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1. Kim  BJ, Kim  CJ, Chun  J, Koh  YH, Lee  SH, Hyun  JW, Cha  CY, Kook  YH,     ( 2004 )

Phylogenetic analysis of the genera Streptomyces and Kitasatospora based on partial RNA polymerase beta-subunit gene (rpoB) sequences.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 54 (Pt 2)
PMID : 15023980  :   DOI  :   10.1099/ijs.0.02941-0    
Abstract >>
The RNA polymerase beta-subunit genes (rpoB) of 67 Streptomyces strains, representing 57 species, five Kitasatospora strains and Micromonospora echinospora KCTC 9549 were partially sequenced using a pair of rpoB PCR primers. Among the streptomycetes, 99.7-100 % similarity within the same species and 90.2-99.3 % similarity at the interspecific level were observed by analysis of the determined rpoB sequences. The topology of the phylogenetic tree based on rpoB sequences was similar to that of 16S rDNA. The five Kitasatospora strains formed a stable monophyletic clade and a sister group to the clade comprising all Streptomyces species. Although there were several discrepancies in the details, considerable agreement was found between the results of rpoB analysis and those of numerical phenetic classification. This study demonstrates that analysis of rpoB can be used as an alternative genetic method in parallel to conventional taxonomic methods, including numerical phenetic and 16S rDNA analyses, for the phylogenetic analyses of the genera Streptomyces and Kitasatospora.
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2. Guo  Z, Li  P, Chen  G, Li  C, Cao  Z, Zhang  Y, Ren  J, Xiang  H, Lin  S, Ju  J, Chen  Y,     ( 2018 )

Design and Biosynthesis of Dimeric Alboflavusins with Biaryl Linkages via Regiospecific C-C Bond Coupling.

Journal of the American Chemical Society 140 (51)
PMID : 30516971  :   DOI  :   10.1021/jacs.8b10136    
Abstract >>
Alboflavusins (AFNs) are a group of cyclohexapeptides with moderate antibacterial and antitumor activities from Streptomyces alboflavus sp. 313. In vivo and in vitro studies proposed that AFNs are biosynthesized by a nonribosomal peptide synthetase machinery, and the 6-Cl-L-Trp precursor is supplied by a tryptophan halogenase gene located outside the afn gene cluster. Guided by the structure-activity relationship knowledge about the AFN-like cyclohexapeptides, two dimeric AFNs (di-AFNs) with regiospecific biaryl linkages were designed and generated biotechnologically by expressing the P450 gene hmtS or clpS in S. alboflavus wild-type and mutant strains. The di-AFNs displayed much better antibacterial and antitumor activities than their monomers as anticipated, exemplifying a rational strategy to generate natural product congeners with improved bioactivities.
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