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1. Schmutz  E, Mühlenweg  A, Li  SM, Heide  L,     ( 2003 )

Resistance genes of aminocoumarin producers: two type II topoisomerase genes confer resistance against coumermycin A1 and clorobiocin.

Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 47 (3)
PMID : 12604514  :   DOI  :   10.1128/aac.47.3.869-877.2003     PMC  :   PMC149333    
Abstract >>
The aminocoumarin resistance genes of the biosynthetic gene clusters of novobiocin, coumermycin A(1), and clorobiocin were investigated. All three clusters contained a gyrB(R) resistance gene, coding for a gyrase B subunit. Unexpectedly, the clorobiocin and the coumermycin A(1) clusters were found to contain an additional, similar gene, named parY(R). Its predicted gene product showed sequence similarity with the B subunit of type II topoisomerases. Expression of gyrB(R) and likewise of parY(R) in Streptomyces lividans TK24 resulted in resistance against novobiocin and coumermycin A(1), suggesting that both gene products are able to function as aminocoumarin-resistant B subunits of gyrase. Southern hybridization experiments showed that the genome of all three antibiotic producers and of Streptomyces coelicolor contained two additional genes which hybridized with either gyrB(R) or parY(R) and which may code for aminocoumarin-sensitive GyrB and ParY proteins. Two putative transporter genes, novA and couR5, were found in the novobiocin and the coumermycin A(1) cluster, respectively. Expression of these genes in S. lividans TK24 resulted in moderate levels of resistance against novobiocin and coumermycin A(1), suggesting that these genes may be involved in antibiotic transport.
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2. Eustáquio  AS, Gust  B, Galm  U, Li  SM, Chater  KF, Heide  L,     ( 2005 )

Heterologous expression of novobiocin and clorobiocin biosynthetic gene clusters.

Applied and environmental microbiology 71 (5)
PMID : 15870333  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.71.5.2452-2459.2005     PMC  :   PMC1087579    
Abstract >>
A method was developed for the heterologous expression of biosynthetic gene clusters in different Streptomyces strains and for the modification of these clusters by single or multiple gene replacements or gene deletions with unprecedented speed and versatility. Lambda-Red-mediated homologous recombination was used for genetic modification of the gene clusters, and the attachment site and integrase of phage phiC31 were employed for the integration of these clusters into the heterologous hosts. This method was used to express the gene clusters of the aminocoumarin antibiotics novobiocin and clorobiocin in the well-studied strains Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces lividans, which, in contrast to the natural producers, can be easily genetically manipulated. S. coelicolor M512 derivatives produced the respective antibiotic in yields comparable to those of natural producer strains, whereas S. lividans TK24 derivatives were at least five times less productive. This method could also be used to carry out functional investigations. Shortening of the cosmids' inserts showed which genes are essential for antibiotic production.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Multigene Family
3. Qu  X, Pang  B, Zhang  Z, Chen  M, Wu  Z, Zhao  Q, Zhang  Q, Wang  Y, Liu  Y, Liu  W,     ( 2012 )

Caerulomycins and collismycins share a common paradigm for 2,2'-bipyridine biosynthesis via an unusual hybrid polyketide-peptide assembly Logic.

Journal of the American Chemical Society 134 (22)
PMID : 22594451  :   DOI  :   10.1021/ja3016457    
Abstract >>
Caerulomycins (CAEs) and collismycins (COLs), which mainly differ in sulfur decoration, are two groups of structurally similar natural products containing a 2,2'-bipyridine (2,2'-BP) core, derivatives of which have been widely used in chemistry. The biosynthetic pathways of CAEs and COLs remain elusive. In this work, cloning of the CAE biosynthetic gene cluster allowed us to mine a highly conserved gene cluster encoding COL biosynthesis in a Streptomyces strain that was previously unknown as a 2,2'-BP producer. In vitro and in vivo investigations into the biosynthesis revealed that CAEs and COLs share a common paradigm featuring an atypical hybrid polyketide synthase/nonribosomal peptide synthetase system that programs the 2,2'-BP formation. This likely involves an unusual intramolecular cyclization/rearrangement sequence, and a difference in processing of the sulfhydryl group derived from the same precursor cysteine drives the biosynthetic route toward CAEs or COLs.
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