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1. Avelar  KE, Otsuki  K, Vicente  AC, Vieira  JM, de Paula  GR, Domingues  RM, Ferreira  MC,     ( 2003 )

Presence of the cfxA gene in Bacteroides distasonis.

Research in microbiology 154 (5)
PMID : 12837513  :   DOI  :   10.1016/S0923-2508(03)00093-7    
Abstract >>
In this study we investigated the presence of the cfxA gene (encoding a class A beta-lactamase) in 73 strains of the Bacteroides fragilis group belonging to the species B. distasonis (34), B. vulgatus (14), B. thetaiotaomicron (8), B. merdae (6), B. caccae (9) and B. ovatus (2) isolated from human intestinal microflora of healthy children and adults. Employing specific primers to the cfxA gene, a 312-bp amplified fragment was obtained in 2 strains of B. vulgatus and 9 strains, the majority from children, of B. distasonis. The expression of this enzyme was analysed by determining the MICs to cefoxitin and cefotaxime and values varied from 2 to >256 microg/ml of both cefoxitin and cefotaxime. Sequence analysis of the amplicons corresponding to the cfxA gene from B. distasonis and B. vulgatus revealed identical sequences between these isolates and high similarity with other beta-lactamase genes of anaerobes such as cfxA of B. vulgatus (99%) and cfxA2 of Prevotella intermedia (99%), both sequences of which deposited in Genbank under accession numbers U38243 and AF118110, respectively. However, a fragment obtained from a B. distasonis strain (EC17-4) showed a unique RFLP profile and 87% nucleotide similarity with cfxA and cfxA2 genes. These results seem to suggest a dissemination of these resistance determinants among Bacteroides species.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
2. Oh  H, El Amin  N, Davies  T, Appelbaum  PC, Edlund  C,     ( 2001 )

gyrA mutations associated with quinolone resistance in Bacteroides fragilis group strains.

Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 45 (7)
PMID : 11408211  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AAC.45.7.1977-1981.2001     PMC  :   PMC90588    
Abstract >>
Mutations in the gyrA gene contribute considerably to quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli. Mechanisms for quinolone resistance in anaerobic bacteria are less well studied. The Bacteroides fragilis group are the anaerobic organisms most frequently isolated from patients with bacteremia and intraabdominal infections. Forty-four clinafloxacin-resistant and-susceptible fecal and clinical isolates of the B. fragilis group (eight Bacteroides fragilis, three Bacteroides ovatus, five Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, six Bacteroides uniformis, and 22 Bacteroides vulgatus) and six ATCC strains of the B. fragilis group were analyzed as follows: (i) determination of susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and clinafloxacin by the agar dilution method and (ii) sequencing of the gyrA quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) located between amino acid residues equivalent to Ala-67 through Gln-106 in E. coli. Amino acid substitutions were found at hotspots at positions 82 (n = 15) and 86 (n = 8). Strains with Ser82Leu substitutions (n = 13) were highly resistant to all quinolones tested. Mutations in other positions of gyrA were also frequently found in quinolone-resistant and -susceptible isolates. Eight clinical strains that lacked mutations in their QRDR were susceptible to at least two of the quinolones tested. Although newer quinolones have good antimicrobial activity against the B. fragilis group, quinolone resistance in B. fragilis strains can be readily selected in vivo. Mutational events in the QRDR of gyrA seem to contribute to quinolone resistance in Bacteroides species.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Aza Compounds
3. Nakagawa  Y, Suzuki  M,     ( 1999 )

Phylogenetic analysis of genus Marinilabilia and related bacteria based on the amino acid sequences of gyrB and emended description of Marinilabilia salmonicolor with Marinilabilia agarovorans as its subjective synonym.

International journal of systematic bacteriology 49 Pt 4 (N/A)
PMID : 10555336  :   DOI  :   10.1099/00207713-49-4-1551    
Abstract >>
The detailed phylogenetic relationships for genus Marinilabilia and related taxa were analysed by using DNA gyrase B subunit gene (gyrB) sequences. Anaerobic bacteria in the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum, namely genera Marinilabilia, Bacteroides, Rikenella, Prevotella and Porphyromonas and Cytophaga fermentans, were clustered in the same branch and the facultative anaerobes Marinilabilia and Cytophaga fermentans formed a subcluster in the branch of the anaerobic bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA sequences gave a similar result but with a lower bootstrap value for each cluster. The gyrB sequences of Marinilabilia salmonicolor and Marinilabilia agarovorans were the same, and the relatedness of their chromosomal DNA, as determined by DNA-DNA hybridization, was greater than 70%. These genetic aspects led to the conclusion that M. salmonicolor IFO 15948T and M. agarovorans IFO 14957T belong to a single species. Since M. salmonicolor was described first, as Cytophaga salmonicolor, M. salmonicolor is a senior subjective synonym of M. agarovorans. Therefore, the name M. salmonicolor should be retained and strain IFO 14957T should be reclassified as M. salmonicolor. However, the agar-degrading ability of strain IFO 14957T is a prominent biochemical characteristic. It is therefore proposed that strain IFO 14957T should be renamed M. salmonicolor biovar agarovorans.
KeywordMeSH Terms
4. Ko  KS, Kuwahara  T, Haehwa  L, Yoon  YJ, Kim  BJ, Lee  KH, Ohnishi  Y, Kook  YH,     ( 2007 )

RNA polymerase beta-subunit gene (rpoB) sequence analysis for the identification of Bacteroides spp.

Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 13 (1)
PMID : 17184287  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1469-0691.2006.01553.x    
Abstract >>
Partial rpoB sequences (317 bp) of 11 species of Bacteroides, two Porphyromonas spp. and two Prevotella spp. were compared to delineate the genetic relationships among Bacteroides and closely related anaerobic species. The high level of inter-species sequence dissimilarities (7.6-20.8%) allowed the various Bacteroides spp. to be distinguished. The position of the Bacteroides distasonis and Bacteriodes merdae cluster in the rpoB tree was different from the position in the 16S rRNA gene tree. Based on rpoB sequence similarity and clustering in the rpoB tree, it was possible to correctly re-identify 80 clinical isolates of Bacteroides. In addition to two subgroups, cfiA-negative (division I) and cfiA-positive (division II), of Bacteroides fragilis isolates, two distinct subgroups were also found among Bacteroides ovatus and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron isolates. Bacteroides genus-specific rpoB PCR and B. fragilis species-specific rpoB PCR allowed Bacteroides spp. to be differentiated from Porphyromonas and Prevotella spp., and also allowed B. fragilis to be differentiated from other non-fragilisBacteroides spp. included in the present study.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
5. Löfmark  S, Fang  H, Hedberg  M, Edlund  C,     ( 2005 )

Inducible metronidazole resistance and nim genes in clinical Bacteroides fragilis group isolates.

Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 49 (3)
PMID : 15728943  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AAC.49.3.1253-1256.2005     PMC  :   PMC549250    
Abstract >>
Nitroimidazole resistance (nim) genes were detected in 2% of 1,502 clinical Bacteroides fragilis group strains isolated from 19 European countries, and a novel nim gene was identified. High metronidazole resistance could be induced in nim-positive strains, which emphasizes the importance of acknowledging metronidazole resistance in the clinical setting.
KeywordMeSH Terms
6. Hill  JE, Penny  SL, Crowell  KG, Goh  SH, Hemmingsen  SM,     ( 2004 )

cpnDB: a chaperonin sequence database.

Genome research 14 (8)
PMID : 15289485  :   DOI  :   10.1101/gr.2649204     PMC  :   PMC509277    
Abstract >>
Type I chaperonins are molecular chaperones present in virtually all bacteria, some archaea and the plastids and mitochondria of eukaryotes. Sequences of cpn60 genes, encoding 60-kDa chaperonin protein subunits (CPN60, also known as GroEL or HSP60), are useful for phylogenetic studies and as targets for detection and identification of organisms. Conveniently, a 549-567-bp segment of the cpn60 coding region can be amplified with universal PCR primers. Here, we introduce cpnDB, a curated collection of cpn60 sequence data collected from public databases or generated by a network of collaborators exploiting the cpn60 target in clinical, phylogenetic, and microbial ecology studies. The growing database currently contains approximately 2000 records covering over 240 genera of bacteria, eukaryotes, and archaea. The database also contains over 60 sequences for the archaeal Type II chaperonin (thermosome, a homolog of eukaryotic cytoplasmic chaperonin) from 19 archaeal genera. As the largest curated collection of sequences available for a protein-encoding gene, cpnDB provides a resource for researchers interested in exploiting the power of cpn60 as a diagnostic or as a target for phylogenetic or microbial ecology studies, as well as those interested in broader subjects such as lateral gene transfer and codon usage. We built cpnDB from open source tools and it is available at http://cpndb.cbr.nrc.ca.
KeywordMeSH Terms
7. Sakamoto  M, Suzuki  N, Benno  Y,     ( 2010 )

hsp60 and 16S rRNA gene sequence relationships among species of the genus Bacteroides with the finding that Bacteroides suis and Bacteroides tectus are heterotypic synonyms of Bacteroides pyogenes.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 60 (Pt 12)
PMID : 20118288  :   DOI  :   10.1099/ijs.0.021154-0    
Abstract >>
hsp60 gene sequences were determined for members of the genus Bacteroides and sequence similarities were compared with those obtained for the 16S rRNA gene. Among the 29 Bacteroides type strains, the mean sequence similarity of the hsp60 gene (84.5 %) was significantly less than that of the 16S rRNA gene (90.7 %), indicating a high discriminatory power of the hsp60 gene. Species of the genus Bacteroides were differentiated well by hsp60 gene sequence analysis, except for Bacteroides pyogenes JCM 6294(T), Bacteroides suis JCM 6292(T) and Bacteroides tectus JCM 10003(T). The hsp60 gene sequence analysis and the levels of DNA-DNA relatedness observed demonstrated that these three type strains are a single species. Consequently, B. suis and B. tectus are heterotypic synonyms of B. pyogenes. This study suggests that the hsp60 gene is an alternative phylogenetic marker for the classification of species of the genus Bacteroides.
KeywordMeSH Terms
8. Brown  CT, Olm  MR, Thomas  BC, Banfield  JF,     ( 2016 )

Measurement of bacterial replication rates in microbial communities.

Nature biotechnology 34 (12)
PMID : 27819664  :   DOI  :   10.1038/nbt.3704     PMC  :   PMC5538567    
Abstract >>
Culture-independent microbiome studies have increased our understanding of the complexity and metabolic potential of microbial communities. However, to understand the contribution of individual microbiome members to community functions, it is important to determine which bacteria are actively replicating. We developed an algorithm, iRep, that uses draft-quality genome sequences and single time-point metagenome sequencing to infer microbial population replication rates. The algorithm calculates an index of replication (iRep) based on the sequencing coverage trend that results from bi-directional genome replication from a single origin of replication. We apply this method to show that microbial replication rates increase after antibiotic administration in human infants. We also show that uncultivated, groundwater-associated, Candidate Phyla Radiation bacteria only rarely replicate quickly in subsurface communities undergoing substantial changes in geochemistry. Our method can be applied to any genome-resolved microbiome study to track organism responses to varying conditions, identify actively growing populations and measure replication rates for use in modeling studies.
KeywordMeSH Terms
9. Lange  A, Beier  S, Steimle  A, Autenrieth  IB, Huson  DH, Frick  JS,     ( 2016 )

Extensive Mobilome-Driven Genome Diversification in Mouse Gut-Associated Bacteroides vulgatus mpk.

Genome biology and evolution 8 (4)
PMID : 27071651  :   DOI  :   10.1093/gbe/evw070     PMC  :   PMC4860699    
Abstract >>
Like many other Bacteroides species, Bacteroides vulgatus strain mpk, a mouse fecal isolate which was shown to promote intestinal homeostasis, utilizes a variety of mobile elements for genome evolution. Based on sequences collected by Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencing technology, we discuss the challenges of assembling and studying a bacterial genome of high plasticity. Additionally, we conducted comparative genomics comparing this commensal strain with the B. vulgatus type strain ATCC 8482 as well as multiple other Bacteroides and Parabacteroides strains to reveal the most important differences and identify the unique features of B. vulgatus mpk. The genome of B. vulgatus mpk harbors a large and diverse set of mobile element proteins compared with other sequenced Bacteroides strains. We found evidence of a number of different horizontal gene transfer events and a genome landscape that has been extensively altered by different mobilization events. A CRISPR/Cas system could be identified that provides a possible mechanism for preventing the integration of invading external DNA. We propose that the high genome plasticity and the introduced genome instabilities of B. vulgatus mpk arising from the various mobilization events might play an important role not only in its adaptation to the challenging intestinal environment in general, but also in its ability to interact with the gut microbiota.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacteroides vulgatus
genome plasticity
horizontal gene transfer
mobile elements
Evolution, Molecular
Gene Transfer, Horizontal
Genome, Bacterial
10.     ( 1996 )

A gene product related to Tral is required for the mobilization of Bacteroides mobilizable transposons and plasmids.

Molecular microbiology 20 (4)
PMID : 8793871  :   DOI  :   10.1111/j.1365-2958.1996.tb02513.x    
Abstract >>
The antibiotic-resistance transposon Tn4555 from Bacteroides can be transferred between strains by conjugation. The transposon is not self-transmissible and must be mobilized by resident chromosomal tetracycline-resistance elements. In the present report, the mechanism of transfer was examined at the genetic level by deletion analysis and nucleotide sequencing of clones that conferred a transmissible phenotype on a non-mobilizable plasmid. The results suggested that the product of mobATn was required for mobilization and it worked in concert with a cis-acting oriT-like sequence. This mechanism was compared with the mobilization system of a cryptic Bacteroides plasmid, pBI143, and the two systems were found to share a common transfer strategy. The mobA gene products from both genetic elements were related and they had limited homology to the broad group of mobilization proteins (relaxases) typified by Tral of RP4. Phylogenetic analysis of MobA and several other mobilization proteins from commensal gastro-intestinal tract organisms suggested that they formed a new subgroup of the Tral superfamily. The mobilization regions of both Tn4555 and pBI143 were located on discrete segments of DNA within the parent genetic element. These segments were delineated by regions of secondary structure, suggesting that they could be defined mobilization cassettes.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Escherichia coli Proteins
11.     ( 1996 )

Conjugal transfer of the 5-nitroimidazole resistance plasmid pIP417 from Bacteroides vulgatus BV-17: characterization and nucleotide sequence analysis of the mobilization region.

Journal of bacteriology 178 (23)
PMID : 8955281  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.178.23.6671-6676.1996     PMC  :   PMC178560    
Abstract >>
Three small 5-nitroimidazole (5-Ni) resistance plasmids (pIP417, pIP419, and pIP421) from Bacteroides clinical isolates are transferable by a conjugative process during homologous or heterologous matings. The mobilization properties of pIP417 originated from strain BV-17 of Bacteroides vulgatus were studied. The plasmid was successfully introduced by in vitro conjugation into different strains of Bacteroides and Prevotella species and could be transferred back from these various strains to a plasmid-free 5-Ni-sensitive Bacteroides fragilis strain, indicating that in vivo spread of the resistance gene may occur. The transfer of plasmid pIP417 harbored by the Tc(r) strain BF-2 of B. fragilis was stimulated by low concentrations of tetracycline or chlorotetracycline. This suggests a possible role for coresident conjugative transposons in the dissemination of 5-Ni resistance among gram-negative anaerobes. The nucleotide sequence of the 2.1-kb DNA mobilization region was determined. It contains a putative origin of transfer (oriT) in an A+T-rich-region, including three inverted repeats, and two integration host factor binding sites. The two identified mobilization genes (mobA and mobB) are organized in one operon and were both required for efficient transfer. Southern blotting indicated that the mobilization region of plasmid pIP417 is closely related to that of both the erythromycin resistance plasmid pBFTM1O and the 5-Ni resistance plasmid pIP419 but not to that of the 5-Ni resistance plasmid pIP421.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Bacterial Proteins
Conjugation, Genetic
R Factors
12.     ( 1994 )

Nucleotide sequence analysis of two 5-nitroimidazole resistance determinants from Bacteroides strains and of a new insertion sequence upstream of the two genes.

Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 38 (5)
PMID : 8067736  :   DOI  :   10.1128/aac.38.5.1047     PMC  :   PMC188148    
Abstract >>
DNA sequence analysis of regions from plasmid pIP417 and chromosome BF8 which encode 5-nitroimidazole resistance in Bacteroides strains allowed the identification of two open reading frames corresponding to new genes, nimA (528 bp) and nimB (492 bp). Either gene may confer 5-nitroimidazole resistance to susceptible strains of Bacteroides. The encoded polypeptides have deduced molecular masses of 20.1 and 18.6 kDa, respectively, and share about 73% identity and 85% similarity. A new insertion sequence (IS) element named IS1168 lies 14 bases upstream of the nimA gene. The complete sequence of IS1168 was determined. A similar IS exists 12 bp upstream of the nimB gene. About 60% of the BF8 IS element was also sequenced and shown to be almost identical to IS1168.
KeywordMeSH Terms
13.     ( 1995 )

Genetic analysis of the minimal replicon of plasmid pIP417 and comparison with the other encoding 5-nitroimidazole resistance plasmids from Bacteroides spp.

Plasmid 34 (2)
PMID : 8559801  :   DOI  :   10.1006/plas.1995.9994    
Abstract >>
The nucleotide sequence of the DNA replication origin region of a Bacteroides vulgatus plasmid, pIP417, encoding 5-nitroimidazole resistance has been determined. This region of 1934 bp presents some characteristics similar to those of other replication protein-dependent origins. It contains a large open reading frame which could encode a basic Rep protein (RepA) of 36.8 kDa. Upstream of this ORF exist an AT-rich region, three direct repeats (iterons) of 21 bp, multiple DnaA binding sites, and sites, and sites for the integration host factor (IHF). Moreover, the amino acid sequence of the pIP417 RepA protein shows similarities with those of other Rep proteins encoded by plasmids of gram-negative bacteria: pRO1600 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa; pPS10 from Pseudomonas syringae; pFA3 from Neisseria gonorrhoeae; and two cryptic plasmids from Campylobacter hyointestinalis and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. Although RepA can be expressed in an Escherichia coli in vitro transcription-translation assay, vectors containing the pIP417 replication origin did not replicate in E. coli. The homology of the pIP417 replication region with the corresponding regions of other Bacteroides spp, plasmids was also studied by Southern blot hybridization. The results indicated that the repA gene of plasmid pIP417 is homologous to that of plasmid pIP421, but not of plasmid pIP419. The replication region of plasmid pIP421 was sequenced and showed about 80% identity at the nucleotide level with that of pIP417. A small (3634-bp) cloning vector (pFK12) of entirely defined nucleotide sequence was constructed for Bacteroides spp.
KeywordMeSH Terms
14.     ( 1993 )

Genetic and biochemical analysis of a novel Ambler class A beta-lactamase responsible for cefoxitin resistance in Bacteroides species.

Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 37 (5)
PMID : 8517690  :   DOI  :   10.1128/aac.37.5.1028     PMC  :   PMC187887    
Abstract >>
A clinical isolate of Bacteroides vulgatus was resistant to tetracycline, clindamycin, ampicillin, cephaloridine, cefoxitin, and other beta-lactam antibiotics except imipenem. beta-Lactam resistance was mediated by a membrane-associated, clavulanate-sensitive cephalosporinase capable of degrading cephalosporins and penicillins. Cefoxitin also was degraded but at a slow rate. The cefoxitin resistance (Fxr) determinant was cloned from B. vulgatus genomic libraries that were prepared in Escherichia coli and then mated with Bacteroides fragilis for the identification of Fxr strains. Analysis of B. fragilis strains with the cloned Fxr determinant revealed the presence of a new beta-lactamase protein with the physical and enzymatic properties of the beta-lactamase found in the original B. vulgatus isolate. The beta-lactamase gene (cfxA) was subcloned on a 2.2-kb DraI-HindIII fragment, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. These results showed that cfxA encoded a protein of 321 amino acids and 35,375 molecular weight. Mutant strains in which the cfxA structural gene was disrupted by insertional inactivation lost both Fxr and beta-lactamase activity. Comparison of CfxA with other beta-lactamases showed a relationship with the active-site serine beta-lactamases in the Ambler molecular class A, although CfxA had apparently diverged significantly. This was exemplified by the substitution in CfxA at 13 of 25 amino acid residues previously identified as being invariant in class A beta-lactamases. These results suggest that CfxA may represent a new class A homology group which diverged very early.
KeywordMeSH Terms
15. Jiang  X, Hall  AB, Arthur  TD, Plichta  DR, Covington  CT, Poyet  M, Crothers  J, Moses  PL, Tolonen  AC, Vlamakis  H, Alm  EJ, Xavier  RJ,     ( 2019 )

Invertible promoters mediate bacterial phase variation, antibiotic resistance, and host adaptation in the gut.

Science (New York, N.Y.) 363 (6423)
PMID : 30630933  :   DOI  :   10.1126/science.aau5238     PMC  :   PMC6543533    
Abstract >>
Phase variation, the reversible alternation between genetic states, enables infection by pathogens and colonization by commensals. However, the diversity of phase variation remains underexplored. We developed the PhaseFinder algorithm to quantify DNA inversion-mediated phase variation. A systematic search of 54,875 bacterial genomes identified 4686 intergenic invertible DNA regions (invertons), revealing an enrichment in host-associated bacteria. Invertons containing promoters often regulate extracellular products, underscoring the importance of surface diversity for gut colonization. We found invertons containing promoters regulating antibiotic resistance genes that shift to the ON orientation after antibiotic treatment in human metagenomic data and in vitro, thereby mitigating the cost of antibiotic resistance. We observed that the orientations of some invertons diverge after fecal microbiota transplant, potentially as a result of individual-specific selective forces.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Gastrointestinal Microbiome
Promoter Regions, Genetic
16. McEneany  VL, Coyne  MJ, Chatzidaki-Livanis  M, Comstock  LE,     ( 2018 )

Acquisition of MACPF domain-encoding genes is the main contributor to LPS glycan diversity in gut Bacteroides species.

The ISME journal 12 (12)
PMID : 30065309  :   DOI  :   10.1038/s41396-018-0244-4     PMC  :   PMC6246601    
Abstract >>
The ability to antagonize competing strains and species is often important for bacterial fitness in microbial communities. The extent to which intra-species antagonism drives phenotypic diversity of bacterial species is rarely examined in a comprehensive manner at both the genetic and phenotypic levels. Here we show that for nine abundant human gut Bacteroides species examined, there are only a few LPS glycan genetic types. We show that for a given Bacteroides species, there is a predominant lipopolysaccharide (LPS) glycan locus present in the majority of strains. However, other strains have replacements of glycosyltransferase-encoding genes, in most cases, adjacent to a membrane attack/perforin (MACPF) domain-encoding gene not present in the predominant type. We show that the MACPF genes present in LPS glycan biosynthesis loci of four Bacteroides species encode antimicrobial proteins and in Bacteroides vulgatus and Bacteroides dorei, we show the MACPF toxin targets the LPS of strains with the predominant LPS glycan locus. By a combination of gene deletion and replacement, we converted a MACPF toxin-producing strain into a sensitive strain. Genetic diversity of LPS glycan biosynthesis regions in Bacteroides is similar to phage serotype conversion whereby the receptor is altered to render the strain immune to infection/toxicity, and is a rare example in bacteria of toxin immunity conferred to the toxin-producing strain by replacement of genetic material to modify the receptor rather than by a cognate immunity protein.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Gastrointestinal Microbiome

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