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1. Koivula  T, Hemilä  H,     ( 1992 )

Sequence encoding ribosomal protein L33 of Lactococcus lactis.

Gene 119 (1)
PMID : 1398083  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0378-1119(92)90081-y    
Abstract >>
A cloned fragment from Lactococcus lactis chromosome encoding the L33 ribosomal protein was sequenced. Two incomplete open reading frames (ORFs) were also found: the upstream ORF shows similarity to the tetracycline-resistance protein (Tet) of Bacillus stearothermophilus, and the downstream ORF shows homology to a protein of Bacillus subtilis participating in sporulation (SpoVE), and to proteins of Escherichia coli involved in cell division (FtsW) and the maintenance of cell shape (RodA).
KeywordMeSH Terms
Aniline Compounds
Escherichia coli Proteins
2. Sybesma  W, Starrenburg  M, Kleerebezem  M, Mierau  I, de Vos  WM, Hugenholtz  J,     ( 2003 )

Increased production of folate by metabolic engineering of Lactococcus lactis.

Applied and environmental microbiology 69 (6)
PMID : 12788700  :   DOI  :   10.1128/aem.69.6.3069-3076.2003     PMC  :   PMC161528    
Abstract >>
The dairy starter bacterium Lactococcus lactis is able to synthesize folate and accumulates large amounts of folate, predominantly in the polyglutamyl form. Only small amounts of the produced folate are released in the extracellular medium. Five genes involved in folate biosynthesis were identified in a folate gene cluster in L. lactis MG1363: folA, folB, folKE, folP, and folC. The gene folKE encodes the biprotein 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-hydroxymethyldihydropteridine pyrophosphokinase and GTP cyclohydrolase I. The overexpression of folKE in L. lactis was found to increase the extracellular folate production almost 10-fold, while the total folate production increased almost 3-fold. The controlled combined overexpression of folKE and folC, encoding polyglutamyl folate synthetase, increased the retention of folate in the cell. The cloning and overexpression of folA, encoding dihydrofolate reductase, decreased the folate production twofold, suggesting a feedback inhibition of reduced folates on folate biosynthesis.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
3. Sánchez  C, Mayo  B,     ( 2003 )

Sequence and analysis of pBM02, a novel RCR cryptic plasmid from Lactococcus lactis subsp cremoris P8-2-47.

Plasmid 49 (2)
PMID : 12726765  :  
Abstract >>
This paper reports the complete nucleotide sequence of the 3.85 kbp plasmid pBM02 from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris P8-2-47. Analysis of the sequence predicted six ORFs larger than 25 amino acids. They all were transcribed from the same strand and organized in two functional cassettes: the replication region and a putative mobilization region. In the replication region, two ORFs specifying proteins homologous to others found in some classes of rolling circle-replicating plasmids were encountered (copG and repB). In fact, single-stranded DNA was detected as a replication intermediate of pBM02. copG and repB, together with some upstream sequences, formed part of the minimal replication unit of the plasmid. Interestingly, pBM02 shared a 212 bp stretch with plasmids of the pWV01 type, in which the whole single-strand origin of replication is included. In the mobilization region, an ORF coding for a mobilization-like protein was present, preceded by a putative oriT sequence homologous to that of plasmid pMV158. The replicon of pBM02 is of the wide-host range type, and functions in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli.
KeywordMeSH Terms
DNA Helicases
DNA-Binding Proteins
Trans-Activators
4. Forde  A, Fitzgerald  GF,     ( 2003 )

Molecular organization of exopolysaccharide (EPS) encoding genes on the lactococcal bacteriophage adsorption blocking plasmid, pCI658.

Plasmid 49 (2)
PMID : 12726766  :  
Abstract >>
The lactococcal plasmid pCI658 (58 kb) isolated from Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris HO2 encodes the production of a hydrophilic exopolysaccharide (EPS) which consists primarily of galactose and glucuronic acid and which interferes with adsorption of phages ?712 and ?c2 to cell surface receptors. Examination of the nucleotide sequence of a 21.8-kb region of the plasmid revealed a large genetic cluster consisting of at least 23 putative EPS biosynthetic determinants in addition to the presence of insertion sequences at the 5(') and 3(') ends. According to homology searches, the genes were organized in specific regions involved in regulation, synthesis and export of the EPS. The predicted products of individual genes exhibited significant homology to exopolysaccharide, capsular polysaccharide (CPS), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) gene products from a variety of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Evidence of a gene encoding UDP-glucose dehydrogenase is also presented and this is the first description of such a gene in Lactococcus.
KeywordMeSH Terms
5. Lunde  M, Blatny  JM, Lillehaug  D, Aastveit  AH, Nes  IF,     ( 2003 )

Use of real-time quantitative PCR for the analysis of phiLC3 prophage stability in lactococci.

Applied and environmental microbiology 69 (1)
PMID : 12513975  :   DOI  :   10.1128/aem.69.1.41-48.2003     PMC  :   PMC152469    
Abstract >>
Bacteriophages are a common and constant threat to proper milk fermentation. It has become evident that lysogeny is widespread in lactic acid bacteria, and in this work the temperate lactococcal bacteriophage phi LC3 was used as a model to study prophage stability in lactococci. The stability was analyzed in six phi LC3 lysogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris host strains when they were growing at 15 and 30 degrees C. In order to perform these analyses, a real-time PCR assay was developed. The stability of the phi LC3 prophage was found to vary with the growth phase of its host L. lactis IMN-C1814, in which the induction rate increased during the exponential growth phase and reached a maximum level when the strain was entering the stationary phase. The maximum spontaneous induction frequency of the phi LC3 prophage varied between 0.32 and 9.1% (28-fold) in the six lysogenic strains. No correlation was observed between growth rates of the host cells and the spontaneous prophage induction frequencies. Furthermore, the level of extrachromosomal phage DNA after induction of the prophage varied between the strains (1.9 to 390%), and the estimated burst sizes varied up to eightfold. These results show that the host cells have a significant impact on the lytic and lysogenic life styles of temperate bacteriophages. The present study shows the power of the real-time PCR technique in the analysis of temperate phage biology and will be useful in work to reveal the impact of temperate phages and lysogenic bacteria in various ecological fields.
KeywordMeSH Terms
6. Henrich  B, Klein  JR, Weber  B, Delorme  C, Renault  P, Wegmann  U,     ( 2002 )

Food-grade delivery system for controlled gene expression in Lactococcus lactis.

Applied and environmental microbiology 68 (11)
PMID : 12406734  :   DOI  :   10.1128/aem.68.11.5429-5436.2002     PMC  :   PMC129891    
Abstract >>
A food-grade system for the delivery of desired genes to Lactococcus lactis, their inducible expression, and their transfer to related strains was established. Based on the thermosensitive pG(+)host replicon, two types of plasmid vectors were constructed which contained sections of either the chromosomal leu operon of L. lactis or the tel operon from the lactococcal sex factor. Genes cloned into the leu or tel sequences of these vectors were delivered to the homologous regions of the chromosome or the sex factor through two single crossovers, leading to integration of the recombinant plasmids and subsequent excision of the vector portions. Inducible transcription of integrated genes was achieved by using the nisin-controlled expression (NICE) system. To establish the signal transduction genes nisRK in L. lactis, the vectors pLNG1363 (targeted to the chromosome) and pUK500 (targeted to the sex factor) were constructed. Fusions of six different peptidase genes (pep) from Lactobacillus delbrueckii with the nisin-inducible promoter P(nisA) were delivered to the sex factor with derivatives of the vector pUK300. Food-grade recombinants of L. lactis were constructed which had the nisRK genes and individual P(nisA)::pep fusions integrated either separately into the chromosome and the sex factor or simultaneously into the sex factor. With both types of recombinants, expression of P(nisA)::pep fusions after induction with nisin was demonstrated. Depending on the loci used for integration of nisRK, variable induction rates were observed. Furthermore, an engineered sex factor carrying a P(nisA)::pepI fusion was transfered by conjugation between two strains of L. lactis at a frequency of 4 x 10(-4).
KeywordMeSH Terms
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Transcription Factors
7. Rigolet  P, Mechin  I, Delage  MM, Chich  JF,     ( 2002 )

The structural basis for catalysis and specificity of the X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase from Lactococcus lactis.

Structure (London, England : 1993) 10 (10)
PMID : 12377124  :  
Abstract >>
The X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (X-PDAP) from Lactococcus lactis is a dimeric enzyme catalyzing the removal of Xaa-Pro dipeptides from the N terminus of peptides. The structure of the enzyme was solved at 2.2 A resolution and provides a model for the peptidase family S15. Each monomer is composed of four domains. The larger one presents an alpha/beta hydrolase fold and comprises the active site serine. The specificity pocket is mainly built by residues from a small helical domain which is, together with the N-terminal domain, essential for dimerization. A C-terminal moiety probably plays a role in the tropism of X-PDAP toward the cellular membrane. These results give new insights for further exploration of the role of the enzymes of the SC clan.
KeywordMeSH Terms
8. Serre  L, Pereira de Jésus  K, Boiteux  S, Zelwer  C, Castaing  B,     ( 2002 )

Crystal structure of the Lactococcus lactis formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase bound to an abasic site analogue-containing DNA.

The EMBO journal 21 (12)
PMID : 12065399  :   DOI  :   10.1093/emboj/cdf304     PMC  :   PMC126059    
Abstract >>
The formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg, MutM) is a bifunctional base excision repair enzyme (DNA glycosylase/AP lyase) that removes a wide range of oxidized purines, such as 8-oxoguanine and imidazole ring-opened purines, from oxidatively damaged DNA. The structure of a non-covalent complex between the Lactoccocus lactis Fpg and a 1,3-propanediol (Pr) abasic site analogue-containing DNA has been solved. Through an asymmetric interaction along the damaged strand and the intercalation of the triad (M75/R109/F111), Fpg pushes out the Pr site from the DNA double helix, recognizing the cytosine opposite the lesion and inducing a 60 degrees bend of the DNA. The specific recognition of this cytosine provides some structural basis for understanding the divergence between Fpg and its structural homologue endo nuclease VIII towards their substrate specificities. In addition, the modelling of the 8-oxoguanine residue allows us to define an enzyme pocket that may accommodate the extrahelical oxidized base.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Protein Structure, Tertiary
9. Karberg  M, Guo  H, Zhong  J, Coon  R, Perutka  J, Lambowitz  AM,     ( 2001 )

Group II introns as controllable gene targeting vectors for genetic manipulation of bacteria.

Nature biotechnology 19 (12)
PMID : 11731786  :   DOI  :   10.1038/nbt1201-1162    
Abstract >>
Mobile group II introns can be retargeted to insert into virtually any desired DNA target. Here we show that retargeted group II introns can be used for highly specific chromosomal gene disruption in Escherichia coli and other bacteria at frequencies of 0.1-22%. Furthermore, the introns can be used to introduce targeted chromosomal breaks, which can be repaired by transformation with a homologous DNA fragment, enabling the introduction of point mutations. Because of their wide host range, mobile group II introns should be useful for genetic engineering and functional genomics in a wide variety of bacteria.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Gene Transfer Techniques
Genes, Bacterial
Genetic Engineering
Genetic Vectors
Introns
10. Hoefnagel  MH, Starrenburg  MJ, Martens  DE, Hugenholtz  J, Kleerebezem  M, Van Swam  II, Bongers  R, Westerhoff  HV, Snoep  JL,     ( 2002 )

Metabolic engineering of lactic acid bacteria, the combined approach: kinetic modelling, metabolic control and experimental analysis.

Microbiology (Reading, England) 148 (Pt 4)
PMID : 11932446  :   DOI  :   10.1099/00221287-148-4-1003    
Abstract >>
Everyone who has ever tried to radically change metabolic fluxes knows that it is often harder to determine which enzymes have to be modified than it is to actually implement these changes. In the more traditional genetic engineering approaches 'bottle-necks' are pinpointed using qualitative, intuitive approaches, but the alleviation of suspected 'rate-limiting' steps has not often been successful. Here the authors demonstrate that a model of pyruvate distribution in Lactococcus lactis based on enzyme kinetics in combination with metabolic control analysis clearly indicates the key control points in the flux to acetoin and diacetyl, important flavour compounds. The model presented here (available at http://jjj.biochem.sun.ac.za/wcfs.html) showed that the enzymes with the greatest effect on this flux resided outside the acetolactate synthase branch itself. Experiments confirmed the predictions of the model, i.e. knocking out lactate dehydrogenase and overexpressing NADH oxidase increased the flux through the acetolactate synthase branch from 0 to 75% of measured product formation rates.
KeywordMeSH Terms
11. Breüner  A, Brøndsted  L, Hammer  K,     ( 2001 )

Resolvase-like recombination performed by the TP901-1 integrase.

Microbiology (Reading, England) 147 (Pt 8)
PMID : 11495984  :   DOI  :   10.1099/00221287-147-8-2051    
Abstract >>
The site-specific recombination system of temperate lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1 is unusual in several respects. First, the integrase belongs to the family of extended resolvases rather than to the lambda integrase family and second, in the presence of this integrase, a 56 bp attP fragment is sufficient for efficient recombination with the chromosomal attB site in the host Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363. In the present work, this attB site was analysed and a 43 bp attB region was found to be the smallest fragment able to participate fully in recombination. In vitro studies showed that the TP901-1 integrase binds this 43 bp attB fragment, the 56 bp attP and a larger attP fragment with equal affinity. Mutational analysis of the 5 bp common core region (TCAAT) showed that the TC dinucleotide is essential for recombination, but not for binding of the integrase, whereas none of the last three bases are important for recombination. When a number of attL sites, obtained by recombination between an attB site containing a mutation in this TC dinucleotide and a wild-type attP site, were sequenced, a mix of sites with the wild-type or the mutated sequence was obtained. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the TC dinucleotide constitutes the TP901-1 overlap region. A 2 bp overlap region has been observed in recombination reactions catalysed by all other members of the resolvase/invertase family tested so far. By selecting for attB sites with a decreased ability to participate in recombination, two bases located outside the core region of attB were shown to be involved in the in vitro binding of the TP901-1 integrase.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Recombination, Genetic
12. Wadskov-Hansen  SL, Willemoës  M, Martinussen  J, Hammer  K, Neuhard  J, Larsen  S,     ( 2001 )

Cloning and verification of the Lactococcus lactis pyrG gene and characterization of the gene product, CTP synthase.

The Journal of biological chemistry 276 (41)
PMID : 11500486  :   DOI  :   10.1074/jbc.M100531200    
Abstract >>
The pyrG gene of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, encoding CTP synthase, has been cloned and sequenced. It is flanked upstream by an open reading frame showing homology to several aminotransferases and downstream by an open reading frame of unknown function. L. lactis strains harboring disrupted pyrG alleles were constructed. These mutants required cytidine for growth, proving that in L. lactis, the pyrG product is the only enzyme responsible for the amination of UTP to CTP. In contrast to the situation in Escherichia coli, an L. lactis pyrG mutant could be constructed in the presence of a functional cdd gene encoding cytidine deaminase. A characterization of the enzyme revealed similar properties as found for CTP synthases from other organisms. However, unlike the majority of CTP synthases the lactococcal enzyme can convert dUTP to dCTP, although a half saturation concentration of 0.6 mm for dUTP makes it unlikely that this reaction plays a significant physiological role. As for other CTP synthases, the oligomeric structure of the lactococcal enzyme was found to be a tetramer, but unlike most of the other previously characterized enzymes, the tetramer was very stable even at dilute enzyme concentrations.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
13. Christensson  C, Pillidge  CJ, Ward  LJ, O'Toole  PW,     ( 2001 )

Nucleotide sequence and characterization of the cell envelope proteinase plasmid in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris HP.

Journal of applied microbiology 91 (2)
PMID : 11473599  :  
Abstract >>
The major cell envelope proteinase (lactocepin; EC 3.4.21.96) produced by Lactococcus lactis cheese starter bacteria is required for starter growth and acid production in milk. The aim of this study was to characterize a lactocepin plasmid from a L. lactis subsp. cremoris cheese starter strain. A restriction map of the lactocepin plasmid pHP003 from strain HP was constructed, fragments were cloned in Escherichia coli vectors, and the complete DNA sequence (13,433 bp) was determined. Among 120 industrial L. lactis starter strains screened, five contained the same specificity-type lactocepin as pHP003. The lactocepin gene in these strains was invariably linked with a partially-deleted abiB gene. The lactocepin specificity type of strain HP, conferred by a known configuration of key residues, is relatively uncommon. The gene is invariably linked with a partially deleted abiB gene on each lactocepin plasmid. This is the first complete sequence reported for a lactocepin plasmid, and provides the basis for better understanding, or manipulation, of lactocepin production.
KeywordMeSH Terms
14. Boels  IC, Ramos  A, Kleerebezem  M, de Vos  WM,     ( 2001 )

Functional analysis of the Lactococcus lactis galU and galE genes and their impact on sugar nucleotide and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis.

Applied and environmental microbiology 67 (7)
PMID : 11425718  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.67.7.3033-3040.2001     PMC  :   PMC92977    
Abstract >>
We studied the UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (galU) and UDP-galactose epimerase (galE) genes of Lactococcus lactis MG1363 to investigate their involvement in biosynthesis of UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose, which are precursors of glucose- and galactose-containing exopolysaccharides (EPS) in L. lactis. The lactococcal galU gene was identified by a PCR approach using degenerate primers and was found by Northern blot analysis to be transcribed in a monocistronic RNA. The L. lactis galU gene could complement an Escherichia coli galU mutant, and overexpression of this gene in L. lactis under control of the inducible nisA promoter resulted in a 20-fold increase in GalU activity. Remarkably, this resulted in approximately eightfold increases in the levels of both UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose. This indicated that the endogenous GalE activity is not limiting and that the GalU activity level in wild-type cells controls the biosynthesis of intracellular UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose. The increased GalU activity did not significantly increase NIZO B40 EPS production. Disruption of the galE gene resulted in poor growth, undetectable intracellular levels of UDP-galactose, and elimination of EPS production in strain NIZO B40 when cells were grown in media with glucose as the sole carbon source. Addition of galactose restored wild-type growth in the galE disruption mutant, while the level of EPS production was approximately one-half the wild-type level.
KeywordMeSH Terms
15. Boucher  I, Emond  E, Parrot  M, Moineau  S,     ( 2001 )

DNA sequence analysis of three Lactococcus lactis plasmids encoding phage resistance mechanisms.

Journal of dairy science 84 (7)
PMID : 11467810  :   DOI  :   10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)74595-X    
Abstract >>
The three Lactococcus lactis plasmids pSRQ700, pSRQ800, and pSRQ900 encode the previously described anti-phage resistance mechanisms LlaDCHI, AbiK, and AbiQ, respectively. Since these plasmids are likely to be introduced into industrial Lactococcus lactis strains used to manufacture commercial fermented dairy products, their complete DNA sequences were determined and analyzed. The plasmids pSRQ700 (7784 bp), pSRQ800 (7858 bp), and pSRQ900 (10,836 bp) showed a similar genetic organization including a common lactococcal theta-type replicon. A second replication module showing features of the pMV158 family of rolling circle replicons was also found on pSRQ700. The theta replication regions of the three plasmids were associated with two additional coding regions, one of which encodes for HsdS, the specificity subunit of the type I restriction/modification system. When introduced into L. lactis IL1403, the HsdS of pSRQ800 and pSRQ900 conferred a weak resistance against phage P008 (936 species). These results indicated that both HsdS subunits can complement the chromosomally encoded type I restriction/modification system in IL1403. The genes involved in the phage resistance systems LlaDCHI, AbiK, and AbiQ were found in close proximity to and downstream of the replication modules. In pSRQ800 and pSRQ900, transfer origins and putative tyrosine recombinases were found upstream of the theta replicons. Genes encoding recombination proteins were also found on pSRQ700. Finally, open reading frames associated with bacteriocin production were found on pSRQ900, but no anti-lactococcal activity was detected. Based on our current knowledge, these three plasmids are safe and suitable for food-grade applications.
KeywordMeSH Terms
16. Andersen  HW, Solem  C, Hammer  K, Jensen  PR,     ( 2001 )

Twofold reduction of phosphofructokinase activity in Lactococcus lactis results in strong decreases in growth rate and in glycolytic flux.

Journal of bacteriology 183 (11)
PMID : 11344154  :   DOI  :   10.1128/JB.183.11.3458-3467.2001     PMC  :   PMC99644    
Abstract >>
Two mutant strains of Lactococcus lactis in which the promoter of the las operon, harboring pfk, pyk, and ldh, were replaced by synthetic promoters were constructed. These las mutants had an approximately twofold decrease in the activity of phosphofructokinase, whereas the activities of pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase remained closer to the wild-type level. In defined medium supplemented with glucose, the growth rate of the mutants was reduced to 57 to 70% of wild-type levels and the glycolytic flux was reduced to 62 to 76% of wild-type levels. In complex medium growth was even further reduced. Surprisingly, the mutants still showed homolactic fermentation, which indicated that the limitation was different from standard glucose-limited conditions. One explanation could be that the reduced activity of phosphofructokinase resulted in the accumulation of sugar-phosphates. Indeed, when one of the mutants was starved for glucose in glucose-limited chemostat, the growth rate could gradually be increased to 195% of the growth rate observed in glucose-saturated batch culture, suggesting that phosphofructokinase does affect the concentration of upstream metabolites. The pools of glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate were subsequently found to be increased two- to fourfold in the las mutants, which indicates that phosphofructokinase exerts strong control over the concentration of these metabolites.
KeywordMeSH Terms
17. Froger  A, Rolland  JP, Bron  P, Lagrée  V, Le Cahérec  F, Deschamps  S, Hubert  JF, Pellerin  I, Thomas  D, Delamarche  C,     ( 2001 )

Functional characterization of a microbial aquaglyceroporin.

Microbiology (Reading, England) 147 (Pt 5)
PMID : 11320116  :   DOI  :   10.1099/00221287-147-5-1129    
Abstract >>
The major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) constitute a widespread membrane channel family essential for osmotic cell equilibrium. The MIPs can be classified into three functional subgroups: aquaporins, glycerol facilitators and aquaglyceroporins. Bacterial MIP genes have been identified in archaea as well as in Gram-positive and Gram-negative eubacteria. However, with the exception of Escherichia coli, most bacterial MIPs have been analysed by sequence homology. Since no MIP has yet been functionally characterized in Gram-positive bacteria, we have studied one of these members from Lactococcus lactis. This MIP is shown to be permeable to glycerol, like E. coli GlpF, and to water, like E. coli AqpZ. This is the first characterization of a microbial MIP that has a mixed function. This result provides important insights to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the MIP family and to elucidate the molecular pathway of water and other solutes in these channels.
KeywordMeSH Terms
18. O' Sullivan  D, Ross  RP, Twomey  DP, Fitzgerald  GF, Hill  C, Coffey  A,     ( 2001 )

Naturally occurring lactococcal plasmid pAH90 links bacteriophage resistance and mobility functions to a food-grade selectable marker.

Applied and environmental microbiology 67 (2)
PMID : 11157264  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.67.2.929-937.2001     PMC  :   PMC92668    
Abstract >>
The bacteriophage resistance plasmid pAH90 (26,490 bp) is a natural cointegrate plasmid formed via homologous recombination between the type I restriction-modification specificity determinants (hsdS) of two smaller lactococcal plasmids, pAH33 (6,159 bp) and pAH82 (20,331 bp), giving rise to a bacteriophage-insensitive mutant following phage challenge (D. O'Sullivan, D. P. Twomey, A. Coffey, C. Hill, G. F. Fitzgerald, and R. P. Ross, Mol. Microbiol. 36:866-876; 2000). In this communication we provide evidence that the recombination event is favored by phage infection. The entire nucleotide sequence of plasmid pAH90 was determined and found to contain 24 open reading frames (ORFs) responsible for phenotypes which include restriction-modification, phage adsorption inhibition, plasmid replication, cadmium resistance, cobalt transport, and conjugative mobilization. The cadmium resistance property, encoded by the cadA gene, which has an associated regulatory gene (cadC), is of particular interest, as it facilitated the selection of pAH90 in other phage-sensitive lactococci after electroporation. In addition, we report the identification of a group II self-splicing intron bounded by two exons which have the capacity to encode a relaxase implicated in conjugation in gram-positive bacteria. The functionality of this intron was evident by demonstrating splicing in vivo. Given that pAH90 encodes potent phage defense systems which act at different stages in the phage lytic cycle, the linkage of these with a food-grade selectable marker on a replicon that can be mobilized among lactococci has significant potential for natural strain improvement for industrial dairy fermentations which are susceptible to phage inhibition.
KeywordMeSH Terms
19. Govindasamy-Lucey  S, Gopal  PK, Sullivan  PA, Pillidge  CJ,     ( 2000 )

Varying influence of the autolysin, N-acetyl muramidase, and the cell envelope proteinase on the rate of autolysis of six commercial Lactococcus lactis cheese starter bacteria grown in milk.

The Journal of dairy research 67 (4)
PMID : 11131071  :  
Abstract >>
The autolysin, N-acetyl muramidase (AcmA), of six commercial Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris starter strains and eight Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris derivatives or plasmid-free strains was shown by renaturing SDS-PAGE (zymogram analysis) to be degraded by the cell envelope proteinase (lactocepin; EC 3.4.21.96) after growth of strains in milk at 30 degrees C for 72 h. Degradation of AcmA was less in starter strains and derivatives producing lactocepin I/III (intermediate specificity) than in strains producing lactocepin I. This supports previous observations on AcmA degradation in derivatives of the laboratory strain Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 (Buist et al. Journal of Bacteriology 180 5947-5953 1998). In contrast to the MG1363 derivatives, however, the extent of autolysis in milk of the commercial Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris starter strains in this study did not always correlate with lactocepin specificity and AcmA degradation. The distribution of autolysins within the cell envelope of Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris starter strains and derivatives harvested during growth in milk was compared by zymogram analysis. AcmA was found associated with cell membranes as well as cell walls and some cleavage of AcmA occurred independently of lactocepin activity. An AcmA product intermediate in size between precursor (46 kDa) and mature (41 kDa) forms of AcmA was clearly visible on zymograms, even in the absence of lactocepin I activity. These results show that autolysis of commercial Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris starter strains is not primarily determined by AcmA activity in relation to lactocepin specificity and that proteolytic cleavage of AcmA in vivo is not fully defined.
KeywordMeSH Terms
20. Nilsson  D, Koebmann  BJ,     ( 2000 )

The membrane-bound H(+)-ATPase complex is essential for growth of Lactococcus lactis.

Journal of bacteriology 182 (17)
PMID : 10940012  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.182.17.4738-4743.2000     PMC  :   PMC111348    
Abstract >>
The eight genes which encode the (F(1)F(o)) H(+)-ATPase in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 were cloned and sequenced. The genes were organized in an operon with the gene order atpEBFHAGDC; i.e., the order of atpE and atpB is reversed with respect to the more typical bacterial organization. The deduced amino acid sequences of the corresponding H(+)-ATPase subunits showed significant homology with the subunits from other organisms. Results of Northern blot analysis showed a transcript at approximately 7 kb, which corresponds to the size of the atp operon. The transcription initiation site was mapped by primer extension and coincided with a standard promoter sequence. In order to analyze the importance of the H(+)-ATPase for L. lactis physiology, a mutant strain was constructed in which the original atp promoter on the chromosome was replaced with an inducible nisin promoter. When grown on GM17 plates the resulting strain was completely dependent on the presence of nisin for growth. These data demonstrate that the H(+)-ATPase is essential for growth of L. lactis under these conditions.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Operon
21. Madsen  A, Westphal  C, Josephsen  J,     ( 2000 )

Characterization of a novel plasmid-encoded HsdS subunit, S.LlaW12I, from Lactococcus lactis W12.

Plasmid 44 (2)
PMID : 10964630  :   DOI  :   10.1006/plas.2000.1478    
Abstract >>
A novel type I restriction-modification specificity subunit, S. LlaW12I, has been identified on the naturally occurring 8.0-kb plasmid pAW122 in the lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris W12. Presence of the HsdS protein together with a complete type I restriction-modification system conferred increased phage restriction to the host, indicating exchange of specificity subunits. Sequence analysis showed that the S.LlaW12I subunit is most probably of type IC. Presumably, the hsdS gene is organized together with the repB gene on one transcriptional unit.
KeywordMeSH Terms
22. Siezen  RJ, Brown  J, Beerthuyzen  MM, Fernández  L,     ( 2000 )

Cloning, characterization, controlled overexpression, and inactivation of the major tributyrin esterase gene of Lactococcus lactis.

Applied and environmental microbiology 66 (4)
PMID : 10742212  :   DOI  :   10.1128/aem.66.4.1360-1368.2000     PMC  :   PMC91993    
Abstract >>
The gene encoding the major intracellular tributyrin esterase of Lactococcus lactis was cloned using degenerate DNA probes based on 19 known N-terminal amino acid residues of the purified enzyme. The gene, named estA, was sequenced and found to encode a protein of 258 amino acid residues. The transcription start site was mapped 233 nucleotides upstream of the start codon, and a canonical promoter sequence was identified. The deduced amino acid sequence of the estA product contained the typical GXSXG motif found in most lipases and esterases. The protein was overproduced up to 170-fold in L. lactis by use of the nisin-controlled expression system recently developed for lactic acid bacteria. The estA gene was inactivated by chromosomal integration of a temperature-sensitive integration vector. This resulted in the complete loss of esterase activity, which could then be recovered after complementation of the constructed esterase-deficient strain with the wild-type estA gene. This confirms that EstA is the main enzyme responsible for esterase activity in L. lactis. Purified recombinant enzyme showed a preference for short-chain acyl esters, surprisingly also including phospholipids. Medium- and long-acyl-chain lipids were also hydrolyzed, albeit less efficiently. Intermediate characteristics between esterases and lipases make intracellular lactococcal EstA difficult to classify in either of these two groups of esterolytic enzymes. We suggest that, in vivo, EstA could be involved in (phospho)lipid metabolism or cellular detoxification or both, as its sequence showed significant similarity to S-formylglutathione hydrolase (FGH) of Paracoccus denitrificans and human EstD (or FGH), which are part of a universal formaldehyde detoxification pathway.
KeywordMeSH Terms
23. Chambellon  E, Yvon  M,     ( 2000 )

Characterization and role of the branched-chain aminotransferase (BcaT) isolated from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NCDO 763.

Applied and environmental microbiology 66 (2)
PMID : 10653720  :   DOI  :   10.1128/aem.66.2.571-577.2000     PMC  :   PMC91865    
Abstract >>
In Lactococcus lactis, which is widely used as a starter in the cheese industry, the first step of aromatic and branched-chain amino acid degradation is a transamination which is catalyzed by two major aminotransferases. We have previously purified and characterized biochemically and genetically the aromatic aminotransferase, AraT. In the present study, we purified and studied the second enzyme, the branched-chain aminotransferase, BcaT. We cloned and sequenced the corresponding gene and used a mutant, along with the luciferase gene as the reporter, to study the role of the enzyme in amino acid metabolism and to reveal the regulation of gene transcription. BcaT catalyzes transamination of the three branched-chain amino acids and methionine and belongs to class IV of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent aminotransferases. In contrast to most of the previously described bacterial BcaTs, which are hexameric, this enzyme is homodimeric. It is responsible for 90% of the total isoleucine and valine aminotransferase activity of the cell and for 50 and 40% of the activity towards leucine and methionine, respectively. The original role of BcaT was probably biosynthetic since expression of its gene was repressed by free amino acids and especially by isoleucine. However, in dairy strains, which are auxotrophic for branched-chain amino acids, BcaT functions only as a catabolic enzyme that initiates the conversion of major aroma precursors. Since this enzyme is still active under cheese-ripening conditions, it certainly plays a major role in cheese flavor development.
KeywordMeSH Terms
24. Kleerebezem  M, van Kranenburg  R,     ( 2000 )

Nucleotide sequence analysis of the lactococcal EPS plasmid pNZ4000.

Plasmid 43 (2)
PMID : 10686131  :   DOI  :   10.1006/plas.1999.1453    
Abstract >>
The complete 42180-bp nucleotide sequence of the mobilization plasmid pNZ4000, coding for exopolysaccharide (EPS) production in Lactococcus lactis, was determined. This plasmid contains a region involved in EPS biosynthesis, four functional replicons, a region containing mobilization genes, and three origin of transfer (oriT) sequences. Sequences identical to these oriT sequences were also found on two other lactococcal plasmids and a plasmid from Lactobacillus helveticus. Several complete and partial IS elements were identified on pNZ4000, including iso-ISS1, iso-IS946, and iso-IS982 sequences. Furthermore, pNZ4000 contains a gene cluster that may encode a cobalt transport system and a gene that encodes a CorA homologue which may function as a magnesium transporter.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Cation Transport Proteins
Sequence Analysis, DNA
25. Eliasson  R, Kok  J, Gibert  I, Liu  A, Buist  G, Torrents  E,     ( 2000 )

The anaerobic (class III) ribonucleotide reductase from Lactococcus lactis. Catalytic properties and allosteric regulation of the pure enzyme system.

The Journal of biological chemistry 275 (4)
PMID : 10644700  :   DOI  :   10.1074/jbc.275.4.2463    
Abstract >>
Lactococcus lactis contains an operon with the genes (nrdD and nrdG) for a class III ribonucleotide reductase. Strict anaerobic growth depends on the activity of these genes. Both were sequenced, cloned, and overproduced in Escherichia coli. The corresponding proteins, NrdD and NrdG, were purified close to homogeneity. The amino acid sequences of NrdD (747 residues, 84.1 kDa) and NrdG (199 residues, 23.3 kDa) are 53 and 42% identical with the respective E. coli proteins. Together, they catalyze the reduction of ribonucleoside triphosphates to the corresponding deoxyribonucleotides in the presence of S-adenosylmethionine, reduced flavodoxin or reduced deazaflavin, potassium ions, dithiothreitol, and formate. EPR experiments demonstrated a [4Fe-4S](+) cluster in reduced NrdG and a glycyl radical in activated NrdD, similar to the E. coli NrdD and NrdG proteins. Different from E. coli, the two polypeptides of NrdD and the proteins in the NrdD-NrdG complex were only loosely associated. Also the FeS cluster was easily lost from NrdG. The substrate specificity and overall activity of the L. lactis enzyme was regulated according to the general rules for ribonucleotide reductases. Allosteric effectors bound to two separate sites on NrdD, one binding dATP, dGTP, and dTTP and the other binding dATP and ATP. The two sites showed an unusually high degree of cooperativity with complex interactions between effectors and a fine-tuning of their physiological effects. The results with the L. lactis class III reductase further support the concept of a common origin for all present day ribonucleotide reductases.
KeywordMeSH Terms
26. Rutten  GA, Marugg  JD, van Doesburg  W, Fernández  M,     ( 2000 )

Molecular and functional analyses of the metC gene of Lactococcus lactis, encoding cystathionine beta-lyase.

Applied and environmental microbiology 66 (1)
PMID : 10618201  :   DOI  :   10.1128/aem.66.1.42-48.2000     PMC  :   PMC91783    
Abstract >>
The enzymatic degradation of amino acids in cheese is believed to generate aroma compounds and therefore to be essential for flavor development. Cystathionine beta-lyase (CBL) can convert cystathionine to homocysteine but is also able to catalyze an alpha, gamma elimination. With methionine as a substrate, it produces volatile sulfur compounds which are important for flavor formation in Gouda cheese. The metC gene, which encodes CBL, was cloned from the Lactococcus lactis model strain MG1363 and from strain B78, isolated from a cheese starter culture and known to have a high capacity to produce volatile compounds. The metC gene was found to be cotranscribed with a downstream cysK gene, which encodes a putative cysteine synthase. The MetC proteins of both strains were overproduced in strain MG1363 with the NICE (nisin-controlled expression) system, resulting in a >25-fold increase in cystathionine lyase activity. A disruption of the metC gene was achieved in strain MG1363. Determination of enzymatic activities in the overproducing and knockout strains revealed that MetC is essential for the degradation of cystathionine but that at least one lyase other than CBL contributes to methionine degradation via alpha, gamma elimination to form volatile aroma compounds.
KeywordMeSH Terms
27. Josephsen  J, Petersen  A,     ( 1999 )

TPW22, a lactococcal temperate phage with a site-specific integrase closely related to Streptococcus thermophilus phage integrases.

Journal of bacteriology 181 (22)
PMID : 10559170  :   PMC  :   PMC94179    
Abstract >>
The temperate phage TPW22, induced from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris W22, and the evolutionarily interesting integrase of this phage were characterized. Phage TPW22 was propagated lytically on L. lactis subsp. cremoris 3107, which could also be lysogenized by site-specific integration. The attachment site (attP), 5'-TAAGGCGACGGTCG-3', of phage TPW22 was present on a 7.5-kb EcoRI fragment, a 3.4-kb EcoRI-HindIII fragment of which was sequenced. Sequence information revealed the presence of an integrase gene (int). The deduced amino acid sequence showed 42 and 28% identity with integrases of streptococcal and lactococcal phages, respectively. The identities with these integrase-encoding genes were 52 and 45%, respectively, at the nucleotide level. This could indicate horizontal gene transfer. A stable integration vector containing attP and int was constructed, and integration in L. lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 was obtained. The existence of an exchangeable lactococcal phage integration module was suggested. The proposed module covers the phage attachment site, the integrase gene, and surrounding factor-independent terminator structures. The phages phiLC3, TP901-1, and TPW22 all have different versions of this module. Phylogenetically, the TPW22 Int links the phiLC3 lactococcal integrase with known Streptococcus thermophilus integrases.
KeywordMeSH Terms
28. Dunny  GM,     ( N/A )

Group II introns and expression of conjugative transfer functions in lactic acid bacteria.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 76 (1��4��)
PMID : 10532373  :  
Abstract >>
The homologous lactococcal conjugative elements pRS01 and the sex factor of Lactococcus lactis strain 712 both contain a Group II intron within a gene believed to encode a conjugative relaxase enzyme. This enzyme is responsible for nicking of DNA at the origin of transfer (oriT) sequence of the sex factor DNA to initiate the strand transfer process. Group II introns have been studied in eukaryotes, and several of these elements in yeast mitochondrial genes have received considerable attention. These introns are relatively large in size and generally encode a protein within the intron sequence. In addition to splicing activity. Group II introns are mobile genetic elements. The intron-encoded proteins (IEPs) contain endonuclease and reverse transcriptase domains believed to play an enzymatic role in genetic mobility reactions, while a putative maturase domain is thought to promote splicing by stabilizing the folding of the intron RNA into an active ribozyme structure which carries out the splicing reaction. The lactococcal introns represent the first examples of Group II introns shown to be functional in vivo in prokaryotes. Because of the advantages of a bacterial system for genetic and molecular studies, the Ll.ltrB intron from pRS01 has attracted the attention of several laboratories interested in Group II intron biology. Recently, it has been shown that the system can be adapted to function in Escherichia coli (although at somewhat reduced efficiency). In addition, it has been recently proven that the best studied form of mobility, the homing of the intron into an intronless allele of the cognate exon gene, occurs via an RNA intermediate and does not require DNA homology or generalized host recombination functions. Current efforts are analysis of the role Ll.ltrB splicing in regulating expression of pRS01 conjugation functions. The lactococcal Group II introns represent the first demonstrated genetically mobile prokaryotic retroelements, and they also have considerable potential as genetic engineering tools for Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and other organisms.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Conjugation, Genetic
DNA Transposable Elements
Introns
RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase
29. Bonneau  S, Rijnen  L,     ( 1999 )

Genetic characterization of the major lactococcal aromatic aminotransferase and its involvement in conversion of amino acids to aroma compounds.

Applied and environmental microbiology 65 (11)
PMID : 10543798  :   PMC  :   PMC91656    
Abstract >>
In lactococci, transamination is the first step of the enzymatic conversion of aromatic and branched-chain amino acids to aroma compounds. In previous work we purified and biochemically characterized the major aromatic aminotransferase (AraT) of a Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strain. Here we characterized the corresponding gene and evaluated the role of AraT in the biosynthesis of amino acids and in the conversion of amino acids to aroma compounds. Amino acid sequence homologies with other aminotransferases showed that the enzyme belongs to a new subclass of the aminotransferase I subfamily gamma; AraT is the best-characterized representative of this new aromatic-amino-acid-specific subclass. We demonstrated that AraT plays a major role in the conversion of aromatic amino acids to aroma compounds, since gene inactivation almost completely prevented the degradation of these amino acids. It is also highly involved in methionine and leucine conversion. AraT also has a major physiological role in the biosynthesis of phenylalanine and tyrosine, since gene inactivation weakly slowed down growth on medium without phenylalanine and highly affected growth on every medium without tyrosine. However, another biosynthesis aromatic aminotransferase is induced in the absence of phenylalanine in the culture medium.
KeywordMeSH Terms
30. Vos  HR, van Swam  II, van Kranenburg  R,     ( 1999 )

Functional analysis of glycosyltransferase genes from Lactococcus lactis and other gram-positive cocci: complementation, expression, and diversity.

Journal of bacteriology 181 (20)
PMID : 10515924  :   PMC  :   PMC103769    
Abstract >>
Sixteen exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing Lactococcus lactis strains were analyzed for the chemical compositions of their EPSs and the locations, sequences, and organization of the eps genes involved in EPS biosynthesis. This allowed the grouping of these strains into three major groups, representatives of which were studied in detail. Previously, we have characterized the eps gene cluster of strain NIZO B40 (group I) and determined the function of three of its glycosyltransferase (GTF) genes. Fragments of the eps gene clusters of strains NIZO B35 (group II) and NIZO B891 (group III) were cloned, and these encoded the NIZO B35 priming galactosyltransferase, the NIZO B891 priming glucosyltransferase, and the NIZO B891 galactosyltransferase involved in the second step of repeating-unit synthesis. The NIZO B40 priming glucosyltransferase gene epsD was replaced with an erythromycin resistance gene, and this resulted in loss of EPS production. This epsD deletion was complemented with priming GTF genes from gram-positive organisms with known function and substrate specificity. Although no EPS production was found with priming galactosyltransferase genes from L. lactis or Streptococcus thermophilus, complementation with priming glucosyltransferase genes involved in L. lactis EPS and Streptococcus pneumoniae capsule biosynthesis could completely restore or even increase EPS production in L. lactis.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
31. SanFilippo  J, Singh  RN, Wank  H,     ( 1999 )

A reverse transcriptase/maturase promotes splicing by binding at its own coding segment in a group II intron RNA.

Molecular cell 4 (2)
PMID : 10488339  :  
Abstract >>
Group II introns encode reverse transcriptases that promote RNA splicing (maturase activity) and then with the excised intron form a DNA endonuclease that mediates intron mobility by target DNA-primed reverse transcription (TPRT). Here, we show that the primary binding site for the maturase (LtrA) encoded by the Lactococcus lactis Ll.LtrB intron is within a region of intron domain IV that includes the start codon of the LtrA ORF. This binding is enhanced by other elements, particularly domain I and the EBS/IBS interactions, and helps position LtrA to initiate cDNA synthesis in the 3' exon as occurs during TPRT. Our results suggest how the maturase functions in RNA splicing and support the hypothesis that the reverse transcriptase coding region was derived from an independent genetic element that was inserted into a preexisting group II intron.
KeywordMeSH Terms
DNA Transposable Elements
Introns
Open Reading Frames
RNA Splicing
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
32. Lambowitz  AM, Chen  B, Wank  H, Matsuura  M,     ( 1999 )

RNA and protein catalysis in group II intron splicing and mobility reactions using purified components.

Biochemistry 38 (28)
PMID : 10413481  :   DOI  :   10.1021/bi982799l    
Abstract >>
Group II introns encode proteins with reverse transcriptase activity. These proteins also promote RNA splicing (maturase activity) and then, with the excised intron, form a site-specific DNA endonuclease that promotes intron mobility by reverse splicing into DNA followed by target DNA-primed reverse transcription. Here, we used an Escherichia coli expression system for the Lactococcus lactis group II intron Ll.LtrB to show that the intron-encoded protein (LtrA) alone is sufficient for maturase activity, and that RNP particles containing only the LtrA protein and excised intron RNA have site-specific DNA endonuclease and target DNA-primed reverse transcriptase activity. Detailed analysis of the splicing reaction indicates that LtrA is an intron-specific splicing factor that binds to unspliced precursor RNA with a K(d) of
KeywordMeSH Terms
DNA Transposable Elements
Introns
RNA Splicing
33. Rademaker  JL, Herbet  H, Starrenburg  MJ, Naser  SM, Gevers  D, Kelly  WJ, Hugenholtz  J, Swings  J, van Hylckama Vlieg  JE,     ( 2007 )

Diversity analysis of dairy and nondairy Lactococcus lactis isolates, using a novel multilocus sequence analysis scheme and (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting.

Applied and environmental microbiology 73 (22)
PMID : 17890345  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.01017-07     PMC  :   PMC2168189    
Abstract >>
The diversity of a collection of 102 lactococcus isolates including 91 Lactococcus lactis isolates of dairy and nondairy origin was explored using partial small subunit rRNA gene sequence analysis and limited phenotypic analyses. A subset of 89 strains of L. lactis subsp. cremoris and L. lactis subsp. lactis isolates was further analyzed by (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting and a novel multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme. Two major genomic lineages within L. lactis were found. The L. lactis subsp. cremoris type-strain-like genotype lineage included both L. lactis subsp. cremoris and L. lactis subsp. lactis isolates. The other major lineage, with a L. lactis subsp. lactis type-strain-like genotype, comprised L. lactis subsp. lactis isolates only. A novel third genomic lineage represented two L. lactis subsp. lactis isolates of nondairy origin. The genomic lineages deviate from the subspecific classification of L. lactis that is based on a few phenotypic traits only. MLSA of six partial genes (atpA, encoding ATP synthase alpha subunit; pheS, encoding phenylalanine tRNA synthetase; rpoA, encoding RNA polymerase alpha chain; bcaT, encoding branched chain amino acid aminotransferase; pepN, encoding aminopeptidase N; and pepX, encoding X-prolyl dipeptidyl peptidase) revealed 363 polymorphic sites (total length, 1,970 bases) among 89 L. lactis subsp. cremoris and L. lactis subsp. lactis isolates with unique sequence types for most isolates. This allowed high-resolution cluster analysis in which dairy isolates form subclusters of limited diversity within the genomic lineages. The pheS DNA sequence analysis yielded two genetic groups dissimilar to the other genotyping analysis-based lineages, indicating a disparate acquisition route for this gene.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genetic Variation
34. Ehrlich  SD, Gruss  A,     ( 1999 )

Effects of metabolic flux on stress response pathways in Lactococcus lactis.

Molecular microbiology 31 (3)
PMID : 10048028  :   DOI  :   10.1046/j.1365-2958.1999.01222.x    
Abstract >>
Studies of cellular responses to stress conditions such as heat, oxygen or starvation have revealed the existence of numerous specific or interactive response pathways. We previously observed in Lactococcus lactis that inactivation of the recA gene renders the lactococcal strain sensitive not only to DNA-damaging agents but also to oxygen and heat. To further examine the stress response pathways in L. lactis, we isolated thermoresistant insertional mutants (Trm) of the recA strain. Eighteen independent trm mutations were identified and characterized. We found that mutations map in only seven genes, implicated in purine metabolism (deoB, guaA and tktA), phosphate uptake (pstB and pstS), mRNA stability (pnpA) and in one uncharacterized gene (trmA). All the trm mutations, with the exception of trmA, confer multiple stress resistance to the cell. Some of the mutations confer improved heat stress resistance not only in the recA but also in the wild-type context. Our results reveal that cellular metabolic pathways are intimately related to stress response and that the flux of particular metabolites, notably guanine and phosphate, may be implicated in stress response in lactococci.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Escherichia coli Proteins
Genes, Bacterial
Periplasmic Binding Proteins
35. Luesink  EJ, de Vos  WM, Kuipers  OP,     ( 1999 )

Characterization of the divergent sacBK and sacAR operons, involved in sucrose utilization by Lactococcus lactis.

Journal of bacteriology 181 (6)
PMID : 10074089  :   PMC  :   PMC93595    
Abstract >>
The divergently transcribed sacBK and sacAR operons, which are involved in the utilization of sucrose by Lactococcus lactis NZ9800, were examined by transcriptional and gene inactivation studies. Northern analyses of RNA isolated from cells grown at the expense of different carbon sources revealed three sucrose-inducible transcripts: one of 3.2 kb containing sacB and sacK, a second of 3.4 kb containing sacA and sacR, and a third of 1.8 kb containing only sacR. The inactivation of the sacR gene by replacement recombination resulted in the constitutive transcription of the sacBK and sacAR operons in the presence of different carbon sources, indicating that SacR acts as a repressor of transcription.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Operon
36. Peltonen  T, Mäntsälä  P,     ( 1999 )

Isolation and characterization of a purC(orf)QLF operon from Lactococcus [correction of Lactobacillus] lactis MG1614.

Molecular & general genetics : MGG 261 (1)
PMID : 10071207  :   DOI  :   10.1007/s004380050938    
Abstract >>
We have isolated genes encoding enzymes of the de novo purine nucleotide biosynthesis pathway from Lactococcus lactis MG1614 by colony hybridization using DIG-labeled DNA probes. The organization of the genes needed for the de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides in L. lactis differs from that found in other organisms. In L. lactis there is a gene cluster, which contains five out of the 11 genes needed for the de novo biosynthesis of IMP, namely purC, orf, purQ, purL and purF. These genes were shown to be transcribed as a single transcription unit by Northern hybridization analysis. The 5' end of the transcript of the purC(orf)QLF operon was determined by primer extension analysis using fluorescently end-labeled probes. The purC(orf)QLF operon of L. lactis is transcribed in Escherichia coli, and the gene product of the purF gene, glutamine phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase (glutamine PRPP ATase, EC 2.4.2.14), can functionally complement the E. coli purF mutant strain TX158. We also show that the promoter of the purC(orf)QLF operon is regulated in response to exogenously added purines.
KeywordMeSH Terms
37. de Vos  WM, Kuipers  OP, Luesink  EJ, Grossiord  BP,     ( 1998 )

Transcriptional activation of the glycolytic las operon and catabolite repression of the gal operon in Lactococcus lactis are mediated by the catabolite control protein CcpA.

Molecular microbiology 30 (4)
PMID : 10094627  :   DOI  :   10.1046/j.1365-2958.1998.01111.x    
Abstract >>
The Lactococcus lactis ccpA gene, encoding the global regulatory protein CcpA, was identified and characterized. Northern blot and primer extension analyses showed that the L. lactis ccpA gene is constitutively transcribed from a promoter that does not contain a cre sequence. Inactivation of the ccpA gene resulted in a twofold reduction in the growth rate compared with the wild type on glucose, sucrose and fructose, while growth on galactose was almost completely abolished. The observed growth defects could be complemented by the expression of either the L. lactis or the Bacillus subtilis ccpA gene. The disruption of the ccpA gene reduced the catabolite repression of the gal operon, which contains a cre site at the transcription start site and encodes enzymes involved in galactose catabolism. In contrast, CcpA activates the transcription of the cre-containing promoter of the las operon, encoding the glycolytic enzymes phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase and L-lactate dehydrogenase, because its transcription level was fourfold reduced in the ccpA mutant strain compared with the wild-type strain. The lower activities of pyruvate kinase and L-lactate dehydrogenase in the ccpA mutant strain resulted in the production of metabolites characteristic of a mixed-acid fermentation, whereas the fermentation pattern of the wild-type strain was essentially homolactic.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Glycolysis
Operon
38. Koivula  T, Hemilä  H,     ( 1991 )

Nucleotide sequence of a Lactococcus lactis gene cluster encoding adenylate kinase, initiation factor 1 and ribosomal proteins.

Journal of general microbiology 137 (11)
PMID : 1783905  :   DOI  :   10.1099/00221287-137-11-2595    
Abstract >>
We have previously isolated a putative promoter from the Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis chromosome. We now report the sequence of the promoter fragment and its extension in the 5'-direction. The region contains several open-reading frames which correspond to ribosomal protein L15, SecY, adenylate kinase, initiation factor 1 and ribosomal proteins B and S13. The order of the genes, rplO (L15), secY, adk, infA, rpmJ (B) and rpsM (S13), is similar to that in the spc and alpha operon region of Bacillus subtilis, with the exception of the map gene, coding for methionine amino peptidase, which is located between adk and infA in B. subtilis. The putative promoter is located between adk and infA.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Multigene Family
39. Knoshaug  EP, Ahlgren  JA, Trempy  JE,     ( 2007 )

Exopolysaccharide expression in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Ropy352: evidence for novel gene organization.

Applied and environmental microbiology 73 (3)
PMID : 17122391  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.01945-06     PMC  :   PMC1800743    
Abstract >>
Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Ropy352 produces two distinct heteropolysaccharides, phenotypically described as ropy and mucoid, when cultured in nonfat milk. One exopolysaccharide precipitated with 50% ethanol as a series of elongated threads and was composed of glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 3:2. The second exopolysaccharide precipitated with 75% ethanol as a fine flocculant and consisted of galactose, glucose, and mannose with a molar ratio of 67:21:12. A mutant strain, L. lactis subsp. cremoris EK240, lacking the ropy phenotype did not produce the exopolysaccharide that precipitated with 50% ethanol; however, it produced the exopolysaccharide that precipitated with 75% ethanol, indicating that the former exopolysaccharide is essential for the ropy phenotype. Cultures of L. lactis subsp. cremoris Ropy352 in 10% nonfat milk reached a viscosity of 25 Pa-s after 24 h, while those of the nonropy L. lactis subsp. cremoris EK240 mutant did not change. A mutation abolishing ropy exopolysaccharide expression mapped to a region on a plasmid containing two open reading frames, epsM and epsN, encoding novel glycosyltransferases bordered by ISS1 elements oriented in the same direction. Sequencing of this plasmid revealed two other regions involved in exopolysaccharide expression, an operon located between partial IS981 and IS982 elements, and an independent gene, epsU. Two and possibly three of these regions are involved in L. lactis subsp. cremoris Ropy352 exopolysaccharide expression and are arranged in a novel fashion different from that of typical lactococcal exopolysaccharide loci, and this provides genetic evidence for exopolysaccharide gene reorganization and evolution in Lactococcus.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Multigene Family
40. Mayo  B, Kok  J, Venema  K, Bockelmann  W, Teuber  M, Reinke  H, Venema  G,     ( 1991 )

Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase gene from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris.

Applied and environmental microbiology 57 (1)
PMID : 1674655  :   PMC  :   PMC182661    
Abstract >>
Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris P8-2-47 contains an X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (X-PDAP; EC 3.4.14.5). A mixed-oligonucleotide probe prepared on the basis of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified protein was made and used to screen a partial chromosomal DNA bank in Escherichia coli. A partial XbaI fragment cloned in pUC18 specified X-PDAP activity in E. coli clones. The fragment was also able to confer X-PDAP activity on Bacillus subtilis. The fact that none of these organisms contain this enzymatic activity indicated that the structural gene for X-PDAP had been cloned. The cloned fragment fully restored X-PDAP activity in X-PDAP-deficient mutants of L. lactis. We have sequenced a 3.8-kb fragment that includes the X-PDAP gene and its expression signals. The X-PDAP gene, designated pepXP, comprises 2,289 nucleotide residues encoding a protein of 763 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 87,787. No homology was detected between pepXP and genes that had been previously sequenced. A second open reading frame, divergently transcribed, was present in the sequenced fragment; the function or relationship to pepXP of this open reading frame is unknown.
KeywordMeSH Terms
41. Nardi  M, Chopin  MC, Chopin  A, Cals  MM, Gripon  JC,     ( 1991 )

Cloning and DNA sequence analysis of an X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase gene from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 763.

Applied and environmental microbiology 57 (1)
PMID : 1674656  :   PMC  :   PMC182662    
Abstract >>
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 763 (also designated ML3) possesses an X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (X-PDAP; EC 3.4.14.5). X-PDAP mutants were selected by an enzymatic plate assay on the basis of their inability to hydrolyze an L-phenylalanyl-L-proline-beta-naphthylamide substrate. A DNA bank from L. lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 763 was constructed in one of these X-PDAP mutants, and one clone in which the original X-PDAP phenotype was restored was detected by the enzymatic plate assay. The X-PDAP gene, designated pepXP, was further subcloned and sequenced. It codes for a protein containing 763 residues. Comparison of the amino-terminal sequence of the X-PDAP enzyme with the amino acid sequence deduced from the pepXP gene indicated that the enzyme is not subjected to posttranslational modification or exported via processing of a signal peptide. The pepXP gene from L. lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 763 in more than 99% homologous to the pepXP gene from L. lactis subsp. cremoris P8-2-47 described elsewhere (B. Mayo, J. Kok, K. Venema, W. Bockelmann, M. Teuber, H. Reinke, and G. Venema, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:38-44, 1991) and is also conserved in other lactococcal strains.
KeywordMeSH Terms
42. Neves  AR, Pool  WA, Castro  R, Mingote  A, Santos  F, Kok  J, Kuipers  OP, Santos  H,     ( 2006 )

The alpha-phosphoglucomutase of Lactococcus lactis is unrelated to the alpha-D-phosphohexomutase superfamily and is encoded by the essential gene pgmH.

The Journal of biological chemistry 281 (48)
PMID : 16980299  :   DOI  :   10.1074/jbc.M607044200    
Abstract >>
alpha-Phosphoglucomutase (alpha-PGM) plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism by catalyzing the reversible conversion of alpha-glucose 1-phosphate to glucose 6-phosphate. Isolation of alpha-PGM activity from cell extracts of Lactococcus lactis strain MG1363 led to the conclusion that this activity is encoded by yfgH, herein renamed pgmH. Its gene product has no sequence homology to proteins in the alpha-d-phosphohexomutase superfamily and is instead related to the eukaryotic phosphomannomutases within the haloacid dehalogenase superfamily. In contrast to known bacterial alpha-PGMs, this 28-kDa enzyme is highly specific for alpha-glucose 1-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate and showed no activity for mannose phosphate. To elucidate the function of pgmH, the metabolism of glucose and galactose was characterized in mutants overproducing or with a deficiency of alpha-PGM activity. Overproduction of alpha-PGM led to increased glycolytic flux and growth rate on galactose. Despite several attempts, we failed to obtain a deletion mutant of pgmH. The essentiality of this gene was proven by using a conditional knock-out strain in which a native copy of the gene was provided in trans under the control of the nisin promoter. Growth of this strain was severely impaired when alpha-PGM activity was below the control level. We show that the novel L. lactis alpha-PGM is the only enzyme that mediates the interconversion of alpha-glucose 1-phosphate to glucose 6-phosphate and is essential for growth.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
43. Maruo  T, Sakamoto  M, Toda  T, Benno  Y,     ( 2006 )

Monitoring the cell number of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris FC in human feces by real-time PCR with strain-specific primers designed using the RAPD technique.

International journal of food microbiology 110 (1)
PMID : 16737755  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2006.01.037    
Abstract >>
Strain-specific PCR primers for Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris FC were developed using the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. RAPD was used to generate strain-specific markers. A 1164-bp RAPD marker found to be strain-specific was sequenced, and a primer pair specific for L. lactis subsp. cremoris FC was designed. The specificity of this primer pair was tested with 23 L. lactis subsp. cremoris strains and 20 intestinal bacterial species, and was found to be strain-specific. Subsequently, this primer pair was subjected to the quantification of L. lactis subsp. cremoris FC in the feces of subjects fed fermented milk containing this strain. After administration, L. lactis subsp. cremoris FC was detected in the feces of all 7 subjects, with the maximum number being between 10(5) and 10(9) cells g(-1) of feces. Furthermore, this strain was detected in only one feces sample 2 weeks after administration was stopped. These results suggest that L. lactis subsp. cremoris FC can survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract.
KeywordMeSH Terms
44. Flórez  AB, de Los Reyes-Gavilán  CG, Wind  A, Mayo  B, Margolles  A,     ( 2006 )

Ubiquity and diversity of multidrug resistance genes in Lactococcus lactis strains isolated between 1936 and 1995.

FEMS microbiology letters 263 (1)
PMID : 16958846  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1574-6968.2006.00371.x    
Abstract >>
The presence and the nucleotide sequence of four multidrug resistance genes, lmrA, lmrP, lmrC, and lmrD, were investigated in 13 strains of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, four strains of Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, two strains of Lactococcus plantarum, and two strains of Lactococcus raffinolactis. Multidrug resistance genes were present in all L. lactis isolates tested. However, none of them could be detected in the strains belonging to the species L. raffinolactis and L. plantarum, suggesting a different set of multidrug resistance genes in these species. The analysis of the four deduced amino acid sequences established two different variants depending on the subspecies of L. lactis. Either lmrA, or lmrP, or both were found naturally disrupted in five strains, while full-length lmrD was present in all strains.
KeywordMeSH Terms
45. den Hengst  CD, Groeneveld  M, Kuipers  OP, Kok  J,     ( 2006 )

Identification and functional characterization of the Lactococcus lactis CodY-regulated branched-chain amino acid permease BcaP (CtrA).

Journal of bacteriology 188 (9)
PMID : 16621821  :   DOI  :   10.1128/JB.188.9.3280-3289.2006     PMC  :   PMC1447443    
Abstract >>
Transcriptome analyses have previously revealed that a gene encoding the putative amino acid transporter CtrA (YhdG) is one of the major targets of the pleiotropic regulator CodY in Lactococcus lactis and Bacillus subtilis. The role of ctrA in L. lactis was further investigated with respect to both transport activity as well as CodY-mediated regulation. CtrA is required for optimal growth in media containing free amino acids as the only amino acid source. Amino acid transport studies showed that ctrA encodes a secondary amino acid transport system that is specific for branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) (isoleucine, leucine, and valine) and methionine, which is in disagreement with its previously proposed function (a cationic amino acid transporter), which was assigned based on homology. We propose to rename CtrA BcaP, for branched-chain amino acid permease. BcaP is a member of a group of conserved transport systems, as homologs are widely distributed among gram-positive bacteria. Deletion of bcaP resulted in the loss of most of the BCAA uptake activity of L. lactis, indicating that BcaP is the major BCAA carrier of this organism. Deletion of bcaP together with a second (putative) BCAA permease, encoded by brnQ, further reduced the viability of the strain. DNA microarray analysis showed that deletion of bcaP predominantly affects genes belonging to the regulons of the transcriptional regulator CodY, which is involved in global nitrogen metabolism and needs BCAAs for its activation, and of CmbR, which is involved in sulfur amino acid metabolism.
KeywordMeSH Terms
46. Wydau  S, Dervyn  R, Anba  J, Dusko Ehrlich  S, Maguin  E,     ( 2006 )

Conservation of key elements of natural competence in Lactococcus lactis ssp.

FEMS microbiology letters 257 (1)
PMID : 16553829  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1574-6968.2006.00141.x    
Abstract >>
Natural competence is active in very diverse species of the bacterial kingdom and probably participates in horizontal gene transfer. Recently, the genome sequence of various species, including Lactococcus lactis, revealed the presence of homologues of competence genes in bacteria, which were not previously identified as naturally transformable. We investigated the conservation among lactococcal strains of key components of the natural competence process in streptococci: (i) comX which encodes a sigma factor, allowing the expression of the late competence genes involved in DNA uptake, (ii) its recognition site, the cin-box and (iii) dprA which encodes a protein shown to determine the fate of incoming DNA. The comX and dprA genes and the cin-box appeared conserved among strains, although some L. lactis ssp. lactis strains presented an inactivated dprA gene. We established that ComX controls the expression of the late competence genes in L. lactis. In conclusion, our work strongly suggests that ComX has the same role in streptococci and L. lactis, i.e. the regulation of late competence genes. It also allowed the identification of a set of L. lactis strains and the construction of a comX overexpression system, which should facilitate the investigation of the natural competence activity in lactococci.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
Conserved Sequence
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Sigma Factor
47. Bosman  BW, Tan  PS, Konings  WN,     ( 1990 )

Purification and Characterization of a Tripeptidase from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2.

Applied and environmental microbiology 56 (6)
PMID : 16348224  :   PMC  :   PMC184519    
Abstract >>
A tripeptidase from a cell extract of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2 has been purified to homogeneity by DEAE-Sephacel and phenyl-Sepharose chromatography followed by gel filtration over a Sephadex G-100 SF column and a high-performance liquid chromatography TSK G3000 SW column. The enzyme appears to be a dimer with a molecular weight of between 103,000 and 105,000 and is composed of two identical subunits each with a molecular weight of about 52,000. The tripeptidase is capable of hydrolyzing only tripeptides. The enzyme activity is optimal at pH 7.5 and at 55 degrees C. EDTA inhibits the activity, and this can be reactivated with Zn, Mn, and partially with Co. The reducing agents dithiothreitol and beta-mercaptoethanol and the divalent cation Cu inhibit tripeptidase activity. Kinetic studies indicate that the peptidase hydrolyzes leucyl-leucyl-leucine with a K(m) of 0.15 mM and a V(max) of 151 mumol/min per mg of protein.
KeywordMeSH Terms
48. Tan  PS, Konings  WN,     ( 1990 )

Purification and Characterization of an Aminopeptidase from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2.

Applied and environmental microbiology 56 (2)
PMID : 16348128  :   PMC  :   PMC183372    
Abstract >>
An aminopeptidase was purified to homogeneity from a crude cell extract of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2 by a procedure that included diethyl-aminoethane-Sephacel chromatography, phenyl-Sepharose chromatography, gel filtration, and high-performance liquid chromatography over an anion-exchange column. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified enzyme showed a single protein band with a molecular weight of 95,000. The aminopeptidase was capable of degrading several peptides by hydrolysis of the N-terminal amino acid. The peptidase had no endopeptidase or carboxypeptidase activity. The aminopeptidase activity was optimal at pH 7 and 40 degrees C. The enzyme was completely inactivated by the p-chloromecuribenzoate mersalyl, chelating agents, and the divalent cations Cu and Cd. The activity that was lost by treatment with the sulfhydryl-blocking reagents was restored with dithiothreitol or beta-mercapto-ethanol, while Zn or Co restored the activity of the 1,10-phenantroline-treated enzyme. Kinetic studies indicated that the enzyme has a relatively low affinity for lysyl-p-nitroanilide (K(m), 0.55 mM) but that it can hydrolyze this substrate at a high rate (V(max), 30 mumol/min per mg of protein).
KeywordMeSH Terms
49. Ishida  T, Yokota  A, Umezawa  Y, Toda  T, Yamada  K,     ( 2005 )

Identification and characterization of lactococcal and Acetobacter strains isolated from traditional Caucasusian fermented milk.

Journal of nutritional science and vitaminology 51 (3)
PMID : 16161770  :   DOI  :   10.3177/jnsv.51.187    
Abstract >>
The fermented milk, so-called "Caspian Sea Yogurt" in Japan, consists of two bacterial strains isolated from traditional Caucasusian fermented milk. In the present study, those strains were identified and characterized. Strain FC was Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic cocci and strain FA was Gram-negative, aerobic rods. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences showed that strain FC formed a cluster with Lactococcus lactis strains and was most closely related to L. lactis subsp. cremoris. Strain FA was included in the genus Acetobacter cluster and was most closely related to A. orientalis. The DNA G+C contents of strain FC and strain FA were 39.2 and 51.6 mol%, respectively. Biochemical tests and DNA-DNA hybridization clarified that strain FC belongs to L. lactis subsp. cremoris and strain FA belongs to A. orientalis. The culture supernatant of lactococcal strain FC inhibited the growth of L. lactis subsp. cremoris DSM 20069T and L. lactis subsp. hordniae JCM 1180T. The inhibitory activity was detected after incubation at 70 degrees C for 60 min or 100 degrees C for 30 min and was stable when the supernatant was adjusted to a pH ranging from 4.9 to 7.5. The antimicrobial activity was lost on treatment with proteolytic enzymes such as proteinase K, trypsin, pronase, and pepsin, although it was not affected by catalase. The gene of lactococcin B (lcnB) homolog was found in the strain FC. From the above results, the strain FC was thought to produce a bacteriocin-like substance.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Fermentation
50. Mori  S, Nirasawa  S, Komba  S, Kasumi  T,     ( 2005 )

Characterization and kinetic analysis of enzyme-substrate recognition by three recombinant lactococcal tripeptidases.

Biochimica et biophysica acta 1748 (1)
PMID : 15752689  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.bbapap.2004.12.001    
Abstract >>
Tripeptidases from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (L9PepTR), L. lactis subsp. cremoris (L6PepTR), and L. lactis subsp. hordniae (hTPepTR) were cloned, overexpressed, purified, and characterized. Although these enzymes contained three to seven naturally occurring amino acid differences, both metal-binding and catalytic sites were highly conserved. The k(cat) values of hTPepTR were approximately 1.5- to 2-fold higher than those of L9PepTR, while, for L6PepTR, they were approximately 0.8- to 1.4-times the L9PepTR values. The K(m) of tripeptidase from subsp. lactis (L9PepTR) was considerably larger when glycine was the amino acid located at both the N- and C-terminus of the peptide substrate. In addition, the K(m) values of L9PepTR increased in the following order for YGG, LGG, FGG, SGG, and alpha-aminoisobutyrylglycylglycine, while the k(cat)/K(m) decreased in the same order. These results suggest that the dipole moment and steric hindrance of the N-terminal amino acid side chain may be the most important factors controlling substrate specificity.
KeywordMeSH Terms
51. van Belkum  MJ, Kok  J, Venema  G,     ( 1992 )

Cloning, sequencing, and expression in Escherichia coli of lcnB, a third bacteriocin determinant from the lactococcal bacteriocin plasmid p9B4-6.

Applied and environmental microbiology 58 (2)
PMID : 1610182  :   PMC  :   PMC195286    
Abstract >>
On the bacteriocin plasmid p9B4-6 of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris 9B4, a third bacteriocin determinant was identified. The genes encoding bacteriocin production and immunity resided on a 1.2-kb CelII-ScaI fragment and were located adjacent to one of two previously identified bacteriocin operons (M. J. van Belkum, B. J. Hayema, R. E. Jeeninga, J. Kok, and G. Venema, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:492-498, 1991). The fragment was sequenced and analyzed by deletion and mutation analyses. The bacteriocin determinant consisted of two genes which were transcribed as an operon. The first gene (lcnB), containing 68 codons, was involved in bacteriocin activity. The second gene (lciB) contained 91 codons and was responsible for immunity. The specificity of this novel bacteriocin, designated lactococcin B, was different from that of the other two bacteriocins specified by p9B4-6. Part of the nucleotide sequence of the lactococcin B operon was similar to a nucleotide sequence also found in the two other bacteriocin operons of p9B4-6. This conserved region encompassed a nucleotide sequence upstream of the bacteriocin gene and the 5' part of the gene. When the lactococcin B operon was expressed in Escherichia coli by using a T7 RNA polymerase-specific promoter, antagonistic activity could be detected.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacteriocins
Plasmids
52. Szatmari  G, Hua  NM, Vzdornov  D, Daigle  F, Smoragiewicz  W, Mamet-Bratley  MD, Karska-Wysocki  B,     ( 2006 )

In vitro expression of the restriction endonucleases LlaMI and ScrFI isolated from Lactococcus lactis M19 and UC503.

Journal of biotechnology 121 (2)
PMID : 16144727  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.jbiotec.2005.08.004    
Abstract >>
A new restriction endonuclease LlaMI has been characterized in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris M19. LlaMI recognizes the sequence 5'-CCNGG-3' and cuts after the second cytosine. This restriction endonuclease is related to commercially available ScrFI but not identical to it. Comparative analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences of LlaMI and ScrFI indicates five non-conservative amino acid changes between these two restriction enzymes. These two enzymes were expressed in vitro as histidine-tagged fusion proteins. LlaMI was shown to be more sensitive to high salt concentration than ScrFI. Southern blotting and hybridization analysis indicate that the gene for LlaMI R/M system is chromosomally encoded.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Amino Acid Substitution
53. Strøman  P,     ( 1992 )

Sequence of a gene (lap) encoding a 95.3-kDa aminopeptidase from Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris Wg2.

Gene 113 (1)
PMID : 1563625  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0378-1119(92)90676-g    
Abstract >>
A gene (lap) coding for a Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris Wg2 aminopeptidase was cloned from genomic libraries of size-fractionated lactococcal DNA. The 5' end of the lap gene was isolated by using a polymerase chain reaction hybridization probe of 77 nucleotides (nt) synthesized from two degenerate primers derived from the N-terminal amino acid (aa) sequence of the lactococcal lysine-aminopeptidase (LAP). The remaining part(s) of the gene were recovered by a search for overlapping sequences in Southern blots of variably restricted genomic DNA. The complete nt sequence of the lap gene has been determined. A large open reading frame of 2538 nt is predicted to encode a polypeptide of 846 aa (approx. 95.3 kDa; pI, 5.93). A recombinant plasmid containing the lap gene with its flanking sequences was shown to direct in vivo synthesis of LAP activity in Escherichia coli, indicating that the cloned DNA fragment is the lap gene. Primer extension analysis of lap mRNA and Northern blot hybridization indicated the gene transcript to be approx. 3.0 kb in size with a 5'-untranslated region of 19-22 nt. Comparison of the deduced aa sequence indicates that the LAP has extensive homology with the super family of Zn(2+)-metallohydrolases and shows identity in the core deca-peptide consensus sequence for the Zn(2+)-binding motif of these enzymes.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
54. Mori  S, Mori  K, Suzuki  I, Kasumi  T,     ( 2004 )

Phylogenetic analysis of Lactococcus lactis subspecies based on decoding the sequence of the pepT tripeptidase gene, the pepV dipeptidase gene and 16S rRNA.

Systematic and applied microbiology 27 (4)
PMID : 15368846  :   DOI  :   10.1078/0723202041438400    
Abstract >>
Tripeptidase (PepT) and dipeptidase (PepV), the enzymes located in the final stage of the intracellular proteolytic system, were demonstrated to be distributed widely in lactic acid bacteria, especially in lactococci. Both the tripeptidase genes (pepT) and dipeptidase genes (pepV) of 15 lactococcal strains consisting of the type and domestic strains were cloned and sequenced using normal and TAIL PCR methods. Amino acid sequences of these enzymes were highly conserved among strains. Evolutionary distance trees based on the sequence of 1239 nucleotides of pepT and 1416 nucleotide of pepV showed a similar cluster as that obtained from the 1499 fragment of the 16S rRNA. Based on this profile, the species Lactococcus lactis is reasonably divided into three subspecies groups, subsp. lactis, cremoris, and hordniae, as in the current classification. Figure of trees from pepT and pepV were essentially identical to each other and slightly more intricate than that from 16S rRNA. The K nuc values obtained from pepT and pepV genes were approximately ten times as high as that from 16S rRNA. Considering these results, phylogenetic analysis based on pepT and pepV genes may aid in a more precise index of classification of L. lactis subspecies. PepT and PepV seem to have evolved in similar directions in lactococci.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Phylogeny
55. Burgess  C, O'connell-Motherway  M, Sybesma  W, Hugenholtz  J, van Sinderen  D,     ( 2004 )

Riboflavin production in Lactococcus lactis: potential for in situ production of vitamin-enriched foods.

Applied and environmental microbiology 70 (10)
PMID : 15466513  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.70.10.5769-5777.2004     PMC  :   PMC522069    
Abstract >>
This study describes the genetic analysis of the riboflavin (vitamin B(2)) biosynthetic (rib) operon in the lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strain NZ9000. Functional analysis of the genes of the L. lactis rib operon was performed by using complementation studies, as well as by deletion analysis. In addition, gene-specific genetic engineering was used to examine which genes of the rib operon need to be overexpressed in order to effect riboflavin overproduction. Transcriptional regulation of the L. lactis riboflavin biosynthetic process was investigated by using Northern hybridization and primer extension, as well as the analysis of roseoflavin-induced riboflavin-overproducing L. lactis isolates. The latter analysis revealed the presence of both nucleotide replacements and deletions in the regulatory region of the rib operon. The results presented here are an important step toward the development of fermented foods containing increased levels of riboflavin, produced in situ, thus negating the need for vitamin fortification.
KeywordMeSH Terms
56. Duwat  P, Ehrlich  SD, Gruss  A,     ( 1992 )

Use of degenerate primers for polymerase chain reaction cloning and sequencing of the Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis recA gene.

Applied and environmental microbiology 58 (8)
PMID : 1514816  :   PMC  :   PMC195839    
Abstract >>
Two particularly well-conserved stretches in the RecA protein sequences were chosen as templates to synthesize degenerate oligonucleotides, which were used in polymerase chain reaction to amplify an internal recA DNA fragment of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ML3. Using this fragment, we recovered and sequenced the entire lactococcal recA gene. The end of an open reading frame present upstream of the recA gene shows strong homology with formamidopyrimidine-DNA-glycosylase, a protein involved in DNA repair.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
57. Boels  IC, Beerthuyzen  MM, Kosters  MH, Van Kaauwen  MP, Kleerebezem  M, De Vos  WM,     ( 2004 )

Identification and functional characterization of the Lactococcus lactis rfb operon, required for dTDP-rhamnose Biosynthesis.

Journal of bacteriology 186 (5)
PMID : 14973085  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.186.5.1239-1248.2004     PMC  :   PMC344400    
Abstract >>
dTDP-rhamnose is an important precursor of cell wall polysaccharides and rhamnose-containing exopolysaccharides (EPS) in Lactococcus lactis. We cloned the rfbACBD operon from L. lactis MG1363, which comprises four genes involved in dTDP-rhamnose biosynthesis. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the lactococcal rfbACBD genes could sustain heterologous production of the Shigella flexneri O antigen, providing evidence of their functionality. Overproduction of the RfbAC proteins in L. lactis resulted in doubled dTDP-rhamnose levels, indicating that the endogenous RfbAC activities control the intracellular dTDP-rhamnose biosynthesis rate. However, RfbAC overproduction did not affect rhamnose-containing B40-EPS production levels. A nisin-controlled conditional RfbBD mutant was unable to grow in media lacking the inducer nisin, indicating that the rfb genes have an essential role in L. lactis. Limitation of RfbBD activities resulted in the production of altered EPS. The monomeric sugar of the altered EPS consisted of glucose, galactose, and rhamnose at a molar ratio of 1:0.3:0.2, which is clearly different from the ratio in the native sugar. Biophysical analysis revealed a fourfold-greater molecular mass and a twofold-smaller radius of gyration for the altered EPS, indicating that these EPS are more flexible polymers with changed viscosifying properties. This is the first indication that enzyme activity at the level of central carbohydrate metabolism affects EPS composition.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Operon
58. Larsen  R, Buist  G, Kuipers  OP, Kok  J,     ( 2004 )

ArgR and AhrC are both required for regulation of arginine metabolism in Lactococcus lactis.

Journal of bacteriology 186 (4)
PMID : 14762010  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.186.4.1147-1157.2004     PMC  :   PMC344216    
Abstract >>
The DNA binding proteins ArgR and AhrC are essential for regulation of arginine metabolism in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. A unique property of these regulators is that they form hexameric protein complexes, mediating repression of arginine biosynthetic pathways as well as activation of arginine catabolic pathways. The gltS-argE operon of Lactococcus lactis encodes a putative glutamate or arginine transport protein and acetylornithine deacetylase, which catalyzes an important step in the arginine biosynthesis pathway. By random integration knockout screening we found that derepression mutants had ISS1 integrations in, among others, argR and ahrC. Single as well as double regulator deletion mutants were constructed from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363. The three arginine biosynthetic operons argCJDBF, argGH, and gltS-argE were shown to be repressed by the products of argR and ahrC. Furthermore, the arginine catabolic arcABD1C1C2TD2 operon was activated by the product of ahrC but not by that of argR. Expression from the promoter of the argCJDBF operon reached similar levels in the single mutants and in the double mutant, suggesting that the regulators are interdependent and not able to complement each other. At the same time they also appear to have different functions, as only AhrC is involved in activation of arginine catabolism. This is the first study where two homologous arginine regulators are shown to be involved in arginine regulation in a prokaryote, representing an unusual mechanism of regulation.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Escherichia coli Proteins
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
59. Gueneau de Novoa  P, Williams  KP,     ( 2004 )

The tmRNA website: reductive evolution of tmRNA in plastids and other endosymbionts.

Nucleic acids research 32 (Database issue)
PMID : 14681369  :   DOI  :   10.1093/nar/gkh102     PMC  :   PMC308836    
Abstract >>
tmRNA combines tRNA- and mRNA-like properties and ameliorates problems arising from stalled ribosomes. Research on the mechanism, structure and biology of tmRNA is served by the tmRNA website (http://www.indiana.edu/~ tmrna), a collection of sequences, alignments, secondary structures and other information. Because many of these sequences are not in GenBank, a BLAST server has been added; another new feature is an abbreviated alignment for the tRNA-like domain only. Many tmRNA sequences from plastids have been added, five found in public sequence data and another 10 generated by direct sequencing; detection in early-branching members of the green plastid lineage brings coverage to all three primary plastid lineages. The new sequences include the shortest known tmRNA sequence. While bacterial tmRNAs usually have a lone pseudoknot upstream of the mRNA segment and a string of three or four pseudoknots downstream, plastid tmRNAs collectively show loss of pseudoknots at both postions. The pseudoknot-string region is also too short to contain the usual pseudoknot number in another new entry, the tmRNA sequence from a bacterial endosymbiont of insect cells, Tremblaya princeps. Pseudoknots may optimize tmRNA function in free-living bacteria, yet become dispensible when the endosymbiotic lifestyle relaxes selective pressure for fast growth.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Databases, Nucleic Acid
Evolution, Molecular
Internet
60. Savijoki  K, Ingmer  H, Frees  D, Vogensen  FK, Palva  A, Varmanen  P,     ( 2003 )

Heat and DNA damage induction of the LexA-like regulator HdiR from Lactococcus lactis is mediated by RecA and ClpP.

Molecular microbiology 50 (2)
PMID : 14617183  :   DOI  :   10.1046/j.1365-2958.2003.03713.x    
Abstract >>
The SOS response is a paradigm for bacterial cells response to DNA damage. Yet some bacteria lack a homologue of the SOS regulator, LexA, including the Gram-positive, Lactococcus lactis. In this organism we have identified a negative transcriptional regulator, HdiR that induces target gene expression both upon DNA damage and heat shock. Gel mobility shift assays revealed that the binding site for HdiR is located within an inverted repeat structure. HdiR is able to carry out a self-cleavage reaction in vitro at high pHs, while in vivo it undergoes RecA-dependent self-cleavage in the presence of a DNA-damaging agent. Intriguingly, the N-terminal cleavage product of HdiR retains DNA binding activity, and only when degraded by the Clp protease, is gene expression induced. Thus, the activity of HdiR in response to DNA damage is controlled by sequential proteolysis, involving self-cleavage and Clp-dependent degradation of HdiR. During heat-stress, limited self-cleavage occurs; however, recA and clpP are still required for full induction of target gene expression. Thus, our data show that common elements are involved in both the DNA damage and the heat-mediated induction of the HdiR regulon.
KeywordMeSH Terms
SOS Response (Genetics)
61. Chich  JF, Chapot-Chartier  MP, Ribadeau-Dumas  B, Gripon  JC,     ( 1992 )

Identification of the active site serine of the X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase from Lactococcus lactis.

FEBS letters 314 (2)
PMID : 1459244  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0014-5793(92)80960-o    
Abstract >>
The active site serine of the X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase from Lactococcus lactis (PepX) was identified. The enzyme was labeled by [3H]DFP, treated by CNBr and the resulting peptides were separated by reverse-phase-HPLC. The main radiolabeled peptide was sequenced. Ser-348, in the following sequence, Gly-Lys-Ser-Tyr-Leu-Gly, was identified as the active site serine. A sequence comparison between the active site of PepX and other serine proteases was made, showing only limited sequence homologies in this area. The consensus sequence surrounding the active site serine in the three known X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidases (mammalian DPPIV, yeast DPAB and PepX) is G-X-S-Y-X-G, where X is a non-conserved amino acid.
KeywordMeSH Terms
62. Ladero  V, Rattray  FP, Mayo  B, Martín  MC, Fernández  M, Alvarez  MA,     ( 2011 )

Sequencing and transcriptional analysis of the biosynthesis gene cluster of putrescine-producing Lactococcus lactis.

Applied and environmental microbiology 77 (18)
PMID : 21803900  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.05507-11     PMC  :   PMC3187148    
Abstract >>
Lactococcus lactis is a prokaryotic microorganism with great importance as a culture starter and has become the model species among the lactic acid bacteria. The long and safe history of use of L. lactis in dairy fermentations has resulted in the classification of this species as GRAS (General Regarded As Safe) or QPS (Qualified Presumption of Safety). However, our group has identified several strains of L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris that are able to produce putrescine from agmatine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway. Putrescine is a biogenic amine that confers undesirable flavor characteristics and may even have toxic effects. The AGDI cluster of L. lactis is composed of a putative regulatory gene, aguR, followed by the genes (aguB, aguD, aguA, and aguC) encoding the catabolic enzymes. These genes are transcribed as an operon that is induced in the presence of agmatine. In some strains, an insertion (IS) element interrupts the transcription of the cluster, which results in a non-putrescine-producing phenotype. Based on this knowledge, a PCR-based test was developed in order to differentiate nonproducing L. lactis strains from those with a functional AGDI cluster. The analysis of the AGDI cluster and their flanking regions revealed that the capacity to produce putrescine via the AGDI pathway could be a specific characteristic that was lost during the adaptation to the milk environment by a process of reductive genome evolution.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Biosynthetic Pathways
63. Pérez  T, Balcázar  JL, Peix  A, Valverde  A, Velázquez  E, de Blas  I, Ruiz-Zarzuela  I,     ( 2011 )

Lactococcus lactis subsp. tructae subsp. nov. isolated from the intestinal mucus of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 61 (Pt 8)
PMID : 20833888  :   DOI  :   10.1099/ijs.0.023945-0    
Abstract >>
The species Lactococcus lactis currently includes three subspecies; L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, isolated from milk sources, and L. lactis subsp. hordniae, isolated from the leafhopper Hordnia circellata. In this study, three strains, designated L105(T), I3 and L101, were isolated from the intestinal mucus of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). These strains were closely related to members of the species Lactococcus lactis. Strain L105(T) showed 99.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to that of the type strains L. lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 604(T) and L. lactis subsp. hordniae NCDO 2181(T) and showed 99.9 % similarity to the type strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NCDO 607(T). Analysis of two housekeeping genes, rpoB and recA, confirmed the close relationship between the novel strains and L. lactis subsp. cremoris with similarities of 99.3 and 99.7 %, respectively. The three strains could, however, be differentiated from their closest relatives on the basis of several phenotypic characteristics, as was the case for L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. hordniae, which were also closely related on the basis of 16S rRNA, rpoB and recA gene sequence similarities. The strains isolated in this study represent a new subspecies, for which the name Lactococcus lactis subsp. tructae subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is L105(T) (= LMG 24662(T) = DSM 21502(T)).
KeywordMeSH Terms
64. Koivula  T, Palva  I, Hemilä  H,     ( 1991 )

Nucleotide sequence of the secY gene from Lactococcus lactis and identification of conserved regions by comparison of four SecY proteins.

FEBS letters 288 (1��2��)
PMID : 1908794  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0014-5793(91)81015-z    
Abstract >>
Sec Y is an integral membrane protein which participates in the translocation of proteins through the bacterial cell membrane. We have cloned the sec Y gene of Lactococcus lactis, and found its deduced protein sequence, 439 amino acids long, to be similar in length to the previously determined Sec Y proteins of Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Mycoplasma capricolum. Comparison of the L. lactis Sec Y to the 3 other Sec Y proteins revealed 90 conserved amino acid residues (21%). Nearly half of the conserved residues are clustered in 2 of the 10 transmembrane segments, and in 2 of the 6 cytoplasmic regions. Some of the conserved regions are apparently responsible for the interactions of Sec Y with signal sequences, and the proteins SecE and SecA.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Escherichia coli Proteins
65. Holo  H, Nilssen  O, Nes  IF,     ( 1991 )

Lactococcin A, a new bacteriocin from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris: isolation and characterization of the protein and its gene.

Journal of bacteriology 173 (12)
PMID : 1904860  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.173.12.3879-3887.1991     PMC  :   PMC208020    
Abstract >>
A new bacteriocin, termed lactococcin A (LCN-A), from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris LMG 2130 was purified and sequenced. The polypeptide contained no unusual amino acids and showed no significant sequence similarity to other known proteins. Only lactococci were killed by the bacteriocin. Of more than 120 L. lactis strains tested, only 1 was found resistant to LCN-A. The most sensitive strain tested, L. lactis subsp. cremoris NCDO 1198, was inhibited by 7 pM LCN-A. By use of a synthetic DNA probe, lcnA was found to be located on a 55-kb plasmid. The lcnA gene was cloned and sequenced. The sequence data revealed that LCN-A is ribosomally synthesized as a 75-amino-acid precursor including a 21-amino-acid N-terminal extension. An open reading frame encoding a 98-amino-acid polypeptide was found downstream of and in the same operon as lcnA. We propose that this open reading frame encodes an immunity function for LCN-A. In Escherichia coli lcnA did not cause an LCN-A+ phenotype. L. lactis subsp. lactis IL 1403 produced small amounts of the bacteriocin and became resistant to LCN-A after transformation with a recombinant plasmid carrying lcnA. The other lactococcal strains transformed with the same recombinant plasmid became resistant to LCN-A but did not produce any detectable amount of the bacteriocin.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacteriocins
66. van Belkum  MJ, Hayema  BJ, Jeeninga  RE, Kok  J, Venema  G,     ( 1991 )

Organization and nucleotide sequences of two lactococcal bacteriocin operons.

Applied and environmental microbiology 57 (2)
PMID : 1901707  :   PMC  :   PMC182738    
Abstract >>
Two distinct regions of the Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris 9B4 plasmid p9B4-6, each of which specified bacteriocin production as well as immunity, have been sequenced and analyzed by deletion and frameshift mutation analyses. On a 1.8-kb ScaI-ClaI fragment specifying low antagonistic activity, three open reading frames (ORFs) were present, which were organized in an operon. The first two ORFs, containing 69 and 77 codons, respectively, were involved in bacteriocin activity, whereas the third ORF, containing 154 codons, was essential for immunity. Primer extension analysis indicated the presence of a promoter upstream of the ORFs. Two ORFs were present on a 1.3-kb ScaI-HindII fragment specifying high antagonistic activity. The first ORF, containing 75 codons, specified bacteriocin activity. The second ORF, containing 98 codons, specified immunity. The nucleotide sequences of both fragments upstream of the first ORFs as well as the first 20 bp of the first ORF of both bacteriocin operons appeared to be identical.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacteriocins
Operon
67. Haandrikman  AJ, Kok  J, Venema  G,     ( 1991 )

Lactococcal proteinase maturation protein PrtM is a lipoprotein.

Journal of bacteriology 173 (14)
PMID : 1906066  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.173.14.4517-4525.1991     PMC  :   PMC208116    
Abstract >>
The production of enzymatically active proteinase by lactococci requires the joint presence of a proteinase gene, prtP, and a gene encoding a maturation protein, prtM. A 32-kDa protein produced by Escherichia coli upon expression of the prtM gene under the direction of the T7 RNA polymerase promoter was purified and used to obtain PrtM-specific antibodies. With these antibodies, immunogold labeling of lactococcal cells revealed that PrtM was associated with the lactococcal cell envelope. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of whole lactococcal cells and isolated membrane vesicles indicated that PrtM was a membrane-associated protein. Radiolabeling of Lactococcus lactis with [3H]palmitic acid showed that PrtM was a lipoprotein. Partial secretion of PrtM into the culture medium was observed after Cys-24, the target residue for lipid modification, was replaced by an Ala residue by means of site-directed mutagenesis. This mutation did not affect proteinase activity.
KeywordMeSH Terms
68. Kelleher  P, Bottacini  F, Mahony  J, Kilcawley  KN, van Sinderen  D,     ( 2017 )

Comparative and functional genomics of the Lactococcus lactis taxon; insights into evolution and niche adaptation.

BMC genomics 18 (1)
PMID : 28356072  :   DOI  :   10.1186/s12864-017-3650-5     PMC  :   PMC5372332    
Abstract >>
Lactococcus lactis is among the most widely studied lactic acid bacterial species due to its long history of safe use and economic importance to the dairy industry, where it is exploited as a starter culture in cheese production. In the current study, we report on the complete sequencing of 16 L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris genomes. The chromosomal features of these 16 L. lactis strains in conjunction with 14 completely sequenced, publicly available lactococcal chromosomes were assessed with particular emphasis on discerning the L. lactis subspecies division, evolution and niche adaptation. The deduced pan-genome of L. lactis was found to be closed, indicating that the representative data sets employed for this analysis are sufficient to fully describe the genetic diversity of the taxon. Niche adaptation appears to play a significant role in governing the genetic content of each L. lactis subspecies, while (differential) genome decay and redundancy in the dairy niche is also highlighted.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genomics
Lactococcus lactis
Niche adaptation
Pan-genome
SMRT sequencing
Evolution, Molecular
Genome, Bacterial
69. Polzin  KM, Shimizu-Kadota  M,     ( 1987 )

Identification of a new insertion element, similar to gram-negative IS26, on the lactose plasmid of Streptococcus lactis ML3.

Journal of bacteriology 169 (12)
PMID : 2824436  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.169.12.5481-5488.1987     PMC  :   PMC213975    
Abstract >>
In Streptococcus lactis ML3, the lactose plasmid (pSK08) forms cointegrates with a conjugal plasmid (pRS01). It has been proposed that cointegration is mediated by insertion sequences (IS) present on pSK08 (D. G. Anderson and L.L. McKay, J. Bacteriol. 158:954-962, 1984). We examined the junction regions of the cointegrate pPW2 and the corresponding regions of pSK08 (donor) and pRS01 (target) and identified a new IS element on pSK08 (ISS1S) which was involved in and duplicated during formation of pPW2. ISS1S was 808 base pairs (bp) in size, had 18-bp inverted repeats (GGTTCTGTTGCAAAGTTT) at its ends, contained a single long open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 226 amino acids, and generated 8-bp direct repeats of target DNA during cointegrate formation. An iso-IS element, ISS1T, which is duplicated in some other cointegrate plasmids, was also found on pSK08. ISS1T was also 808 bp in size and was identical to ISS1S in sequence except for 4 bp, none of which altered the inverted repeats or amino acid sequence of the open reading frame. Comparison of ISS1 with gram-negative IS26 revealed strong homologies in size (820 bp), sequence of inverted repeats (GGCACTGTTGCAAA), size of direct repeats generated after cointegration (8 bp), and number, size, and amino acid sequence (44.5% identical) of the open reading of frame.
KeywordMeSH Terms
DNA Transposable Elements
Lactose Factors
Plasmids
70. Haandrikman  AJ, Kok  J, Laan  H, Soemitro  S, Ledeboer  AM, Konings  WN, Venema  G,     ( 1989 )

Identification of a gene required for maturation of an extracellular lactococcal serine proteinase.

Journal of bacteriology 171 (5)
PMID : 2708318  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.171.5.2789-2794.1989     PMC  :   PMC209965    
Abstract >>
Directly upstream of the Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2 proteinase gene is an oppositely directed open reading frame (ORF1). The complete nucleotide sequence of ORF1, encoding a 33-kilodalton protein, was determined. A protein of approximately 32 kilodaltons was synthesized when ORF1 was expressed in Escherichia coli by using a T7 RNA polymerase-specific promoter. L. lactis subsp. lactis MG1363 transformants carrying the proteinase gene but lacking ORF1 were phenotypically proteinase deficient, unlike transformants carrying both the proteinase gene and ORF1. Synthesis and secretion of proteinase antigen by L. lactis could be detected with proteinase-directed monoclonal antibodies regardless of whether ORF1 was present. The requirement of ORF1 for proteinase activation was reflected in a reduction in the molecular weight of the secreted proteinase. Furthermore, deletion of the 130 C-terminal amino acids of the Wg2 proteinase prevented attachment of the enzyme to lactococcal cells.
KeywordMeSH Terms
71. Chand  MK, Nirwan  N, Diffin  FM, van Aelst  K, Kulkarni  M, Pernstich  C, Szczelkun  MD, Saikrishnan  K,     ( 2015 )

Translocation-coupled DNA cleavage by the Type ISP restriction-modification enzymes.

Nature chemical biology 11 (11)
PMID : 26389736  :   DOI  :   10.1038/nchembio.1926     PMC  :   PMC4636054    
Abstract >>
Production of endonucleolytic double-strand DNA breaks requires separate strand cleavage events. Although catalytic mechanisms for simple, dimeric endonucleases are known, there are many complex nuclease machines that are poorly understood. Here we studied the single polypeptide Type ISP restriction-modification (RM) enzymes, which cleave random DNA between distant target sites when two enzymes collide after convergent ATP-driven translocation. We report the 2.7-? resolution X-ray crystal structure of a Type ISP enzyme-DNA complex, revealing that both the helicase-like ATPase and nuclease are located upstream of the direction of translocation, an observation inconsistent with simple nuclease-domain dimerization. Using single-molecule and biochemical techniques, we demonstrate that each ATPase remodels its DNA-protein complex and translocates along DNA without looping it, leading to a collision complex in which the nuclease domains are distal. Sequencing of the products of single cleavage events suggests a previously undescribed endonuclease model, where multiple, stochastic strand-nicking events combine to produce DNA scission.
KeywordMeSH Terms
72. del Rio  B, Linares  DM, Ladero  V, Redruello  B, Fernández  M, Martin  MC, Alvarez  MA,     ( 2015 )

Putrescine production via the agmatine deiminase pathway increases the growth of Lactococcus lactis and causes the alkalinization of the culture medium.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology 99 (2)
PMID : 25341400  :   DOI  :   10.1007/s00253-014-6130-8    
Abstract >>
Lactococcus lactis is the most important starter culture organism used in the dairy industry. Although L. lactis species have been awarded Qualified Presumption of Safety status by the European Food Safety Authority, and Generally Regarded as Safe status by the US Food and Drug Administration, some strains can produce the biogenic amine putrescine. One such strain is L. lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 (formerly L. lactis subsp. cremoris GE2-14), which was isolated from Genestoso cheese. This strain catabolizes agmatine to putrescine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway, which involves the production of ATP and two ammonium ions. The present work shows that the availability of agmatine and its metabolization to putrescine allows for greater bacterial growth (in a biphasic pattern) and causes the alkalinization of the culture medium in a dose-dependent manner. The construction of a mutant lacking the AGDI cluster (L. lactis CECT 8666 �Gagdi) confirmed the latter's direct role in putrescine production, growth, and medium alkalinization. Alkalinization did not affect the putrescine production pattern and was not essential for increased bacterial growth.
KeywordMeSH Terms
73. Ainsworth  S, Sadovskaya  I, Vinogradov  E, Courtin  P, Guerardel  Y, Mahony  J, Grard  T, Cambillau  C, Chapot-Chartier  MP, van Sinderen  D,     ( 2014 )

Differences in lactococcal cell wall polysaccharide structure are major determining factors in bacteriophage sensitivity.

mBio 5 (3)
PMID : 24803515  :   DOI  :   10.1128/mBio.00880-14     PMC  :   PMC4010823    
Abstract >>
ABSTRACT Analysis of the genetic locus encompassing a cell wall polysaccharide (CWPS) biosynthesis operon of eight strains of Lactococcus lactis, identified as belonging to the same CWPS type C genotype, revealed the presence of a variable region among the strains examined. The results allowed the identification of five subgroups of the C type named subtypes C1 to C5. This variable region contains genes encoding glycosyltransferases that display low or no sequence homology between the subgroups. In this study, we purified an acidic polysaccharide from the cell wall of L. lactis 3107 (subtype C2) and confirmed that it is structurally different from the previously established CWPS of subtype C1 L. lactis MG1363. The CWPS of L. lactis 3107 is composed of pentasaccharide repeating units linked by phosphodiester bonds with the structure 6-�\-Glc-3-�]-Galf-3-�]-GlcNAc-2-�]-Galf-6-�\-GlcNAc-1-P. Combinations of genes from the variable region of subtype C2 were introduced into a mutant of subtype C1 L. lactis NZ9000 deficient in CWPS biosynthesis. The resulting recombinant mutant synthesized a polysaccharide with a composition characteristic of that of subtype C2 L. lactis 3107 and not wild-type C1 L. lactis NZ9000. By challenging the recombinant mutant with various lactococcal phages, we demonstrated that CWPS is the host cell surface receptor of tested bacteriophages of both the P335 and 936 groups and that differences between the CWPS structures play a crucial role in determining phage host range. IMPORTANCE Despite the efforts of nearly 80 years of lactococcal phage research, the precise nature of the cell surface receptors of the P335 and 936 phage group receptors has remained elusive. This work demonstrates the molecular nature of a P335 group receptor while bolstering the evidence of its role in host recognition by phages of the 936 group and at least partially explains why such phages have a very narrow host range. The information generated will be instrumental in understanding the molecular mechanisms of how phages recognize specific saccharidic receptors located on the surface of their bacterial host.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Host-Pathogen Interactions
74. van der Vossen  JM, van der Lelie  D, Venema  G,     ( 1987 )

Isolation and characterization of Streptococcus cremoris Wg2-specific promoters.

Applied and environmental microbiology 53 (10)
PMID : 2447829  :  
Abstract >>
By cloning MboI fragments in the promoter selection vector pGKV210, which replicates in Streptococcus lactis, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli and carries a promoterless chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene, we obtained a number of fragments endowed with promoter activity, partly by direct selection for chloramphenicol resistance in S. lactis IL1403 and partly by selection in B. subtilis. Five fragments were sequenced, and the promoters were mapped with S1 nuclease. The promoters agreed with the E. coli promoter consensus and the B. subtilis vegetative sigma 43 promoter consensus. The promoters were preceded by an A + T-rich region (ranging from 64 to 78% A + T). S1 nuclease mapping data showed that the transcriptional start point in three of the fragments was at a TAG sequence 5 to 9 nucleotides downstream from the promoter. Three fragments carried an open reading frame preceded by a ribosome-binding site which can be recognized by E. coli, B. subtilis, and S. lactis ribosomes.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
Promoter Regions, Genetic
75. Kiwaki  M, Ikemura  H, Shimizu-Kadota  M, Hirashima  A,     ( 1989 )

Molecular characterization of a cell wall-associated proteinase gene from Streptococcus lactis NCDO763.

Molecular microbiology 3 (3)
PMID : 2501630  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1365-2958.1989.tb00181.x    
Abstract >>
Streptococcus lactis NCDO763 harbours a plasmid designated pLP763. The cells harbouring pLP763 are able to grow to a higher density in milk because of their proteinase-positive phenotype (Prt+). The 6.2 kb HindIII-PstI fragment from pLP763 was found to be responsible for the Prt+ phenotype. The DNA fragment contains an incomplete large open reading frame (ORF). Further sequence analysis downstream from the PstI site revealed that the ORF consists of 5706 bases. It was found that the deduced amino acid sequence consisting of 1902 amino acid residues was extremely similar to that of the Wg2 proteinase, a serine protease from Streptococcus cremoris, suggesting that both genes were derived from a common ancestral gene.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes
Genes, Bacterial
76. Linares  DM, del Río  B, Ladero  V, Redruello  B, Martín  MC, Fernández  M, Alvarez  MA,     ( 2013 )

The putrescine biosynthesis pathway in Lactococcus lactis is transcriptionally regulated by carbon catabolic repression, mediated by CcpA.

International journal of food microbiology 165 (1)
PMID : 23688550  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2013.04.021    
Abstract >>
Lactococcus lactis is the lactic acid bacterium most widely used by the dairy industry as a starter for the manufacture of fermented products such as cheese and buttermilk. However, some strains produce putrescine from agmatine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway. The proteins involved in this pathway, including those necessary for agmatine uptake and conversion into putrescine, are encoded by the aguB, aguD, aguA and aguC genes, which together form an operon. This paper reports the mechanism of regulation of putrescine biosynthesis in L. lactis. It is shown that the aguBDAC operon, which contains a cre site at the promoter of aguB (the first gene of the operon), is transcriptionally regulated by carbon catabolic repression (CCR) mediated by the catabolite control protein CcpA.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
77. Suzuki  C, Kobayashi  M, Kimoto-Nira  H,     ( 2013 )

Novel exopolysaccharides produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, and the diversity of epsE genes in the exopolysaccharide biosynthesis gene clusters.

Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry 77 (10)
PMID : 24096663  :   DOI  :   10.1271/bbb.130322    
Abstract >>
To characterize novel variations of exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by dairy strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and subsp. cremoris, the EPSs of five dairy strains of L. lactis were purified. Sugar composition analysis showed two novel EPSs produced by strains of L. lactis subsp. lactis. One strain produced EPS lacking galactose, and the other produced EPS containing fucose. Among the eps gene clusters of these strains, the highly conserved epsD and its neighboring epsE were sequenced. Sequence and PCR analysis revealed that epsE genes were strain-specific. By Southern blot analysis using epsD, the eps gene cluster in each strain was found to locate to the chromosome or a very large plasmid. This is the first report on the identification of two novel EPSs in L. lactis subsp. lactis. The strains can be detected among other strains by using epsE genes specific to them.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genetic Variation
Multigene Family
78. McAuliffe  O, Fitzgerald  GF, Fallico  V,     ( 2012 )

Novel conjugative plasmids from the natural isolate Lactococcus lactis subspecies cremoris DPC3758: a repository of genes for the potential improvement of dairy starters.

Journal of dairy science 95 (7)
PMID : 22720917  :   DOI  :   10.3168/jds.2011-5255    
Abstract >>
A collection of 17 natural lactococcal isolates from raw milk cheeses were studied in terms of their plasmid distribution, content, and diversity. All strains in the collection harbored an abundance of plasmids, including Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris DPC3758, whose 8-plasmid complement was selected for sequencing. The complete sequences of pAF22 (22,388 kb), pAF14 (14,419 kb), pAF12 (12,067 kb), pAF07 (7,435 kb), and pAF04 (3,801 kb) were obtained, whereas gene functions of technological interest were mapped to pAF65 (65 kb) and pAF45 (45 kb) by PCR. The plasmids of L. lactis DPC3758 were found to encode many genes with the potential to improve the technological properties of dairy starters. These included 3 anti-phage restriction/modification (R/M) systems (1 of type I and 2 of type II) and genes for immunity/resistance to nisin, lacticin 481, cadmium, and copper. Regions encoding conjugative/mobilization functions were present in 6 of the 8 plasmids, including those containing the R/M systems, thus enabling the food-grade transfer of these mechanisms to industrial strains. Using cadmium selection, the sequential stacking of the R/M plasmids into a plasmid-free host provided the recipient with increased protection against 936- and c2-type phages. The association of food-grade selectable markers and mobilization functions on L. lactis DPC3758 plasmids will facilitate their exploitation to obtain industrial strains with enhanced phage protection and robustness. These natural plasmids also provide another example of the major role of plasmids in contributing to host fitness and preservation within its ecological niche.
KeywordMeSH Terms
79. Rahkila  R, Nieminen  T, Johansson  P, Säde  E, Björkroth  J,     ( 2012 )

Characterization and evaluation of the spoilage potential of Lactococcus piscium isolates from modified atmosphere packaged meat.

International journal of food microbiology 156 (1)
PMID : 22445914  :   DOI  :   10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2012.02.022    
Abstract >>
A total of 222 psychrotrophic lactococci isolated from use-by day, modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) meat were identified to the species level by numerical analyses of EcoRI and ClaI ribopatterns and phylogenetic sequence analyses of 16S, rpoA and pheS genes. In addition, their meat spoilage potential was studied. The majority of the isolates (n=215) were identified as Lactococcus piscium, while seven isolates belonged to Lactococcus raffinolactis. L. piscium was shown to be adapted to growing in a variety of MAP meat products including broiler, turkey, pork, and minced meat from beef and pork, where they belonged to the predominating microbiota at the end of the storage. Numerical analyses of EcoRI and ClaI ribopatterns, and phylogenetic sequence analyses of rpoA and pheS genes were shown to be reliable tools in species level identification of meat lactococci. The spoilage potential of L. piscium was evaluated by inoculating representative isolates to MAP pork stored at 6 �XC for 22 days. Development of spoilage population was monitored using a culture-independent T-RFLP approach. The sensory shelf life of pork inoculated with L. piscium was shortened compared to the uninoculated control. Alongside with the inoculated L. piscium isolates, Leuconostoc spp. present as initial contaminants in the samples thrived. This shows that even though lactococci were inoculated at higher levels compared to the natural microbiota, they did not occupy the niche and prevent the growth of other lactic acid bacteria.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Food Packaging
80. Cefalo  AD, Broadbent  JR, Welker  DL,     ( 2011 )

Intraspecific and interspecific interactions among proteins regulating exopolysaccharide synthesis in Streptococcus thermophilus, Streptococcus iniae, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and the assessment of potential lateral gene transfer.

Canadian journal of microbiology 57 (12)
PMID : 22107596  :   DOI  :   10.1139/w11-090    
Abstract >>
Using the yeast two-hybrid system, intraspecific protein interactions were detected in Streptococcus iniae and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris between the transmembrane activation protein (CpsC and EpsA, respectively) and the protein tyrosine kinase (CpsD and EpsB, respectively), between two protein tyrosine kinases, and between the protein tyrosine kinase and the phosphotyrosine phosphatase (CpsB and EpsC, respectively). For each of these intraspecific interactions, interspecific interactions were also detected when one protein was from S. iniae and the other was from Streptococcus thermophilus . Interactions were also observed between two protein tyrosine kinases when one protein was from either of the Streptococcus species and the other from L. lactis subsp. cremoris. The results and sequence comparisons performed in this study support the conclusion that interactions among the components of the tyrosine kinase - phosphatase regulatory system are conserved in the order Lactobacillales and that interspecific genetic exchanges of the genes that encode these proteins have the potential to form functional recombinants. A better understanding of intraspecific and interspecific protein interactions involved in regulating exopolysaccharide biosynthesis may facilitate construction of improved strains for industrial uses as well as identification of factors needed to form functional regulatory complexes in naturally occurring recombinants.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Gene Transfer, Horizontal
Lactococcus lactis
Streptococcus
Streptococcus thermophilus
81. Haandrikman  AJ, van Leeuwen  C, Kok  J, Vos  P, de Vos  WM, Venema  G,     ( 1990 )

Insertion elements on lactococcal proteinase plasmids.

Applied and environmental microbiology 56 (6)
PMID : 2166472  :   PMC  :   PMC184527    
Abstract >>
DNA segments of 809 and 808 nucleotides, with 18-base-pair terminal inverted repeats, are present on the proteinase plasmids pWV05 from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2 and pSK111 from L. lactis subsp. cremoris SK11, respectively. These DNA segments are highly similar: 77% identical nucleotides and both contain an open reading frame that can encode a protein of 226 amino acids. Furthermore, both DNA segments are located downstream of the proteinase maturation gene prtM, but they differ individually in their orientation with respect to the prtM gene. On the basis of the striking similarity between ISS1, an 808-base-pair insertion sequence (IS) from L. lactis subsp. lactis ML3 lactose plasmid pSK08, and the DNA segments of pWV05 and pSK111, we propose that these DNA segments comprise IS elements. The IS elements from strains Wg2 and SK11 were named ISS1W and ISS1N, respectively. On pWV05, ISS1W is flanked on one side by only part of a second IS element, indicating that pWV05 evolved as a deletion derivative of a precursor plasmid that carried at least two IS elements.
KeywordMeSH Terms
DNA Transposable Elements
82. Fernández  E, Alegría  A, Delgado  S, Martín  MC, Mayo  B,     ( 2011 )

Comparative phenotypic and molecular genetic profiling of wild Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strains of the L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris genotypes, isolated from starter-free cheeses made of raw milk.

Applied and environmental microbiology 77 (15)
PMID : 21666023  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.02991-10     PMC  :   PMC3147482    
Abstract >>
Twenty Lactococcus lactis strains with an L. lactis subsp. lactis phenotype isolated from five traditional cheeses made of raw milk with no added starters belonging to the L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris genotypes (lactis and cremoris genotypes, respectively; 10 strains each) were subjected to a series of phenotypic and genetic typing methods, with the aims of determining their phylogenetic relationships and suitability as starters. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of intact genomes digested with SalI and SmaI proved that all strains were different except for three isolates of the cremoris genotype, which showed identical PFGE profiles. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis using internal sequences of seven loci (namely, atpA, rpoA, pheS, pepN, bcaT, pepX, and 16S rRNA gene) revealed considerable intergenotype nucleotide polymorphism, although deduced amino acid changes were scarce. Analysis of the MLST data for the present strains and others from other dairy and nondairy sources showed that all of them clustered into the cremoris or lactis genotype group, by using both independent and combined gene sequences. These two groups of strains also showed distinctive carbohydrate fermentation and enzyme activity profiles, with the strains in the cremoris group showing broader profiles. However, the profiles of resistance/susceptibility to 16 antibiotics were very similar, showing no atypical resistance, except for tetracycline resistance in three identical cremoris genotype isolates. The numbers and concentrations of volatile compounds produced in milk by the strains belonging to these two groups were clearly different, with the cremoris genotype strains producing higher concentrations of more branched-chain, derived compounds. Together, the present results support the idea that the lactis and cremoris genotypes of phenotypic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis actually represent true subspecies. Some strains of the two subspecies in this study appear to be good starter candidates.
KeywordMeSH Terms
83.     ( 1997 )

A bacterial group II intron encoding reverse transcriptase, maturase, and DNA endonuclease activities: biochemical demonstration of maturase activity and insertion of new genetic information within the intron.

Genes & development 11 (21)
PMID : 9353259  :   DOI  :   10.1101/gad.11.21.2910     PMC  :   PMC316661    
Abstract >>
The Lactococcus lactis group II intron Ll.ltrB is similar to mobile yeast mtDNA group II introns, which encode reverse transcriptase, RNA maturase, and DNA endonuclease activities for site-specific DNA insertion. Here, we show that the Lactococcal intron can be expressed and spliced efficiently in Escherichia coli. The intron-encoded protein LtrA has reverse transcriptase and RNA maturase activities, with the latter activity shown both in vivo and in vitro, a first for any group II intron-encoded protein. As for the yeast mtDNA introns, the DNA endonuclease activity of the Lactococcal intron is associated with RNP particles containing both the intron-encoded protein and the excised intron RNA. Also, the intron RNA cleaves the sense-strand of the recipient DNA by a reverse splicing reaction, whereas the intron-encoded protein cleaves the antisense strand. The Lactococcal intron endonuclease can be obtained in large quantities by coexpression of the LtrA protein with the intron RNA in E. coli or reconstituted in vitro by incubating the expressed LtrA protein with in vitro-synthesized intron RNA. Furthermore, the specificity of the endonuclease and reverse splicing reactions can be changed predictably by modifying the RNA component. Expression in E. coli facilitates the use of group II introns for the targeting of specific foreign sequences to a desired site in DNA.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Introns
84.     ( 1997 )

Molecular characterization of the restriction endonuclease gene (scrFIR) associated with the ScrFI restriction/modification system from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris UC503.

Microbiology (Reading, England) 143 (Pt 7) (N/A)
PMID : 9245816  :   DOI  :   10.1099/00221287-143-7-2277    
Abstract >>
The nucleotide sequence of the chromosomally encoded type II ScrFI restriction/modification system from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris UC503 was completed. The ScrFI restriction endonuclease (ENase) has previously been shown to specifically recognize 5' CCNGG 3' sites, cleaving after the second cytosine and the degenerate central base. The ENase gene (scrFIR; 362 bp) was located between, and co-directionally transcribed with, two formerly characterized 5-methylcytosine methyltransferase genes, which encodes proteins that independently confer protection against ScrFI digestion. scrFIR codes for a protein of 272 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 31470 Da, which agrees favourably with a previously estimated molecular mass of 34 kDa for this enzymes. The deduced sequence of this protein did not show any significant homology with known protein sequences, including the isoschizomeric Ssoll ENase from Shigella sonnei. The ENase gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and Lactococcus; however, no in vivo restriction of phage was observed, suggesting that expression of the ENase gene may be repressed, or that the appropriate expression signals may be absent in the cloned constructs. The ability of ScrFI to cleave non-canonically modified 5' CCNGG 3' sequences suggested that some ScrFI sites may require complex modifications to fully impair digestion by this enzyme.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
85.     ( 1997 )

Cloning and sequence analysis of putative histidine protein kinases isolated from Lactococcus lactis MG1363.

Applied and environmental microbiology 63 (6)
PMID : 9172368  :   PMC  :   PMC168540    
Abstract >>
Eight recombinant plasmids harboring chromosomal fragments of Lactococcus lactis MG1363 were shown to phenotypically suppress a histidine protein kinase (HPK) deficiency in either of two different E. coli strains. Sequence analysis of the plasmid inserts revealed five different complete or partial open reading frames (ORFs) specifying proteins with high similarity to HPKs. One of the plasmids also harbored an additional ORF, unrelated to HPKs, with suppressing activity.
KeywordMeSH Terms
86.     ( 1997 )

Molecular characterization of the plasmid-encoded eps gene cluster essential for exopolysaccharide biosynthesis in Lactococcus lactis.

Molecular microbiology 24 (2)
PMID : 9159524  :   DOI  :   10.1046/j.1365-2958.1997.3521720.x    
Abstract >>
Lactococcus lactis strain NIZO B40 produces an extracellular phosphopolysaccharide containing galactose, glucose, and rhamnose. A 40 kb plasmid encoding exopolysaccharide production was isolated through conjugal transfer of total plasmid DNA from strain NIZO B40 to the plasmid-free L. lactis model strain MG1614 and subsequent plasmid curing. A 12 kb region containing 14 genes with the order epsRXABCDEFGHIJKL was identified downstream of an iso-IS982 element. The predicted gene products of epsABCDEFGHIJK show sequence homologies with gene products involved in exopolysaccharide, capsular polysaccharide, lipopolysaccharide, or teichoic acid biosynthesis of other bacteria. Transcriptional analysis of the eps gene cluster revealed that the gene cluster is transcribed as a single 12 kb mRNA. The transcription start site of the promoter was mapped upstream of the first gene epsR. The involvement of epsD in exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis was demonstrated through a single gene disruption rendering an exopolysaccharide-deficient phenotype. Heterologous expression of epsD in Escherichia coli showed that its gene product is a glucosyltransferase linking the first sugar of the repeating unit to the lipid carrier.
KeywordMeSH Terms
87.     ( 1997 )

Membrane topology of the di- and tripeptide transport protein of Lactococcus lactis.

Biochemistry 36 (22)
PMID : 9184160  :   DOI  :   10.1021/bi963068t    
Abstract >>
Transport of hydrophilic di- and tripeptides into Lactococcus lactis is mediated by a proton motive force-driven peptide transport protein (DtpT) that shares similarity with eukaryotic peptide transporters, e.g., from kidney and small intestine of rabbit, man, and rat. Hydropathy profiling in combination with the "positive inside rule" predicts for most of the homologous proteins an alpha-helical bundle of 12 transmembrane segments, but the positions of these transmembrane segments and the location of the amino and carboxyl termini are by no means conclusive. The secondary structure of DtpT was investigated by analyzing 42 DtpT-alkaline phosphatase fusion proteins, generated by random or directed fusions of the corresponding genes. These studies confirm the presence of 12 transmembrane segments but refute several other predictions made of the secondary structure. Data obtained from the fusion proteins were substantiated by studying the accessibility of single cysteine mutants in putative cytoplasmic or extracellular loops by membrane (im)permeant sulfhydryl reagents. The deduced topology model of DtpT consists of a bundle of 12 alpha-helixes with a short amino and a large carboxyl terminus, both located at the cytoplasmic site of the membrane. On the basis of sequence comparisons with DtpT, it seems likely that the structure model of the amino-terminal half of DtpT also holds for the eukaryotic peptide transporters, whereas the carboxyl-terminal half is largely different.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Membrane Transport Proteins
Protein Structure, Secondary
88.     ( 1997 )

Characterization of Lactococcus lactis UV-sensitive mutants obtained by ISS1 transposition.

Journal of bacteriology 179 (14)
PMID : 9226255  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.179.14.4473-4479.1997     PMC  :   PMC179281    
Abstract >>
Studies of cellular responses to DNA-damaging agents, mostly in Escherichia coli, have revealed numerous genes and pathways involved in DNA repair. However, other species, particularly those which exist under different environmental conditions than does E. coli, may have rather different responses. Here, we identify and characterize genes involved in DNA repair in a gram-positive plant and dairy bacterium, Lactococcus lactis. Lactococcal strain MG1363 was mutagenized with transposition vector pG+host9::ISS1, and 18 mutants sensitive to mitomycin and UV were isolated at 37 degrees C. DNA sequence analyses allowed the identification of 11 loci and showed that insertions are within genes implicated in DNA metabolism (polA, hexB, and deoB), cell envelope formation (gerC and dltD), various metabolic pathways (arcD, bglA, gidA, hgrP, metB, and proA), and, for seven mutants, nonidentified open reading frames. Seven mutants were chosen for further characterization. They were shown to be UV sensitive at 30 degrees C (the optimal growth temperature of L. lactis); three (gidA, polA, and uvs-75) were affected in their capacity to mediate homologous recombination. Our results indicate that UV resistance of the lactococcal strain can be attributed in part to DNA repair but also suggest that other factors, such as cell envelope composition, may be important in mediating resistance to mutagenic stress.
KeywordMeSH Terms
DNA Repair
DNA Transposable Elements
DNA-Binding Proteins
Genes, Bacterial
Hemiterpenes
Mutagenesis, Insertional
Pentanes
89.     ( 1996 )

Mutational analysis and chemical modification of Cys24 of lactococcin B, a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis.

Microbiology (Reading, England) 142 (Pt 10) (N/A)
PMID : 8885398  :   DOI  :   10.1099/13500872-142-10-2825    
Abstract >>
Using site-directed mutagenesis the single cysteine residue at position 24 of lactococcin B was replaced by all other possible amino acids. Most of these mutant molecules retained bacteriocin activity, with the exception of those in which cysteine was replaced by a positively charged amino acid. This would seem to be in agreement with the authors' earlier observation that treatment of the wild-type molecule with HgCl2 resulted in its inactivation. The factor that causes inactivation of lactococcin B seems to be the introduction of a positive charge at position 24 by HgCl2 rather than oxidation of this residue, as treatment of the bacteriocin with other oxidative chemicals did not interfere with the ability of lactococcin B to dissipate the membrane potential of sensitive cells. Results are also reported which imply that inactive lactococcin B can still bind to its receptor. It can be replaced by an active bacteriocin molecule, resulting in dissipation of the membrane potential.
KeywordMeSH Terms
90.     ( 1997 )

The ldh phylogeny for environmental isolates of Lactococcus lactis is consistent with rRNA genotypes but not with phenotypes.

Applied and environmental microbiology 63 (2)
PMID : 9023947  :   PMC  :   PMC168359    
Abstract >>
Lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) gene sequences, levels of 16S rRNA group-specific probe binding, and phenotypic characteristics were compared for 45 environmental isolates and four commercial starter strains of Lactococcus lactis to identify evolutionary groups best suited to cheddar cheese manufacture, ldh sequences from the environmental isolates showed high similarity to those from two groups of L. lactis used for industrial fermentations, L. lactis subsp. cremoris and subsp. lactis. Within each phylogenetically defined subspecies, ldh sequence similarities were greater than 99.1%. Strains with phenotypic traits formerly diagnostic for both subspecies were found in each ldh similarity group, but only strains belonging to L. lactis subsp. cremoris by both the newer, genetic and the older, superseded phenotypic criteria were judged potentially suitable for the commercial production of cheddar cheese. Identical evolutionary relationships were inferred from ldh sequences and from binding of subspecies-specific, 16S rRNA-directed oligonucleotide probes. However, groups defined according to these chromosomal traits bore no relationship to patterns of arginine deamination, carbon substrate utilization, or bacteriophage sensitivity, which may be encoded by cryptic genes or sexually transmissible genetic elements. Fourteen new L. lactis subsp. cremoris isolates were identified as suitable candidates for cheddar cheese manufacture, and 10 of these were completely resistant to three different batteries of commercial bacteriophages known to reduce starter activity.
KeywordMeSH Terms
91.     ( 1996 )

A general system for generating unlabelled gene replacements in bacterial chromosomes.

Molecular & general genetics : MGG 253 (1��2��)
PMID : 9003306  :   DOI  :   10.1007/s004380050315    
Abstract >>
A general system is described that facilitates gene replacements such that the recombinant strains are not labelled with antibiotic resistance genes. The method is based on the conditional replication of derivatives of the lactococcal plasmid pWV01, which lacks the repA gene encoding the replication initiation protein. Replacement vectors can be constructed in and isolated from gram-positive and gram-negative helper strains that provide RepA in trans. Cointegrate formation of the integration vectors with the chromosome of the target strain is selected by antibiotic resistance. Resolution of the cointegrate structure is identified in the second step of the procedure by the loss of the lacZ reporter gene present in the delivery vector. The second recombination event results either in gene replacement or in restoration of the original copy of the gene. As no antibiotic resistance marker is present in the genome of the mutant the system can be used to introduce multiple mutations in one strain. A feasibility study was performed using Lactococcus lactis and Bacillus subtilis as model organisms. The results indicate that the method should be applicable to any non-essential gene in numerous bacterial species.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Gene Transfer Techniques
Genes, Bacterial
92.     ( 1996 )

Cloning and transcriptional analysis of two threonine biosynthetic genes from Lactococcus lactis MG1614.

Journal of bacteriology 178 (13)
PMID : 8682767  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.178.13.3689-3694.1996     PMC  :   PMC178148    
Abstract >>
Two genes, hom and thrB, involved in threonine biosynthesis in Lactococcus lactis MG1614, were cloned and sequenced. These genes, which encode homoserine dehydrogenase and homoserine kinase, were initially identified by the homology of their gene products with known homoserine dehydrogenases and homoserine kinases from other organisms. The identification was supported by construction of a mutant containing a deletion in hom and thrB that was unable to grow in a defined medium lacking threonine. Transcriptional analysis showed that the two genes were located in a bicistronic operon with the order 5' hom-thrB 3' and that transcription started 66 bp upstream of the translational start codon of the hom gene. A putative -10 promoter region (TATAAT) was located 6 bp upstream of the transcriptional start point, but no putative -35 region was identified. A DNA fragment covering 155 bp upstream of the hom translational start site was functional in pAK80, an L. lactis promoter probe vector. In addition, transcriptional studies showed no threonine-dependent regulation of hom-thrB transcription.
KeywordMeSH Terms
93.     ( 1996 )

Splicing of a group II intron involved in the conjugative transfer of pRS01 in lactococci.

Journal of bacteriology 178 (12)
PMID : 8655550  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.178.12.3531-3538.1996     PMC  :   PMC178122    
Abstract >>
Analysis of a region involved in the conjugative transfer of the lactococcal conjugative element pRS01 has revealed a bacteria] group II intron. Splicing of this lactococcal intron (designated Ll.ltrB) in vivo resulted in the ligation of two exon messages (ltrBE1 and ltrBE2) which encoded a putative conjugative relaxase essential for the transfer of pRS01. Like many group II introns, the Ll.ltrB intron possessed an open reading frame (ltrA) with homology to reverse transcriptases. Remarkably, sequence analysis of ltrA suggested a greater similarity to open reading frames encoded by eukaryotic mitochondrial group II introns than to those identified to date from other bacteria. Several insertional mutations within ltrA resulted in plasmids exhibiting a conjugative transfer-deficient phenotype. These results provide the first direct evidence for splicing of a prokaryotic group II intron in vivo and suggest that conjugative transfer is a mechanism for group II intron dissemination in bacteria.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Conjugation, Genetic
Introns
RNA Splicing
RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase
94.     ( 1993 )

Identification and sequence analysis of the replication region of the phage resistance plasmid pCI528 from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris UC503.

FEMS microbiology letters 110 (3)
PMID : 8354458  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1574-6968.1993.tb06330.x    
Abstract >>
The replication region of the phage resistance plasmid pCI528 from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris UC503 was localised to within a 10-kb HindIII restriction fragment. A 6.3-kb BglII-HindIII subclone of this fragment, cloned into a replication probe vector, allowed replication in Lactococcus but not in Bacillus or Lactobacillus. Sequence analysis revealed an ORF of 1152 bp preceded by a putative ori region containing a 22-bp sequence tandemly repeated three and three-quarter times, a second smaller direct repeat and two inverted repeats. Extensive homology was observed with the well characterised replication region of the small cryptic plasmid pCI305 (Hayes, F., Vos, P., Fitzgerald, G.F., deVos, W. and Daly, C. Plasmid 25, 16-26).
KeywordMeSH Terms
95.     ( 1994 )

The di- and tripeptide transport protein of Lactococcus lactis. A new type of bacterial peptide transporter.

The Journal of biological chemistry 269 (15)
PMID : 8157671  :  
Abstract >>
Lactococcus lactis takes up di- and tripeptides via a proton motive force-dependent carrier protein. The gene (dtpT) encoding the di-tripeptide transport protein of L. lactis was cloned by complementation of a dipeptide transport-deficient and proline auxotrophic Escherichia coli strain. Functional expression of the dipeptide transport gene was demonstrated by uptake studies of alanyl-[14C]glutamate and other peptides in E. coli cells. The di-tripeptide transport protein catalyzes proton motive force-driven peptide uptake and dipeptide exchange activity. The nucleotide sequence of dtpT was determined and the translated sequence corresponds with a protein of 463 amino acid residues. Hydropathy profiling indicates that the protein could form 12 membrane-spanning segments with the amino and carboxyl termini at the outer surface of the membrane. A secondary structure model is presented which is substantiated by analysis of DtpT-PhoA fusion constructs. Amino acid sequence comparisons showed no significant homology with other bacterial peptide transport systems nor with any other known protein. Flanking regions of the di-tripeptide transport gene were used to delete dtpT from the chromosome of L. lactis. Genetic and biochemical characterization of this mutant indicates that DtpT is the only transport protein in L. lactis for hydrophilic di- and tripeptides.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
Membrane Transport Proteins
96.     ( 1994 )

Characterization of the lactococcal temperate phage TP901-1 and its site-specific integration.

Journal of bacteriology 176 (4)
PMID : 8106318  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.176.4.1069-1076.1994     PMC  :   PMC205158    
Abstract >>
The temperate lactococcal phage TP901-1, induced by UV light from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris 901-1, was characterized. The restriction map was found to be circular, and the packaging of TP901-1 DNA was concluded to occur by a headful mechanism. The pac region was localized on the 38.4-kb phage genome. TP901-1 belongs to the class of P335 phages (V. Braun, S. Hertwig, H. Neve, A. Geis, and M. Teuber, J. Gen. Microbiol. 135:2551-2560, 1989). Evidence is presented that the phages TP936-1 (V. Braun, S. Hertwig, H. Neve, A. Geis, and M. Teuber, J. Gen. Microbiol. 135:2551-2560, 1989) and C3-T1 (A. W. Jarvis, V. R. Parker, and M. B. Bianchin, Can. J. Microbiol. 38:398-404, 1992) are very closely related to or are identical to TP901-1. The lytically propagated TP901-1 phages were able to lysogenize both indicator strains Lactococcus cremoris 3107 and Wg2. Lysogenization resulted in site-specific integration of the phage genome into the bacterial chromosome. Only one chromosomal attB site was found in 20 independent lysogens. The attP region of TP901-1 and the attL and attR regions were cloned and sequenced. The results showed a core region of only 5 bp, in which the recombination occurs, followed after a 1-bp mismatch by a 7-bp identical region, TCAAT(T/C)AAGGTAA. This result was further verified by sequencing of the attB region obtained by PCR. An integration vector was constructed with the 6.5-kb EcoRI fragment from TP901-1 containing attP. This vector also functions in the plasmid-free strains, MG1363 and LM0230 with only one specific attB site, strongly indicating a more general use of the TP901-1-based integration vector in lactococci.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Lactococcus lactis
97.     ( 1993 )

Cloning and sequencing of pepC, a cysteine aminopeptidase gene from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris AM2.

Applied and environmental microbiology 59 (1)
PMID : 8439160  :   PMC  :   PMC202100    
Abstract >>
A gene coding for an aminopeptidase (PepC) from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris AM2 was cloned by complementation of an Escherichia coli mutant lacking aminopeptidase activity. The nucleotide sequence was determined. A portion of the predicted amino acid sequence of PepC (436 amino acids) showed strong homology to the active site of cysteine proteases. No signal sequence was found, indicating an intracellular location of the enzyme.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
98.     ( 1993 )

Nucleotide sequence of the Lactococcus lactis NCDO 763 (ML3) rpoD gene.

Biochimica et biophysica acta 1216 (1)
PMID : 8218400  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0167-4781(93)90045-f    
Abstract >>
The complete nucleotide sequence of rpoD gene from Lactococcus lactis has been determined. The nucleotide data have indicated the presence of an open reading frame of 1020 base pairs encoding a polypeptide which shares the framework structure for principal sigma factors of eubacteria strains.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
99.     ( 1994 )

Tripeptidase gene (pepT) of Lactococcus lactis: molecular cloning and nucleotide sequencing of pepT and construction of a chromosomal deletion mutant.

Journal of bacteriology 176 (10)
PMID : 8188586  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.176.10.2854-2861.1994     PMC  :   PMC205439    
Abstract >>
The gene encoding a tripeptidase (pepT) of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris (formerly subsp. lactis) MG1363 was cloned from a genomic library in pUC19 and subsequently sequenced. The tripeptidase of L. lactis was shown to be homologous to PepT of Salmonella typhimurium with 47.4% identity in the deduced amino acid sequences. L. lactis PepT was enzymatically active in Escherichia coli and allowed growth of a peptidase-negative leucine-auxotrophic E. coli strain by liberation of Leu from a tripeptide. Using a two-step integration-excision system, a pepT-negative mutant of L. lactis was constructed. No differences between the growth of the mutant and that of the wild-type strain in milk or in chemically defined medium with casein as the sole source of essential amino acids were observed.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Aminopeptidases
Mutagenesis
100.     ( 1994 )

Cloning, sequencing and comparison of three lactococcal L-lactate dehydrogenase genes.

Microbiology (Reading, England) 140 (Pt 6) (N/A)
PMID : 8081494  :   DOI  :   10.1099/00221287-140-6-1301    
Abstract >>
The conversion of pyruvate to lactate is a key feature of lactococcal strains. The enzyme which facilitates this conversion, L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and the gene which encodes it (Idh), are therefore of great significance. This paper presents the cloning and DNA sequence analysis of three further lactococcal genes which are of key importance in the genetic manipulation of commercial starter strains. The Idh gene from Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis biovar diacetylactis BU2-60 has been isolated from a lambda library and sequenced. The Idh gene from L. lactis subsp. cremoris NCDO 762 and that from L. lactis subsp. Lactis IL1403 have been amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. These DNA sequences and deduced amino acid sequences have been compared with those from L. lactis subsp. Lactis MG1363. The LDHs from L. lactis subsp. Lactis MG1363 and L. lactis subsp. cremoris NCDO 762 are 99.4% homologous. The LDHs from L. lactis subsp. lactis MG1363 and L. lactis subsp. Lactis IL1403 are 96.4% homologous. The LDHs from L. lactis subsp. lactis IL1403 and L. lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis BU2-60 are 99.9% homologous. Our results provide further evidence that L. lactis subsp. Lactis MG1363 and other L. lactis subsp. Lactis NCDO 712 derived strains should be reclassified as Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
101.     ( 1993 )

ScrFI restriction-modification system of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris UC503: cloning and characterization of two ScrFI methylase genes.

Applied and environmental microbiology 59 (3)
PMID : 8481004  :   PMC  :   PMC202189    
Abstract >>
Two genes from the total genomic DNA of dairy starter culture Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris UC503, encoding ScrFI modification enzymes, have been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. No homology between the two methylase genes was detected, and inverse polymerase chain reaction of flanking chromosomal DNA indicated that both were linked on the Lactococcus genome. Neither clone encoded the cognate endonuclease. The DNA sequence of one of the methylase genes (encoded by pCI931M) was determined and consisted of an open reading frame 1,170 bp long, which could encode a protein of 389 amino acids (M(r), 44.5). The amino acid sequence contained the highly characteristic motifs of an m5C methylase. Extensive regions of homology were observed with the methylases of NlaX, EcoRII, and Dcm.
KeywordMeSH Terms
102.     ( 1993 )

Cloning and sequencing of the gene for a lactococcal endopeptidase, an enzyme with sequence similarity to mammalian enkephalinase.

Journal of bacteriology 175 (7)
PMID : 8458851  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.175.7.2087-2096.1993     PMC  :   PMC204311    
Abstract >>
The gene specifying an endopeptidase of Lactococcus lactis, named pepO, was cloned from a genomic library of L. lactis subsp. cremoris P8-2-47 in lambda EMBL3 and was subsequently sequenced. pepO is probably the last gene of an operon encoding the binding-protein-dependent oligopeptide transport system of L. lactis. The inferred amino acid sequence of PepO showed that the lactococcal endopeptidase has a marked similarity to the mammalian neutral endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.11 (enkephalinase), whereas no obvious sequence similarity with any bacterial enzyme was found. By means of gene disruption, a pepO-negative mutant was constructed. Growth and acid production of the mutant strain in milk were not affected, indicating that the endopeptidase is not essential for growth of L. lactis in milk.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
103. Moineau  S, Walker  SA, Vedamuthu  ER, Vandenbergh  PA,     ( 1995 )

Cloning and sequencing of LlaDCHI [corrected] restriction/modification genes from Lactococcus lactis and relatedness of this system to the Streptococcus pneumoniae DpnII system.

Applied and environmental microbiology 61 (6)
PMID : 7793939  :   PMC  :   PMC167490    
Abstract >>
The natural 7.8-kb plasmid pSRQ700 was isolated from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris DCH-4. It encodes a restriction/modification system named LlaDCHI [corrected]. When introduced into a phage-sensitive L. lactis strain, pSRQ700 confers strong phage resistance against the three most common lactococcal phage species, namely, 936, c2, and P335. The LlaDCHI [corrected] endonuclease was purified and found to cleave the palindromic sequence 5'-GATC-3'. It is an isoschizomer of Streptococcus pneumoniae DpnII. The plasmid pSRQ700 was mapped, and the genetic organization of LlaDCHI [corrected] was localized. Cloning and sequencing of the entire LlaDCHI [corrected] system allowed the identification of three open reading frames. The three genes (llaIIA, llaIIB, and llaIIC) overlapped and are under one putative promoter. A putative terminator was found at the end of llaIIC. The genes llaIIA and llaIIB coded for m6A methyltransferases, and llaIIC coded for an endonuclease. The LlaDCHI [corrected] system shares strong genetic similarities with the DpnII system. The deduced amino acid sequence of M.LlaIIA was 75% identical with that of M.DpnII, whereas M.LlaIIB was 88% identical with M.DpnA. However, R.LlalII shared only 31% identity with R.DpnII.
KeywordMeSH Terms
104. Duwat  P, de Oliveira  R, Ehrlich  SD, Boiteux  S,     ( 1995 )

Repair of oxidative DNA damage in gram-positive bacteria: the Lactococcus lactis Fpg protein.

Microbiology (Reading, England) 141 (Pt 2) (N/A)
PMID : 7704272  :   DOI  :   10.1099/13500872-141-2-411    
Abstract >>
The formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase gene (fpg-L) of the Gram-positive microaerophilic bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris ML3 has been cloned, characterized and sequenced. The fpg-L gene is composed of 819 bp encoding a protein of 31.3 kDa (Fpg-L). The deduced amino acid sequence of the Fpg-L protein shows 59% similarity and 38% identity with the Escherichia coli Fpg protein (Fpg-E). Polyclonal antibodies against Fpg-E react with the Fpg-L protein. The Fpg-L protein was purified to apparent homogeneity from the overproducing E. coli strain BH410 hosting plasmid pVE1064, which carries fpg-L under the control of the E. coli lac promoter. In its active form, Fpg-L is a 30 kDa monomeric enzyme with a measured isoelectric point of 9.0. It contains one zinc per molecule and has a zinc finger motif localized at the carboxyterminal end (Cys-X2-Cys-X16-Cys-X2-Cys-X3-COOH). The Fpg-L protein has two enzyme activities: DNA glycosylase, which excises 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5N-methylformamidopyrimidine and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine, and DNA nicking at abasic sites. Furthermore, the expression of the fpg-L gene in fpg and mutY mutants of E. coli suppresses their spontaneous GC-->TA mutator phenotype. The similarity of the activity of the two Fpg proteins and its conversation in evolutionarily distant bacteria may reflect the importance of its role in protecting bacterial DNA against oxidative free radicals.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Escherichia coli Proteins
105. Cancilla  MR, Hillier  AJ, Davidson  BE,     ( 1995 )

Lactococcus lactis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, gap: further evidence for strongly biased codon usage in glycolytic pathway genes.

Microbiology (Reading, England) 141 (Pt 4) (N/A)
PMID : 7773380  :   DOI  :   10.1099/13500872-141-4-1027    
Abstract >>
The gene gap, encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.12), was isolated from a genomic library of Lactococcus lactis LM0230 DNA. Plasmids containing the L. lactis gene were able to complement a gap mutant of Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequence of gap predicted a polypeptide chain of 337 amino acids for the enzyme and a subunit molecular mass of 36,043. The codon usage in gap and four other glycolytic genes from L. lactis showed a high degree of bias, when compared with 84 other chromosomal genes. Northern blot analysis of total L. lactis RNA showed that gap hybridized strongly with a 1.3 kb transcript. The 5' end of the transcript was determined by primer extension analysis to be a C located 35 bp upstream from the gap start codon. These transcript analyses, and the orientation of the open reading frames in the DNA flanking gap, indicated that in L. lactis gap is expressed on a monocistronic transcript. Nucleotide sequencing indicated that the DNA adjacent to gap did not encode other glycolytic pathway enzymes. The DNA sequence flanking gap contained two open reading frames (ORF156 and ORF211) of unknown function. The 3' end of a clpA homologue was identified in the sequence upstream of ORF156. The location of gap on the L. lactis DL11 chromosome map was determined to be between map coordinates 0.530 and 0.660.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
106. Sun  X, Eliasson  R, Pontis  E, Andersson  J, Buist  G, Sjöberg  BM, Reichard  P,     ( 1995 )

Generation of the glycyl radical of the anaerobic Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase requires a specific activating enzyme.

The Journal of biological chemistry 270 (6)
PMID : 7852304  :   DOI  :   10.1074/jbc.270.6.2443    
Abstract >>
The anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase from Escherichia coli contains a glycyl radical as part of its polypeptide structure. The radical is generated by an enzyme system present in E. coli. The reductase is coded for by the nrdD gene located at 96 min. Immediately downstream, we now find an open reading frame with the potential to code for a 17.5-kDa protein with sequence homology to a protein required for the generation of the glycyl radical of pyruvate formate lyase. The protein corresponding to this open reading frame is required for the generation of the glycyl radical of the anaerobic reductase and binds tightly to the reductase. The "activase" contains iron, required for activity. The general requirements for generation of a glycyl radical are identical for the reductase and pyruvate formate lyase. For the reductase, the requirement of an iron-containing activase suggests the possibility that the iron-sulfur cluster of the enzyme is not involved in radical generation but may participate directly in the reduction of the ribonucleotide.
KeywordMeSH Terms
107. Monnet  V, Nardi  M, Chopin  A, Chopin  MC, Gripon  JC,     ( 1994 )

Biochemical and genetic characterization of PepF, an oligopeptidase from Lactococcus lactis.

The Journal of biological chemistry 269 (51)
PMID : 7798200  :  
Abstract >>
Lactococcus lactis possesses a complex proteolytic system which is essential for its growth in milk. We characterized one of the peptidases of this system, oligopeptidase PepF, together with its structural gene. PepF hydrolyzed peptides containing between 7 and 17 amino acids with a rather wide specificity. It was purified to homogeneity. The N-terminal sequences of PepF and of peptides resulting from tryptic digestion of PepF were determined and used to design degenerate oligonucleotides which served to amplify a DNA fragment internal to pepF. This fragment was used as a probe to screen a lactococcal genomic library in Escherichia coli and to clone the entire gene pepF. The gene coded for a 70 kDa protein and was located on a 55-kilobase lactose-protease plasmid. A motif His-Glu-X-X-His, characteristic of metallopeptidases was evidenced. Two regions of PepF were found similar, first to a stretch of 43 amino acids around the zinc-binding site of several other peptidases, second to a stretch of 33 amino acids well conserved among creatine and arginine kinases. Preliminary results suggest the presence of a second copy of pepF.
KeywordMeSH Terms
108. Crossley  LG, Jago  GR, Davidson  BE,     ( 1979 )

Partial sequence data for the L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus cremoris US3 including the amino acid sequences around the single cysteine residue and at the N-terminus.

Biochimica et biophysica acta 581 (2)
PMID : 518918  :   DOI  :   10.1016/0005-2795(79)90254-x    
Abstract >>
The following amino acid sequence information has been determined for the fructose 1,6-bisphosphate-dependent lactate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus cremoris US3: the C-terminal amino acid, the N-terminal sequence of the first 20 amino acids and the sequence of a 53-residue tryptic peptide containing the only cysteine residue in the protein. The enzyme was cleaved by alkali at the cysteine residue following reaction first with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) and then with K14CN. This treatment yielded two cleavage products as well as some higher polymers and some uncleaved enzyme. The radioactive cleavage product was purified and its size indicated that the cysteine residue is 80 residues from the C-terminus. Comparisons of the sequences determined for the S. cremoris enzyme with those already known for dogfish lactate dehydrogenase indicate that the two enzymes are only distantly related since the sequence homology between them is limited and of borderline statistical significance.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Cysteine
L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
109. Kok  J, Leenhouts  KJ, Haandrikman  AJ, Ledeboer  AM, Venema  G,     ( 1988 )

Nucleotide sequence of the cell wall proteinase gene of Streptococcus cremoris Wg2.

Applied and environmental microbiology 54 (1)
PMID : 3278687  :   PMC  :   PMC202426    
Abstract >>
A 6.5-kilobase HindIII fragment that specifies the proteolytic activity of Streptococcus cremoris Wg2 was sequenced entirely. The nucleotide sequence revealed two open reading frames (ORFs), a small ORF1 with 295 codons and a large ORF2 containing 1,772 codons. For both ORFs, there was no stop codon on the HindIII fragment. A partially overlapping PstI fragment was used to locate the translation stop of the large ORF2. The entire ORF2 contained 1,902 coding triplets, followed by an apparently rho-independent terminator sequence. The inferred amino acid sequence would result in a protein of 200 kilodaltons. Both ORFs have their putative transcription and translation signals in a 345-base-pair ClaI fragment. ORF2 is preceded by a promoter region containing a 15-base-pair complementary direct repeat. Both the truncated 33- and the 200-kilodalton proteins have a signal peptide-like N-terminal amino acid sequence. The protein specified by ORF2 contained regions of extensive homology with serine proteases of the subtilisin family. Specifically, amino acid sequences involved in the formation of the active site (viz., Asp-32, His-64, and Ser-221 of the subtilisins) are well conserved in the S. cremoris Wg2 proteinase. The homologous sequences are separated by nonhomologous regions which contain several inserts, most notably a sequence of approximately 200 amino acids between the His and Ser residues of the active site.
KeywordMeSH Terms
110. Buron-Moles  G, Chailyan  A, Dolejs  I, Forster  J, Mikš  MH,     ( 2019 )

Uncovering carbohydrate metabolism through a genotype-phenotype association study of 56 lactic acid bacteria genomes.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology 103 (7)
PMID : 30830251  :   DOI  :   10.1007/s00253-019-09701-6     PMC  :   PMC6447522    
Abstract >>
Owing to their unique potential to ferment carbohydrates, both homo- and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used in the food industry. Deciphering the genetic basis that determine the LAB fermentation type, and hence carbohydrate utilization, is paramount to optimize LAB industrial processes. Deep sequencing of 24 LAB species and comparison with 32 publicly available genome sequences provided a comparative data set including five major LAB genera for further analysis. Phylogenomic reconstruction confirmed Leuconostoc and Pediococcus species as independently emerging from the Lactobacillus genus, within one of the three phylogenetic clades identified. These clades partially grouped LABs according to their fermentation types, suggesting that some metabolic capabilities were independently acquired during LAB evolution. In order to apply a genome-wide association study (GWAS) at the multigene family level, utilization of 49 carbohydrates was also profiled for these 56 LAB species. GWAS results indicated that obligately heterofermentative species lack 1-phosphofructokinase, required for D-mannose degradation in the homofermentative pathway. Heterofermentative species were found to often contain the araBAD operon, involved in L-arabinose degradation, which is important for heterofermentation. Taken together, our results provide helpful insights into the genetic determinants of LAB carbohydrate metabolism, and opens for further experimental research, aiming at validating the role of these candidate genes for industrial applications.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Carbohydrate metabolism
Functional genomics
Genome-wide association study
Genotype-phenotype association study
Lactic acid bacteria
Microbial genomics
Carbohydrate metabolism
Functional genomics
Genome-wide association study
Genotype-phenotype association study
Lactic acid bacteria
Microbial genomics
Carbohydrate metabolism
Functional genomics
Genome-wide association study
Genotype-phenotype association study
Lactic acid bacteria
Microbial genomics
Carbohydrate metabolism
Functional genomics
Genome-wide association study
Genotype-phenotype association study
Lactic acid bacteria
Microbial genomics
Genetic Association Studies
Genome, Bacterial
111. Villarino  L, Splan  KE, Reddem  E, Alonso-Cotchico  L, Gutiérrez de Souza  C, Lledós  A, Maréchal  JD, Thunnissen  AWH, Roelfes  G,     ( 2018 )

An Artificial Heme Enzyme for Cyclopropanation Reactions.

Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) 57 (26)
PMID : 29719099  :   DOI  :   10.1002/anie.201802946     PMC  :   PMC6033091    
Abstract >>
An artificial heme enzyme was created through self-assembly from hemin and the lactococcal multidrug resistance regulator (LmrR). The crystal structure shows the heme bound inside the hydrophobic pore of the protein, where it appears inaccessible for substrates. However, good catalytic activity and moderate enantioselectivity was observed in an abiological cyclopropanation reaction. We propose that the dynamic nature of the structure of the LmrR protein is key to the observed activity. This was supported by molecular dynamics simulations, which showed transient formation of opened conformations that allow the binding of substrates and the formation of pre-catalytic structures.
KeywordMeSH Terms
artificial metalloenzymes
biocatalysis
carbenes
enzyme design
heme enzymes
112.     ( 2013 )

Characterization of a wild, novel nisin a-producing Lactococcus strain with an L. lactis subsp. cremoris genotype and an L. lactis subsp. lactis phenotype, isolated from Greek raw milk.

Applied and environmental microbiology 79 (11)
PMID : 23542625  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.00436-13     PMC  :   PMC3648029    
Abstract >>
Several molecular taxonomic studies have revealed that many natural (wild) Lactococcus lactis strains of dairy origin which are phenotypically representative of the L. lactis subspecies lactis cluster genotypically within subspecies cremoris and vice versa. Recently, we isolated two wild nisin-producing (Nis(+)) L. lactis strains, M78 and M104, of the lactis phenotype from Greek raw milk (J. Samelis, A. Lianou, A. Kakouri, C. Delb?s, I. Rogelj, B. B. Matija?ic, and M. C. Montel, J. Food Prot. 72:783-790, 2009); strain M78 possess a novel nisin A sequence (GenBank accession number HM219853). In this study, the actual subspecies identity of M78 and M104 isolates was elucidated, using 16S rRNA and acmA (encoding lactococcal N-acetylmuramidase) gene and histidine biosynthesis operon polymorphisms and 16S rRNA and ldh (encoding lactate dehydrogenase) gene phylogenies. Except the acmA gene analysis, molecular tools revealed that isolates M78 and M104 clustered with strains of the cremoris genotype, including the LMG 6897(T) strain, while they were distant from strains of the lactis genotype, including the LMG 6890(T) strain. The two wild isolates had identical repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), plasmid, and whole-cell protein profiles and shared high 16S rRNA (99.9%) and ldh (100%) gene sequence homologies. In contrast, they exhibited identical sugar fermentation and enzymatic patterns which were similar to those of the subspecies lactis LMG 6890(T) strain. To our knowledge, this is the first complete identification report on a wild L. lactis subsp. cremoris genotype of the lactis phenotype which is capable of nisin A production and, thus, has strong potential for use as a novel dairy starter and/or protective culture.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Phenotype
113.     ( 1996 )

AbiG, a genotypically novel abortive infection mechanism encoded by plasmid pCI750 of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris UC653.

Applied and environmental microbiology 62 (9)
PMID : 8795193  :   PMC  :   PMC168098    
Abstract >>
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
Plasmids
114.     ( 2012 )

Molecular characterization and structural instability of the industrially important composite metabolic plasmid pLP712.

Microbiology (Reading, England) 158 (Pt 12)
PMID : 23023974  :   DOI  :   10.1099/mic.0.062554-0    
Abstract >>
The widely used plasmid-free Lactococcus lactis strain MG1363 was derived from the industrial dairy starter strain NCDO712. This strain carries a 55.39 kb plasmid encoding genes for lactose catabolism and a serine proteinase involved in casein degradation. We report the DNA sequencing and annotation of pLP712, which revealed additional metabolic genes, including peptidase F, d-lactate dehydrogenase and �\-keto acid dehydrogenase (E3 complex). Comparison of pLP712 with other large lactococcal lactose and/or proteinase plasmids from L. lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 (pSK11L, pSK11P) and the plant strain L. lactis NCDO1867 (pGdh442) revealed their close relationship. The plasmid appears to have evolved through a series of genetic events as a composite of pGdh442, pSK11L and pSK11P. We describe in detail a scenario by which the metabolic genes relevant to the growth of its host in a milk environment have been unified on one replicon, reflecting the evolution of L. lactis as it changed its biological niche from plants to dairy environments. The extensive structural instability of pLP712 allows easy isolation of derivative plasmids lacking genes for casein degradation and/or lactose catabolism. Plasmid pLP712 is transferable by transduction and conjugation, and both of these processes result in significant molecular rearrangements. We report the detailed molecular analysis of insertion sequence element-mediated genetic rearrangements within pLP712 and several different mechanisms, including homologous recombination and adjacent deletion. Analysis of the integration of the lactose operon into the chromosome highlights the fluidity of the MG1363 integration hotspot and the potential for frequent movement of genes between plasmids and chromosomes in Lactococcus.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genomic Instability
Plasmids
115.     ( 1999 )

Molecular characterization of the Lactococcus lactis ptsHI operon and analysis of the regulatory role of HPr.

Journal of bacteriology 181 (3)
PMID : 9922238  :   PMC  :   PMC93441    
Abstract >>
The Lactococcus lactis ptsH and ptsI genes, encoding the general proteins of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system, HPr and enzyme I, respectively, were cloned, and the regulatory role of HPr was studied by mutational analysis of its gene. A promoter sequence was identified upstream of the ptsHI operon, and the transcription start site was mapped by primer extension. The results of Northern analyses showed the presence of two glucose-inducible transcripts, one of 0.3 kb containing ptsH and a second of 2.0 kb containing both ptsH and ptsI. Disruption of the ptsH and ptsI genes in strain NZ9800 resulted in a reduced growth rate at the expense of glucose, but no growth at the expense of sucrose and fructose, confirming the dominant role of the phosphotransferase system in the uptake of these sugars in L. lactis. Complementation of the ptsH and ptsI mutants with the intact genes under the control of a regulated promoter resulted in the restoration of the wild-type phenotype. The role of HPr(Ser-P) in the recently established CcpA-mediated control of galactose metabolism as well as glycolysis was analyzed by producing an HPr mutant carrying an aspartic acid on residue 46 which mimicks a phosphorylated serine. The results of these experiments demonstrated the role of HPr(Ser-P) as corepressor in the catabolite repression of the gal operon. Furthermore, we show for the first time that HPr(Ser-P) functions as a coactivator in the CcpA-mediated catabolite activation of the pyruvate kinase and L-lactate dehydrogenase genes.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Operon
116.     ( 1998 )

A natural large chromosomal inversion in Lactococcus lactis is mediated by homologous recombination between two insertion sequences.

Journal of bacteriology 180 (18)
PMID : 9733685  :   PMC  :   PMC107507    
Abstract >>
Comparative analysis of chromosomal macrorestriction polymorphism of the two closely related Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strains MG1363 and NCDO763 revealed the presence of a large inversion covering half of the genome. To determine what kind of genetic element could be implicated in this rearrangement, the two inversion junctions of MG1363 and NCDO763 chromosomes were cloned and characterized. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed the presence of one copy of the lactococcal IS905 element in each junction. Each copy of this element contained the same nucleotide mutation that inactivates the putative transposase. Comparison of the sequences surrounding the insertion sequence demonstrated that the large inversion arose from a single-step homologous recombination event between the two defective copies of the IS905 element. The large inversion presumably conferred no selective disadvantage on strain NCDO763 because this rearrangement did not alter the oriC-terC symmetry of the chromosome and the local genetic environment.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Chromosome Inversion
DNA Transposable Elements
Recombination, Genetic
117.     ( 1998 )

Cloning and characterization of the lactococcal plasmid-encoded type II restriction/modification system, LlaDII.

Applied and environmental microbiology 64 (7)
PMID : 9647810  :   PMC  :   PMC106406    
Abstract >>
The LlaDII restriction/modification (R/M) system was found on the naturally occurring 8.9-kb plasmid pHW393 in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris W39. A 2.4-kb PstI-EcoRI fragment inserted into the Escherichia coli-L. lactis shuttle vector pCI3340 conferred to L. lactis LM2301 and L. lactis SMQ86 resistance against representatives of the three most common lactococcal phage species: 936, P335, and c2. The LlaDII endonuclease was partially purified and found to recognize and cleave the sequence 5'-GC decreases NGC-3', where the arrow indicates the cleavage site. It is thus an isoschizomer of the commercially available restriction endonuclease Fnu4HI. Sequencing of the 2.4-kb PstI-EcoRI fragment revealed two open reading frames arranged tandemly and separated by a 105-bp intergenic region. The endonuclease gene of 543 bp preceded the methylase gene of 954 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence of the LlaDII R/M system showed high homology to that of its only sequenced isoschizomer, Bsp6I from Bacillus sp. strain RFL6, with 41% identity between the endonucleases and 60% identity between the methylases. The genetic organizations of the LlaDII and Bsp6I R/M systems are identical. Both methylases have two recognition sites (5'-GCGGC-3' and 5'-GCCGC-3') forming a putative stemloop structure spanning part of the presumed -35 sequence and part of the intervening region between the -35 and -10 sequences. Alignment of the LlaDII and Bsp6I methylases with other m5C methylases showed that the protein primary structures possessed the same organization.
KeywordMeSH Terms
118.     ( 1998 )

Characterization of multiple regions involved in replication and mobilization of plasmid pNZ4000 coding for exopolysaccharide production in Lactococcus lactis.

Journal of bacteriology 180 (20)
PMID : 9765557  :   PMC  :   PMC107574    
Abstract >>
We characterized the regions involved in replication and mobilization of the 40-kb plasmid pNZ4000, encoding exopolysaccharide (EPS) production in Lactococcus lactis NIZO B40. The plasmid contains four highly conserved replication regions with homologous rep genes (repB1, repB2, repB3, and repB4) that belong to the lactococcal theta replicon family. Subcloning of each replicon individually showed that all are functional and compatible in L. lactis. Plasmid pNZ4000 and genetically labeled derivatives could be transferred to different L. lactis strains by conjugation, and pNZ4000 was shown to be a mobilization plasmid. Two regions involved in mobilization were identified near two of the replicons; both included an oriT sequence rich in inverted repeats. Conjugative mobilization of the nonmobilizable plasmid pNZ124 was promoted by either one of these oriT sequences, demonstrating their functionality. One oriT sequence was followed by a mobA gene, coding for a trans-acting protein, which increased the frequency of conjugative transfer 100-fold. The predicted MobA protein and the oriT sequences show protein and nucleotide similarity, respectively, with the relaxase and with the inverted repeat and nic site of the oriT from the Escherichia coli plasmid R64. The presence on pNZ4000 of four functional replicons, two oriT sequences, and several insertion sequence-like elements strongly suggests that this EPS plasmid is a naturally occurring cointegrate.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
DNA Replication
119.     ( 1998 )

Conservation of the major cold shock protein in lactic acid bacteria.

Current microbiology 37 (5)
PMID : 9767713  :  
Abstract >>
Primers designed from consensus regions of the major cold shock gene of different bacterial species were used in PCR amplification of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB). An appropriately-sized PCR product was obtained from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LL43-1 and MG1363; Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris LC10-1, LC11-1, and LC12-1; Streptococcus thermophilus ST1-1; Enterococcus faecalis EF1-1; Lactobacillus acidophilus LA1-1; Lactobacillus helveticus LH1-1; Pediococcus pentosaceus PP1-1; and Bifidobacterium animalis BA1-1. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequences displayed high sequence similarity with the major cold shock proteins of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis and the human Y-box factor. The amino acid residues of the cold shock domain implicated in nucleic acid binding in several unrelated species were also highly conserved in the LAB strains. It is possible, therefore, that this protein in LAB may also act as a transcriptional enhancer to other cold shock genes and/or act as an RNA chaperone unwinding tightly folded RNA molecules.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Cold Temperature
120.     ( 1999 )

Expression, regulation, and mode of action of the AbiG abortive infection system of lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris UC653

Applied and environmental microbiology 65 (1)
PMID : 9872803  :   PMC  :   PMC91026    
Abstract >>
The abortive infection system AbiG is encoded by the lactococcal plasmid pCI750. The abiG locus (consisting of two genes, abiGi and abiGii) was examined by Northern blot analysis, revealing two transcripts of approximately 2.8 and 1.5 kb which were homologous to the two gene-specific probes. A transcriptional start site was mapped upstream of abiGi, and it appeared that the two genes were cotranscribed, resulting in the 2.8-kb transcript. The smaller transcript may be the result of independent transcription of abiGii within abiGi or of the presence of a weak terminator within abiGii. The locus was shown to be constitutively expressed. Evidence is presented for the possible existence of a second Abi mechanism on pCI750. Examination of phage sk1 RNA synthesis demonstrated that both the subcloned AbiG and, to a greater extent, pCI750 inhibited this process. pCI750 also severely inhibited synthesis of both early and late phage c2 transcripts, while the presence of the subclone resulted in a reduction in late transcript synthesis only.
KeywordMeSH Terms
121.     ( 1999 )

Exopolysaccharide biosynthesis in Lactococcus lactis NIZO B40: functional analysis of the glycosyltransferase genes involved in synthesis of the polysaccharide backbone.

Journal of bacteriology 181 (1)
PMID : 9864348  :   PMC  :   PMC103567    
Abstract >>
We used homologous and heterologous expression of the glycosyltransferase genes of the Lactococcus lactis NIZO B40 eps gene cluster to determine the activity and substrate specificities of the encoded enzymes and established the order of assembly of the trisaccharide backbone of the exopolysaccharide repeating unit. EpsD links glucose-1-phosphate from UDP-glucose to a lipid carrier, EpsE and EpsF link glucose from UDP-glucose to lipid-linked glucose, and EpsG links galactose from UDP-galactose to lipid-linked cellobiose. Furthermore, EpsJ appeared to be involved in EPS biosynthesis as a galactosyl phosphotransferase or an enzyme which releases the backbone oligosaccharide from the lipid carrier.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
Multigene Family
122.     ( N/A )

Characterization of LlaCI, a new restriction-modification system from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris W15.

Biological chemistry 379 (4��5��)
PMID : 9628336  :  
Abstract >>
The genes encoding the restriction-modification (R/M) system LlaCI have been found on the naturally occurring 7.0 kb plasmid pAW153 in L. lactis subsp. cremoris W15. The R/M system was isolated on a chloramphenicol resistant derivative of the wild type plasmid (pAW153cat). Plasmid pAW153cat and a 2.4 kb HincII-SphI fragment cloned into a high- and a low-copy vector conferred decreased sensitivity in L. lactis LM2301 and L. lactis SMQ86 against small isometric-headed phages of the 936 or P335 species, respectively. Increased plasmid copy number enhanced the level of phage restriction. Sequencing the 2.4 kb HincII-SphI fragment revealed two open reading frames arranged convergently with a 94 bp separation. IlaCIM showed 66% identity to hindIIIM, and IlaCIR showed 45% identity to hindIIIR. The organization of the LlaCI operon differs from the HindIII operon, where the endonuclease and methylase genes overlap and are transcribed in the same direction. The LlaCI methylase is predicted to be 296 amino acids long, with 63% identity to the HindIII methylase, while the LlaCI endonuclease is predicted to consist of 324 or 332 amino acids, depending on the position of the start codon. It shows 24% identity to the HindIII endonuclease.
KeywordMeSH Terms
123.     ( 1997 )

Duplication of the pepF gene and shuffling of DNA fragments on the lactose plasmid of Lactococcus lactis.

Journal of bacteriology 179 (13)
PMID : 9209029  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.179.13.4164-4171.1997     PMC  :   PMC179235    
Abstract >>
The gene corresponding to the lactococcal oligopeptidase PepF1 (formerly PepF [V. Monnet, M. Nardi, A. Chopin, M.-C. Chopin, and J.-C. Gripon, J. Biol. Chem. 269:32070-32076, 1994]) is located on the lactose-proteinase plasmid of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NCDO763. Use of the pepF1 gene as a probe with different strains showed that pepF1 is present on the chromosome of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL1403, whereas there is a second, homologous gene, pepF2, on the chromosome of strain NCDO763. From hybridization, PCR amplification, and sequencing experiments, we deduced that (i) pepF1 and pepF2 exhibit 80% identity and encode two proteins which are 84% identical and (ii) pepF2 is included in an operon composed of three open reading frames and is transcribed from two promoters. The protein, encoded by the gene located downstream of pepF2, shows significant homology with methyltransferases. Analysis of the sequences flanking pepF1 and pepF2 indicates that only a part of the pepF2 operon is present on the plasmid of strain NCDO763, while the operon is intact on the chromosome of strain IL1403. Traces of several recombination events are visible on the lactose-proteinase plasmid. This suggests that the duplication of pepF occurred by recombination from the chromosome of an L. lactis subsp. lactis strain followed by gene transfer. We discuss the possible functions of PepF and the role of its amplification.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Multigene Family
Plasmids
124.     ( 1997 )

Detection and speciation of bacteria through PCR using universal major cold-shock protein primer oligomers.

Journal of industrial microbiology & biotechnology 19 (4)
PMID : 9439003  :  
Abstract >>
The detection of bacteria using PCR is a well-established diagnostic technique. However, conventional PCR requires the use of DNA primer oligomers that are specific to the target organism and, as a consequence, a sample can only be tested for the presence of that specific target. A significant advantage would be to probe a sample for the presence of any bacteria, followed by identification. To achieve this it is necessary to identify a DNA sequence common to all bacteria. Here we demonstrate that such a sequence may be that encoding the major cold-shock proteins. Using two universal PCR primer oligomers from conserved regions of these gene homologues, we have amplified a 200 base-pair DNA sequence from more than 30 diverse Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including representatives from the genera Aeromonas, Bacillus, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Listeria, Pediococcus, Photobacterium, Proteus, Salmonella, Shigella, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Yersinia. Sequence analysis of the amplified products confirmed a high level of DNA homology. Significantly, however, there are sufficient nucleotide variations to allow the unique allocation of each amplified sequence to its parental bacterium.
KeywordMeSH Terms
DNA Primers
125.     ( 1998 )

Catalytic properties of the cysteine aminopeptidase PepC, a bacterial bleomycin hydrolase.

Biochimica et biophysica acta 1383 (1)
PMID : 9546047  :   DOI  :   10.1016/s0167-4838(97)00185-4    
Abstract >>
PepC is a cytoplasmic thiol aminopeptidase widely conserved among lactic acid bacteria. PepC from Lactococcus lactis shares 35-38% identity with aminopeptidases of eukaryotic origins: the yeast and mammalian bleomycin hydrolases (BLMase). In this work we investigated the hydrolytic activity of PepC towards various substrates: bleomycin A2, aminoacyl-p-nitroanilides (pNA) and peptides. First, we found the bleomycin hydrolase activity of lactococcal PepC and measured similar kinetics parameters to those reported for the mammalian BLMase. Second, the results obtained on aminoacyl-pNA confirmed the capacity of the enzyme to release a broad range of amino acids and the pH activity profile suggests the presence of an ionic interaction between the enzyme and the free alpha-amino group of the substrate. Third, the aminopeptidase activity measured on peptide substrates revealed that PepC possesses an extended binding site which interacts with the peptidic backbone of the substrate. The hydrolytic efficiency is highly dependent on the length of the peptide, optimal for tetrapeptides and further enhanced by the presence of hydrophobic residues in the P' positions of the substrate. These enzymatic properties are of importance for the design of specific inhibitors and the biological function of the bleomycin hydrolases.
KeywordMeSH Terms

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