( 2003 )
Taxonomic re-evaluation of whorl-forming Streptomyces (formerly Streptoverticillium) species by using phenotypes, DNA-DNA hybridization and sequences of gyrB, and proposal of Streptomyces luteireticuli (ex Katoh and Arai 1957) corrig., sp. nov., nom. rev.
PMID : 13130042 : DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.02238-0 DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.02238-0
The taxonomic status of 64 strains of whorl-forming Streptomyces (formerly Streptoverticillium) species was re-evaluated and strains were reclassified on the basis of their phenotypes, DNA-DNA hybridization data and partial sequences of gyrB, the structural gene of the B subunit of DNA gyrase. These strains, which consisted of 46 species and eight subspecies with validly published names and 13 species whose names have not been validly published [including 10 strains examined by the International Streptomyces Project (ISP)], were divided into two groups, namely typical and atypical whorl-forming Streptomyces species, based on their phenotypes and gyrB gene sequences. The typical whorl-forming species (59 strains) were divided into six major clusters of three or more species, seven minor clusters of two species and five single-member clusters, based on the threshold value of 97 % gyrB sequence similarity. Major clusters were typified by Streptomyces abikoensis, Streptomyces cinnamoneus, Streptomyces distallicus, Streptomyces griseocarneus, Streptomyces hiroshimensis and Streptomyces netropsis. Phenotypically, members of each cluster resembled each other closely except for the S. distallicus cluster, which was divided phenotypically into the S. distallicus and Streptomyces stramineus subclusters, and the S. netropsis cluster, which was divided into the S. netropsis and Streptomyces eurocidicus subclusters. Strains in each minor cluster closely resembled each other phenotypically. DNA-DNA relatedness between the representative species and others in each major cluster and/or subcluster, and between strains in the minor clusters, was >70 %, indicating that the major clusters and/or subclusters and the minor clusters each comprise a single species. It was concluded that 59 strains of typical whorl-forming Streptomyces species consisted of the following 18 species, including subjective synonym(s): S. abikoensis, Streptomyces ardus, Streptomyces blastmyceticus, S. cinnamoneus, S. eurocidicus, S. griseocarneus, S. hiroshimensis, Streptomyces lilacinus, 'Streptomyces luteoreticuli', Streptomyces luteosporeus, Streptomyces mashuensis, Streptomyces mobaraensis, Streptomyces morookaense, S. netropsis, Streptomyces orinoci, S. stramineus, Streptomyces thioluteus and Streptomyces viridiflavus.
( 2005 )
Cloning of the netropsin resistance genes from Streptomyces flavopersicus NRRL 2820.
PMID : 16187258 : DOI : 10.1002/jobm.200410529
Streptomyces flavopersicus NRRL 2820 (synonym: Streptomyces netropsis DSM40093) is resistant to the N-methylpyrrole-containing oligopeptide antibiotic netropsin. A 9.38 kb DNA-fragment was isolated from a genomic library of Streptomyces flavopersicus using an Escherichia coli-Streptomyces lividans shuttle vector which enables S. lividans to grow on netropsin-containing agar plates. By subcloning, the resistance was conferred to a 5.9 kb Eco RV fragment. DNA sequence analysis of this Eco RV fragment revealed two open reading frames (netP1 , 1556 bp and netP2 , 1773 bp). The deduced proteins share significant similarity to each other (27% identity) and to the large family to ABC-type multidrug resistance proteins. In each protein a conserved transmembrane and ATP binding domain was identified. Deletion analysis showed that both proteins are necessary for netropsin resistance indicating that the proteins form a heterodimeric ABC-transporter exporting netropsin.
( 2004 )
Phylogenetic analysis of the genera Streptomyces and Kitasatospora based on partial RNA polymerase beta-subunit gene (rpoB) sequences.
PMID : 15023980 : DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.02941-0
The RNA polymerase beta-subunit genes (rpoB) of 67 Streptomyces strains, representing 57 species, five Kitasatospora strains and Micromonospora echinospora KCTC 9549 were partially sequenced using a pair of rpoB PCR primers. Among the streptomycetes, 99.7-100 % similarity within the same species and 90.2-99.3 % similarity at the interspecific level were observed by analysis of the determined rpoB sequences. The topology of the phylogenetic tree based on rpoB sequences was similar to that of 16S rDNA. The five Kitasatospora strains formed a stable monophyletic clade and a sister group to the clade comprising all Streptomyces species. Although there were several discrepancies in the details, considerable agreement was found between the results of rpoB analysis and those of numerical phenetic classification. This study demonstrates that analysis of rpoB can be used as an alternative genetic method in parallel to conventional taxonomic methods, including numerical phenetic and 16S rDNA analyses, for the phylogenetic analyses of the genera Streptomyces and Kitasatospora.
( 2010 )
Coevolution of antibiotic production and counter-resistance in soil bacteria.
PMID : 20067498 : DOI : 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2009.02125.x
We present evidence for the coexistence and coevolution of antibiotic resistance and biosynthesis genes in soil bacteria. The distribution of the streptomycin (strA) and viomycin (vph) resistance genes was examined in Streptomyces isolates. strA and vph were found either within a biosynthetic gene cluster or independently. Streptomyces griseus strains possessing the streptomycin cluster formed part of a clonal complex. All S. griseus strains possessing solely strA belonged to two clades; both were closely related to the streptomycin producers. Other more distantly related S. griseus strains did not contain strA. S. griseus strains with only vph also formed two clades, but they were more distantly related to the producers and to one another. The expression of the strA gene was constitutive in a resistance-only strain whereas streptomycin producers showed peak strA expression in late log phase that correlates with the switch on of streptomycin biosynthesis. While there is evidence that antibiotics have diverse roles in nature, our data clearly support the coevolution of resistance in the presence of antibiotic biosynthetic capability within closely related soil dwelling bacteria. This reinforces the view that, for some antibiotics at least, the primary role is one of antibiosis during competition in soil for resources.
( 2014 )
Mining of the pyrrolamide antibiotics analogs in Streptomyces netropsis reveals the amidohydrolase-dependent "iterative strategy" underlying the pyrrole polymerization.
PMID : 24901640 : DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0099077 PMC : PMC4047045
In biosynthesis of natural products, potential intermediates or analogs of a particular compound in the crude extracts are commonly overlooked in routine assays due to their low concentration, limited structural information, or because of their insignificant bio-activities. This may lead into an incomplete and even an incorrect biosynthetic pathway for the target molecule. Here we applied multiple compound mining approaches, including genome scanning and precursor ion scan-directed mass spectrometry, to identify potential pyrrolamide compounds in the fermentation culture of Streptomyces netropsis. Several novel congocidine and distamycin analogs were thus detected and characterized. A more reasonable route for the biosynthesis of pyrrolamides was proposed based on the structures of these newly discovered compounds, as well as the functional characterization of several key biosynthetic genes of pyrrolamides. Collectively, our results implied an unusual "iterative strategy" underlying the pyrrole polymerization in the biosynthesis of pyrrolamide antibiotics.
( 2012 )
Ribosomal and protein coding gene based multigene phylogeny on the family Streptomycetaceae.
PMID : 22154623 : DOI : 10.1016/j.syapm.2011.08.007
The phylogenetic relationship among the three genera of the family Streptomycetaceae was examined using the small and large subunit ribosomal RNA genes, and the gyrB, rpoB, trpB, atpD and recA genes. The total stretches of the analyzed ribosomal genes were 4.2kb, and those of five protein coding genes were 4.5 kb. The resultant phylogenetic trees confirmed that each genus formed an independent clade in the majority of cases. The G+C contents of rRNA genes were 56.9-58.9 mol%, and those of protein coding genes were 65.4-72.4 mol%, the latter being closer to those of the genomic DNAs. The average nucleotide sequence identity between the organisms were 94.1-96.4% for rRNA genes and 85.7-90.6% for protein coding genes, thus indicating that protein coding genes can give higher resolution than rRNA genes. In addition, the protein coding gene trees were more stable than the rRNA gene trees, supported by higher bootstrap values and other treeing algorithms. Moreover, the genome data of six Streptomyces species indicated that many protein coding genes exhibited higher correlations with genome relatedness. The combined gene sequences were also shown to give a better resolution with higher stability than any single genes, though not necessarily more correlated with genome relatedness. It is evident from this study that the rRNA gene based phylogeny can be misleading, and also that protein coding genes have a number of advantages over the rRNA genes as the phylogenetic markers including a high correlation with the genome relatedness.
( 1997 )
A spectinomycin resistance determinant from the spectinomycin producer Streptomyces flavopersicus.
PMID : 9245803 : DOI : 10.1099/00221287-143-7-2135
The spectinomycin (sp) resistance determinant from Streptomyces flavopersicus was cloned into Streptomyces lividans using the plasmid vector pIJ699. A plasmid, pDGL15, with a 3.65 kb insert from S. flavopersicus conferring resistance to Sp was isolated. DNA sequence analysis of the 3651 1 bp DNA insert revealed four open reading frames (ORFs). The amino acid sequence deduced from one ORF (SpcN) showed a high degree of similarity to an aminoglycoside phosphotransferase (StrN) and from a second one (SpcR) to a regulatory protein (StrR) of the streptomycin biosynthesis gene cluster from S. griseus. The two other ORFs were incomplete and the deduced amino acid sequences showed similarities to an amidinotransferase encoded in the streptomycin biosynthesis gene cluster of S. griseus and to the transposase of IS112, respectively. Expression of the spcN gene in E. coli under the control of tac promoter conferred Sp resistance to the cells. An enzymic assay confirmed that the gene product of spcN is an ATP-dependent aminoglycoside phosphotransferase which phosphorylates Sp and actinamine, the aminocyclitol moiety of Sp.
( 1997 )
Molecular phylogenetic characterization of Streptomyces protease inhibitor family.
PMID : 9115178 :
We previously found that proteinaceous protease inhibitors homologous to Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor (SSI) are widely produced by various Streptomyces species, and we designated them "SSI-like proteins" (Taguchi S, Kikuchi H, Suzuki M, Kojima S, Terabe M, Miura K, Nakase T, Momose H  Appl Environ Microbiol 59:4338-4341). In this study, SSI-like proteins from five strains of the genus Streptoverticillium were purified and sequenced, and molecular phylogenetic trees were constructed on the basis of the determined amino acid sequences together with those determined previously for Streptomyces species. The phylogenetic trees showed that SSI-like proteins from Streptoverticillium species are phylogenetically included in Streptomyces SSI-like proteins but form a monophyletic group as a distinct lineage within the Streptomyces proteins. This provides an alternative phylogenetic framework to the previous one based on partial small ribosomal RNA sequences, and it may indicate that the phylogenetic affiliation of the genus Streptoverticillium should be revised. The phylogenetic trees also suggested that SSI-like proteins possessing arginine or methionine at the P1 site, the major reactive center site toward target proteases, arose multiple times on independent lineages from ancestral proteins possessing lysine at the P1 site. Most of the codon changes at the P1 site inferred to have occurred during the evolution of SSI-like proteins are consistent with those inferred from the extremely high G + C content of Streptomyces genomes. The inferred minimum number of amino acid replacements at the P1 site was nearly equal to the average number for all the variable sites. It thus appears that positive Darwinian selection, which has been postulated to account for accelerated rates of amino acid replacement at the major reaction center site of mammalian protease inhibitors, may not have dictated the evolution of the bacterial SSI-like proteins.