( 2003 )
Cloning, sequence analysis and expression of the F1F0-ATPase beta-subunit from wine lactic acid bacteria.
PMID : 14529177 :
The nucleotide sequences of the genes encoding the F1F0-ATPase beta-subunit from Oenococcus oeni, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides, Pediococcus damnosus, Pediococcus parvulus, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus hilgardii were determined. Their deduced amino acid sequences showed homology values of 79-98%. Data from the alignment and ATPase tree indicated that O. oeni and L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides formed a group well-separated from P. damnosus and P. parvulus and from the group comprises L. brevis and L. hilgardii. The N-terminus of the F1F0-ATPase beta-subunit of O. oeni contains a stretch of additional 38 amino acid residues. The catalytic site of the ATPase beta-subunit of the investigated strains is characterized by the two conserved motifs GGAGVGKT and GERTRE. The amplified atpD coding sequences were inserted into the pCRT7/CT-TOPO vector using TA-cloning strategy and transformed in Escherichia coli. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analyses confirmed that O. oeni has an ATPase beta-subunit protein which is larger in size than the corresponding molecules from the investigated strains.
( 2002 )
Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Pediococcus, including Pediococcus claussenii sp. nov., a novel lactic acid bacterium isolated from beer.
PMID : 12508860 : DOI : 10.1099/00207713-52-6-2003
Pediococci are found in foods and on plants and as beer-spoilage agents. The goal of the present study was to use the DNA sequences of the first three variable regions of the 165 rRNA gene, the 16S-23S rRNA internally transcribed spacer region sequence and approximately a third of the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene to elucidate phylogenetic groupings within the genus Pediococcus. Phylogenetic trees were created with sequence data from 31 Pediococcus and three Lactobacillus isolates. Complete 16S rRNA gene sequences from selected Pediococcus isolates were also examined. The results were interpreted in relation to the currently accepted Pediococcus species. We found that, where previously done, speciation of many Pediococcus isolates is inaccurate. Also, one grouping of seven isolates did not include any currently recognized Pediococcus species type isolate. Our phylogenetic analyses support the conclusion that these seven isolates, all of brewing spoilage origin, belong to a novel species, for which the name Pediococcus claussenii sp. nov. is proposed (type strain P06(T0 = ATCC BAA-344(T) = DSM 14800(T)). Phylogenetic analysis has therefore helped to resolve problems surrounding species identification of Pediococcus isolates.
( 2001 )
Direct polymerase chain reaction detection of ropy Pediococcus damnosus strains in wine.
PMID : 11309064 :
Glucan-producing strains of Pediococcus damnosus are considered as spoilage micro-organisms because synthesis of glucan leads to an unacceptable viscosity of wine. In this report, we present a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure to detect the presence of such strains in wines. We developed a direct DNA isolation method from the wine microflora using polyvinylpyrrolidone in order to decrease the polyphenolic concentration. The sequence of the plasmid involved in glucan production allowed the design of a primer pair usable for a specific and sensitive PCR procedure, leading to the amplification of a 563-bp fragment. The detection limit in wine was 102 cfu ml-1. The detection sensitivity could be increased by using a second primer pair in nested PCR assays. The method proved to be efficient for the early and sensitive detection of ropy Ped. damnosus strains during wine-making. Time-consuming culture and colony isolation steps are no longer needed.
( 2006 )
rpoB gene: a target for identification of LAB cocci by PCR-DGGE and melting curves analyses in real time PCR.
PMID : 16626824 : DOI : 10.1016/j.mimet.2006.03.008
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are essential in the quality of many fermented beverages like beer, cider and wine. In the two later cases, they convert malic acid into lactic acid during the malolactic fermentation. After fermentation, microbial stabilization is needed to prevent the development of spoilage bacteria species. Among them, cocci lead to different alterations: Pediococcus sp., and some strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Oenococcus oeni can produce exopolysaccharides which modify wine viscosity and lead to ropiness. They also can produce acetic acid, biogenic amine, ethyl carbamate and volatile phenols. Therefore detection and identification are crucial. Results of phenotypic tests and DNA-DNA probes are not accurate enough. 16S RNA gene which is currently used for bacterial species identification presents intraspecies heterogeneity. The rpoB gene is an alternative to this limitation. However previous PCR targeting partial sequence of rpoB gene could not delimit cocci species. Therefore we compared the rpoB gene sequence of the six main cocci species found in fermented beverages: P. damnosus, P. dextrinicus, P. parvulus, P. pentosaceus, L. mesenteroides and O. oeni. The most discriminating partial sequence of the rpoB gene was chosen for designing primers. By PCR-DGGE the reliability of these primers was verified. It was controlled in a mixture of several cocci and other lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus sp.). Then we adapted the primers and the PCR conditions in order to achieve the identification of cocci species by real time PCR program including the fluorescent dye SYBR Green I, which gives faster results. PCR melt curves were established and a specific T(m) was attributed to each species.
( 2005 )
Cloning and expression of the malolactic gene of Pediococcus damnosus NCFB1832 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PMID : 15950306 : DOI : 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2005.04.015
Wine production is characterized by a primary alcoholic fermentation, conducted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, followed by a secondary malolactic fermentation (MLF). Although most lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have the ability to metabolize L-malate, only a few species survive the high ethanol and SO2 levels in wine. Wines produced in colder viticultural regions have a lower pH than wines produced in warmer regions. The decarboxylation of L-malate in these wines leads to an increase in pH, more organoleptic complexity and microbiological stability. MLF is, however, difficult to control and problems often occur during filtering of such wines. Pediococcus spp. are known to occur in high pH wines and have strong malolactic activity. However, some pediococci synthesize exocellular polysaccharides, which may lead to abnormal viscosity in wine. In this study, the malolactic gene from Pediococcus damnosus NCFB1832 (mleD) was cloned into S. cerevisiae and co-expressed with the malate permease gene (mae1) of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Expression of the mleD gene was compared to the expression of two other malolactic genes, mleS from Lactococcus lactis MG1363 and mleA from Oenococcus oeni Lal1. The genetically modified strain of S. cerevisiae decreased the level of L-malate in grape must to less than 0.3 gl(-1) within 3 days. This is the first expression of a malolactic gene from Pediococcus in S. cerevisiae.
( 2005 )
A putative glucan synthase gene dps detected in exopolysaccharide-producing Pediococcus damnosus and Oenococcus oeni strains isolated from wine and cider.
PMID : 15617800 : DOI : 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2004.05.016
Some lactic acid bacteria can induce viscosity in wine, beer and cider by production of exopolysaccharides (EPS). A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was previously described for the detection of ropy Pediococcus damnosus strains in wine [J. Appl. Microbiol. 90 (2001) 535]. The primers used in that study, PF5 and PF6, are investigated in addition to new primers which broaden the range of spoiling agents detectable by PCR. Primers PF1 and PF8 allow the amplification of DNA from ropy P. damnosus strains isolated from wine, as was observed with PF5 and PF6. In addition, PF1 and PF8, unlike PF5 and PF6, are able to generate an amplicon using template DNA from a ropy P. damnosus strain isolated from cider and a ropy Oenococcus oeni strain isolated from champagne. Two different ropy Lactobacillus species were also isolated, but their DNA was not amplified using primers PF1 and PF8. The new primers PF1 and PF8 were chosen from the sequence of gene dps, a putative glucan synthase gene, found across all the ropy P. damnosus strains isolated, from both wine or cider, and also in a ropy O. oeni strain. To our knowledge, this is the first time that an EPS-producing O. oeni strain is described. Glucan biosynthesis was assessed by agglutination tests done with Streptococcus pneumoniae type 37-specific antibodies, which specifically detect glucan-producing cells. The results show that there is a direct correlation between glucan production and detection of gene dps. Therefore, Dps is considered a candidate for the glucan synthase enzyme responsible for EPS production by ropy strains of P. damnosus and O. oeni.
( 2004 )
Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus zeae isolates identified by sequence signature and immunoblot phenotype.
PMID : 15381972 : DOI : 10.1139/w04-044
Species taxonomy within the Lactobacillus casei group of bacteria has been unsettled. With the goal of helping clarify the taxonomy of these bacteria, we investigated the first 3 variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene, the 16S-23S rRNA interspacer region, and one third of the chaperonin 60 gene for Lactobacillus isolates originally designated as L. casei, L. paracasei, L. rhamnosus, and L. zeae. For each genetic region, a phylogenetic tree was created and signature sequence analysis was done. As well, phenotypic analysis of the various strains was performed by immunoblotting. Both sequence signature analysis and immunoblotting gave immediate identification of L. casei, L. rhamnosus, and L. zeae isolates. These results corroborate and extend previous findings concerning these lactobacilli; therefore, we strongly endorse recent proposals for revised nomenclature. Specifically, isolate ATCC 393 is appropriately rejected as the L. casei type strain because of grouping with isolates identified as L. zeae. As well, because all other L. casei isolates, including the proposed neotype isolate ATCC 334, grouped together with isolates designated L. paracasei, we support the use of the single species L. casei and rejection of the name L. paracasei.
( 2004 )
Comparative analysis of conserved genetic markers and adjacent DNA regions identified in beer-spoilage lactic acid bacteria.
PMID : 15287868 : DOI : 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2004.01572.x
To conduct an inter-species comparative study on the nucleotide sequences of the conserved DNA regions surrounding ORF5, a genetic marker for differentiating beer-spoilage lactic acid bacteria. The conserved DNA regions surrounding ORF5 were examined by PCR analysis, using three beer-spoilage strains, Lactobacillus brevis ABBC45C, L. paracollinoides LA2T and Pediococcus damnosus ABBC478. As a result, the DNA regions containing ORF1-7, originally found in ABBC45C, appeared to be conserved among the three strains, while the downstream region was not found in L. paracollinoides LA2T and P. damnosus ABBC478. The sequencing analysis of the conserved DNA regions of LA2T and ABBC478 revealed ca 99% nucleotide sequence identities with that of ABBC45C. The nucleotide sequences of the ca 8.2 kb DNA regions containing ORF1-7 were virtually identical among the three strains belonging to different species. The internal organizations of the ORFs were found to be remarkably similar. The level of nucleotide sequence identities suggests the DNA regions surrounding ORF5 were horizontally acquired by these beer-spoilage strains belonging to the three different species of lactic acid bacteria.
( 2008 )
Multi-loci sequence typing (MLST) for two lacto-acid bacteria (LAB) species: Pediococcus parvulus and P. damnosus.
PMID : 18543129 : DOI : 10.1007/s12033-008-9073-4
The control of wine microbial population during and beyond fermentation is of huge importance for wine quality. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in wine are responsible for malolactic fermentation (MLF) which can be desired in some cases and undesirable in others. Some LAB do not perform MLF and their uncontrolled growth could contribute to severe wine spoilage such as undesired flavours. Their identification and detection is considered crucial for numerous biotechnological applications in food fermentations, where, through acidification and secretion of bacteriocins, they contribute to reduce food spoilage and growth of pathogenic microorganisms. LAB have traditionally been classified using morphological or biochemical features. Primary isolation, biochemical identification and phenotypic analysis are laborious, time consuming and inaccurate and often lead to misidentification within some genera such as Pediococcus. Molecular identification based on suitable marker genes could be an attractive alternative to conventional morphological and biochemical methods. We assessed here the applicability of four housekeeping genes recA, rplB, pyrG and leuS in combination with the mle gene in multi-loci sequence typing (MLST) of Pediococcus parvulus and Pediococcus damnosus. Sequencing and comparative analysis of sequence data were performed on 19 strains collected during wine fermentation. A combination of these five marker genes allowed for a clear differentiation of the strains analysed, indicating their applicability in molecular typing. Analysis of the observed nucleotide polymorphisms allowed designing highly discriminative primers for a multi-loci sequence typing (MLST) method that proved successful in detecting a particular isolate or sequence type of P. parvulus when using either conventional PCR or Real Time PCR.
( 2016 )
The Identification of Novel Diagnostic Marker Genes for the Detection of Beer Spoiling Pediococcus damnosus Strains Using the BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr.
PMID : 27028007 : DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0152747 PMC : PMC4814128
As the number of bacterial genomes increases dramatically, the demand for easy to use tools with transparent functionality and comprehensible output for applied comparative genomics grows as well. We present BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr (BADGE), a tool for the rapid prediction of diagnostic marker genes (DMGs) for the differentiation of bacterial groups (e.g. pathogenic / nonpathogenic). DMG identification settings can be modified easily and installing and running BADGE does not require specific bioinformatics skills. During the BADGE run the user is informed step by step about the DMG finding process, thus making it easy to evaluate the impact of chosen settings and options. On the basis of an example with relevance for beer brewing, being one of the oldest biotechnological processes known, we show a straightforward procedure, from phenotyping, genome sequencing, assembly and annotation, up to a discriminant marker gene PCR assay, making comparative genomics a means to an end. The value and the functionality of BADGE were thoroughly examined, resulting in the successful identification and validation of an outstanding novel DMG (fabZ) for the discrimination of harmless and harmful contaminations of Pediococcus damnosus, which can be applied for spoilage risk determination in breweries. Concomitantly, we present and compare five complete P. damnosus genomes sequenced in this study, finding that the ability to produce the unwanted, spoilage associated off-flavor diacetyl is a plasmid encoded trait in this important beer spoiling species.
Paul Ross R,
de Vos WM,
( 2015 )
Expanding the biotechnology potential of lactobacilli through comparative genomics of 213 strains and associated genera.
PMID : 26415554 : DOI : 10.1038/ncomms9322 PMC : PMC4667430
Lactobacilli are a diverse group of species that occupy diverse nutrient-rich niches associated with humans, animals, plants and food. They are used widely in biotechnology and food preservation, and are being explored as therapeutics. Exploiting lactobacilli has been complicated by metabolic diversity, unclear species identity and uncertain relationships between them and other commercially important lactic acid bacteria. The capacity for biotransformations catalysed by lactobacilli is an untapped biotechnology resource. Here we report the genome sequences of 213 Lactobacillus strains and associated genera, and their encoded genetic catalogue for modifying carbohydrates and proteins. In addition, we describe broad and diverse presence of novel CRISPR-Cas immune systems in lactobacilli that may be exploited for genome editing. We rationalize the phylogenomic distribution of host interaction factors and bacteriocins that affect their natural and industrial environments, and mechanisms to withstand stress during technological processes. We present a robust phylogenomic framework of existing species and for classifying new species.
( 2018 )
Lactobacillus backii and Pediococcus damnosus isolated from 170-year-old beer recovered from a shipwreck lack the metabolic activities required to grow in modern lager beer.
PMID : 29126241 : DOI : 10.1093/femsec/fix152
In 2010, bottles of beer containing viable bacteria of the common beer-spoilage species Lactobacillus backii and Pediococcus damnosus were recovered from a shipwreck near the ?land Islands, Finland. The 170-year quiescent state maintained by the shipwreck bacteria presented a unique opportunity to study lactic acid bacteria (LAB) evolution vis-a-vis growth and survival in the beer environment. Three shipwreck bacteria (one L. backii strain and two P. damnosus strains) and modern-day beer-spoilage isolates of the same two species were genome sequenced, characterized for hop iso-�\-acid tolerance, and growth in degassed lager and wheat beer. In addition, plasmid variants of the modern-day P. damnosus strain were analyzed for the effect of plasmid-encoded genes on growth in lager beer. Coding content on two plasmids was identified as essential for LAB growth in modern lager beer. Three chromosomal regions containing genes related to sugar transport and cell wall polysaccharides were shared by pediococci able to grow in beer. Our results show that the three shipwreck bacteria lack the necessary plasmid-located genetic content to grow in modern lager beer, but carry additional genes related to acid tolerance and biofilm formation compared to their modern counterparts.