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1. Kim  DJ, Huh  JH, Yang  YY, Kang  CM, Lee  IH, Hyun  CG, Hong  SK, Suh  JW,     ( 2003 )

Accumulation of S-adenosyl-L-methionine enhances production of actinorhodin but inhibits sporulation in Streptomyces lividans TK23.

Journal of bacteriology 185 (2)
PMID : 12511506  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.185.2.592-600.2003     PMC  :   PMC145313    
Abstract >>
S-Adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase (SAM-s) catalyzes the biosynthesis of SAM from ATP and L-methionine. Despite extensive research with many organisms, its role in Streptomyces sp. remains unclear. In the present study, the putative SAM-s gene was isolated from a spectinomycin producer, Streptomyces spectabilis. The purified protein from the transformed Escherichia coli with the isolated gene synthesized SAM from L-methionine and ATP in vitro, strongly indicating that the isolated gene indeed encoded the SAM-s protein. The overexpression of the SAM-s gene in Streptomyces lividans TK23 inhibited sporulation and aerial mycelium formation but enhanced the production of actinorhodin in both agar plates and liquid media. Surprisingly, the overexpressed SAM was proven by Northern analysis to increase the production of actinorhodin through the induction of actII-ORF4, a transcription activator of actinorhodin biosynthetic gene clusters. In addition, we found that a certain level of intracellular SAM is critical for the induction of antibiotic biosynthetic genes, since the control strain harboring only the plasmid DNA did not show any induction of actII-ORF4 until it reached a certain level of SAM in the cell. From these results, we concluded that the SAM plays important roles as an intracellular factor in both cellular differentiation and antibiotic production in Streptomyces sp.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
2. Kim  SS, Sohng  JK, Hahn  J, Hyun  C,     ( 2000 )

An efficient approach for cloning the dNDP-glucose synthase gene from actinomycetes and its application in Streptomyces spectabilis, a spectinomycin producer.

FEMS microbiology letters 183 (1)
PMID : 10650224  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1574-6968.2000.tb08955.x    
Abstract >>
Specifically designed PCR primers were applied to amplify a segment of dTDP-glucose synthase gene from six actinomycete strains. About 300-bp or 580-bp DNA fragments were obtained from all the organisms tested. By DNA sequence analysis, seven amplified fragments showed high homology with dTDP-glucose synthase genes that participate in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites or in deoxy-sugar moieties in lipopolysaccharides. In addition, we have cloned a 45-kb region of DNA from Streptomyces spectabilis ATCC27741, a spectinomycin producer which contained the dTDP-glucose synthase and dTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase genes named spcD and spcE, respectively. The spcE gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and the activity was assayed in cell extracts. The enzyme showed substrate specificity only to dTDP-glucose.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Cloning, Molecular
3. Kim  BJ, Kim  CJ, Chun  J, Koh  YH, Lee  SH, Hyun  JW, Cha  CY, Kook  YH,     ( 2004 )

Phylogenetic analysis of the genera Streptomyces and Kitasatospora based on partial RNA polymerase beta-subunit gene (rpoB) sequences.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 54 (Pt 2)
PMID : 15023980  :   DOI  :   10.1099/ijs.0.02941-0    
Abstract >>
The RNA polymerase beta-subunit genes (rpoB) of 67 Streptomyces strains, representing 57 species, five Kitasatospora strains and Micromonospora echinospora KCTC 9549 were partially sequenced using a pair of rpoB PCR primers. Among the streptomycetes, 99.7-100 % similarity within the same species and 90.2-99.3 % similarity at the interspecific level were observed by analysis of the determined rpoB sequences. The topology of the phylogenetic tree based on rpoB sequences was similar to that of 16S rDNA. The five Kitasatospora strains formed a stable monophyletic clade and a sister group to the clade comprising all Streptomyces species. Although there were several discrepancies in the details, considerable agreement was found between the results of rpoB analysis and those of numerical phenetic classification. This study demonstrates that analysis of rpoB can be used as an alternative genetic method in parallel to conventional taxonomic methods, including numerical phenetic and 16S rDNA analyses, for the phylogenetic analyses of the genera Streptomyces and Kitasatospora.
KeywordMeSH Terms
4. Kim  KR, Kim  TJ, Suh  JW,     ( 2008 )

The gene cluster for spectinomycin biosynthesis and the aminoglycoside-resistance function of spcM in Streptomyces spectabilis.

Current microbiology 57 (4)
PMID : 18663525  :   DOI  :   10.1007/s00284-008-9204-y    
Abstract >>
The gene cluster for spectinomycin biosynthesis from Streptomyces spectabilis was analyzed completely and registered under the accession number EU255259 at the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Based on sequence analysis, spcM of the S. spectabilis cluster is the only methyltransferase candidate required for methylation in spectinomycin biosynthesis. It has high similarity with the conserved domain of DNA methylase, which contains both N-4 cytosine-specific DNA methylases and N-6 adenine-specific DNA methylases. Nucleotide methylation can provide antibiotic resistance, such as 16S rRNA methyltransferase, to Enterobacteriaceae. We therefore tested a hypothesis that SpcM offers aminoglycoside resistance to bacteria. The heterologous expression of spcM in Escherichia coli and S. lividans enhanced resistance against spectinomycin and its relative aminoglycoside antibiotics. We therefore propose that one of the functions of SpcM may be conferring aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance to cells.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Genes, Bacterial
Multigene Family
Spectinomycin
5. Liu  Y, Chen  X, Li  Z, Xu  W, Tao  W, Wu  J, Yang  J, Deng  Z, Sun  Y,     ( 2017 )

Functional Analysis of Cytochrome P450s Involved in Streptovaricin Biosynthesis and Generation of Anti-MRSA Analogues.

ACS chemical biology 12 (10)
PMID : 28858479  :   DOI  :   10.1021/acschembio.7b00467    
Abstract >>
The streptovaricins, chemically related to the rifamycins, are highly effective antibacterial agents, particularly against mycobacteria. Herein, a bioassay-guided investigation of Streptomyces spectabilis CCTCC M2017417 has led to the characterization of streptovaricins as potent compounds against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We identified the streptovaricin biosynthetic gene cluster from S. spectabilis CCTCC M2017417 based on genomic sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Targeted in-frame deletion of five cytochrome P450 genes (stvP1-P5) resulted in the identification of four new streptovaricin analogues and revealed the functions of these genes as follows: stvP1, stvP4, and stvP5 are responsible for the hydroxylation of C-20, Me-24, and C-28, respectively. stvP2 is possibly involved in formation of the methylenedioxy bridge, and stvP3, a conserved gene found in the biosynthetic cluster for naphthalenic ansamycins, might be related to the formation of a naphthalene ring. Biochemical verification of the hydroxylase activity of StvP1, StvP4, and StvP5 was performed, and StvP1 showed unexpected biocatalytic specificity and promiscuity. More importantly, anti-MRSA studies of streptovaricins and derivatives revealed significant structure-activity relationships (SARs): The hydroxyl group at C-28 plays a vital role in antibacterial activity. The hydroxyl group at C-20 substantially enhances activity in the absence of the methoxycarbonyl side chain at C-24, which can increase the activity regardless of the presence of a hydroxyl group at C-20. The inner lactone ring between C-21 and C-24 shows a positive effect on activity. This work provides meaningful information on the SARs of streptovaricins and demonstrates the utility of the engineering of streptovaricins to yield novel anti-MRSA molecules.
KeywordMeSH Terms

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