteins revealed that although the predicted structure of the protein model was highly accurate, this structural accuracy did not translate into accurate prediction of binding affinity. Crystallographic analyses indicate that the lack of binding affinity is possibly due to unaccounted for protein dynamics in the 'thumb' region of our design scaffold intrinsic to the family 11 �]-xylanase fold. Further computational analysis revealed two specific, single amino acid substitutions responsible for an observed change in backbone conformation, and decreased dynamic stability of the catalytic cleft. These findings offer new insight into the dynamic and structural determinants of the �]-xylanase proteins.
( 2008 )
De novo computational design of retro-aldol enzymes.
PMID : 18323453 : DOI : 10.1126/science.1152692 PMC : PMC3431203
The creation of enzymes capable of catalyzing any desired chemical reaction is a grand challenge for computational protein design. Using new algorithms that rely on hashing techniques to construct active sites for multistep reactions, we designed retro-aldolases that use four different catalytic motifs to catalyze the breaking of a carbon-carbon bond in a nonnatural substrate. Of the 72 designs that were experimentally characterized, 32, spanning a range of protein folds, had detectable retro-aldolase activity. Designs that used an explicit water molecule to mediate proton shuffling were significantly more successful, with rate accelerations of up to four orders of magnitude and multiple turnovers, than those involving charged side-chain networks. The atomic accuracy of the design process was confirmed by the x-ray crystal structure of active designs embedded in two protein scaffolds, both of which were nearly superimposable on the design model.
( 2015 )
Analysis of recombinase A (recA/RecA) in the actinobacterial family Streptosporangiaceae and identification of molecular signatures.
PMID : 26507967 : DOI : 10.1016/j.syapm.2015.10.001
The family Streptosporangiaceae (suborder Streptosporangineae) comprises 13 genera and 100 species with validly published names. In a recent study, gyrB gene sequences were obtained for members of the family Streptosporangiaceae and the GyrB amino acid sequences were analysed for molecular signatures. In this study, recA gene sequences (895nt) were determined for the type strains of members of the family Streptosporangiaceae. The sequences used represent 81% of the full-length recA gene of Streptosporangium roseum DSM 43021(T). The recA gene sequences were used for phylogenetic analyses and the trees were compared to the corresponding 16S-rRNA and gyrB gene trees. RecA amino acid alignments (298 amino acids) were generated and inspected for unique amino acid signatures to distinguish the genera in the family from each other. As was observed for the gyrB gene trees, the recA gene trees generally supported the division of the members of the family Streptosporangiaceae into 13 genera. The genus Nonomuraea was not monophyletic in any of the recA gene trees, while the genera Planomonospora and Streptosporangium were not monophyletic in the maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony trees. The gyrB-recA concatenated-gene tree was more robust than the recA gene tree, with 63 nodes in the gyrB-recA tree having bootstrap values ?95%. The only insertions in the recA gene sequences were inteins identified in the type strains of Acrocarpospora phusangensis, Acrocarpospora pleiomorpha and Microbispora mesophila. Examination of the RecA sequence alignments for genus-specific amino acid sequences showed that the genera Herbidospora, Planobispora, Planomonospora and Streptosporangium contain unique amino acid sequences that distinguish these genera from all other genera in the family Streptosporangiaceae. The results of this investigation extend the results of the GyrB study and will be useful in future taxonomic studies in the family Streptosporangiaceae by providing additional genus-specific molecular signatures.
( 2014 )
Gyrase subunit B amino acid signatures for the actinobacterial family Streptosporangiaceae.
PMID : 24423454 : DOI : 10.1016/j.syapm.2013.12.002
Higher order taxonomic assignments (family level and above) in the phylum Actinobacteria are currently based only on 16S-rRNA gene sequence analyses. Additional molecular markers need to be identified to increase the number of reference points for defining actinobacterial families and other higher taxa. Furthermore, since most novel actinobacterial taxa are defined at the level of species and genera, it is necessary to define molecular signatures at the genus level to enhance the robustness of genus descriptions. The current use of chemotaxonomic markers to define genera could be improved by the identification of genus-specific molecular signatures. In this study, GyrB amino acid sequences for members of the family Streptosporangiaceae were analysed for molecular signatures. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the gyrB gene tree supported the composition of the currently recognised genera in this family. The catalytically important amino acids were identified in the GyrB sequences, as were the GHKL superfamily motifs. Examination of GyrB protein sequence alignments revealed that there are genus-specific sequences for most of the multi-species genera and genus-defining amino acid insertions for the genera Herbidospora and Microbispora. Furthermore, there are GyrB signature amino acids which distinguish the family Streptosporangiaceae from the family Nocardiopsaceae.