( 1993 )
Characterization and N-terminal amino acid sequences of beta-(1-4)endoxylanases from Streptomyces roseiscleroticus: purification incorporating a bioprocessing agent.
PMID : 8471845 : DOI : 10.1006/prep.1993.1018
Streptomyces roseiscleroticus produces extracellular xylanases when cultured on a liquid xylan medium. Purified xylanases are used to facilitate bleaching of kraft pulps in the pulp and paper industry. Downstream processing and purification of xylanases from S. roseiscleroticus is difficult unless red pigments produced by the bacterium are removed. We report that the bioprocessing agent, Biocryl BPA-1000, removes these pigments allowing purification of four xylanases by HPLC employing cation exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and gel filtration. The xylanases have been named Xyl1, Xyl2, Xyl3, and Xyl4 according to their order of elution from the cation exchange column. The purified xylanases have been characterized according to their molecular weights, pH and temperature stabilities, N-terminal amino acid sequences, and hydrolysis action patterns on oat spelt xylan. The molecular weights by mass spectroscopy for Xyl1-Xyl4 are 33,647, 33,655, 21,070, and 46,855, respectively. All four xylanases exhibit pH optima between 5.0 and 7.0 and temperature optima between 50 and 60 degrees C. The N-terminal amino acid sequences are compared to sequences from Streptomyces lividans, Streptomyces 36A, and a Chainia sp. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Xyl1 appears to be unique, but sequences from Xyl2, 3, and 4 bear strong homology to xylanases cloned from S. lividans. Xyl3 is also homologous to xylanases from Streptomyces 36A, and a Chainia sp. Predominant products of arabinoxylan hydrolysis by the purified xylanases included xylotriose, tetraose, and pentaose. None of the xylanases purified from S. roseiscleroticus produced xylose.
( 2018 )
Manipulation of two regulatory genes for efficient production of chromomycins in Streptomyces reseiscleroticus.
PMID : 29977332 : DOI : 10.1186/s13036-018-0103-x PMC : PMC5992853
Regulatory genes play critical roles in natural product biosynthetic pathways. Chromomycins are promising anticancer natural products from actinomycetes. This study is aimed to create an efficient strain for production of these molecules by manipulating the regulatory genes. A putative but silent chromomycin biosynthetic gene cluster was discovered in Streptomyces reseiscleroticus. Heterologous expression of the ketosynthase, chain length factor, and acyl carrier protein in Streptomyces lividans confirmed that they are responsible for the assembly of a decaketide. Two regulatory genes are present in this gene cluster, including SARP-type activator SrcmRI and PadR-like repressor SrcmRII. Either overexpression of SrcmRI or disruption of SrcmRII turned on the biosynthetic pathway of chromomycins. The production titers of chromomycin A3/A2 in R5 agar in these two strains reached 8.9 �� 1.2/13.2 �� 1.6 and 49.3 �� 4.3/53.3 �� 3.6 mg/L, respectively. An engineered strain was then constructed with both SrcmRII disruption and SrcmRI overexpression, which produced chromomycins A3 and A2 in R5 agar at 69.4 �� 7.6 and 81.7 �� 7.2 mg/L, respectively. Optimization of the culture conditions further increased the titers of chromomycins A3 and A2 respectively to 145.1 �� 15.3 and 158.3 �� 15.4 mg/L in liquid fermentation. This work revealed the synergistic effect of manipulation of pathway repressor and activator genes in the engineering of a natural product biosynthetic pathway. The resulting engineered strain showed the highest production titers of chromomycins by a strain of Streptomyces, providing an efficient way to produce these pharmaceutically valuable molecules.