( 2010 )
Coevolution of antibiotic production and counter-resistance in soil bacteria.
PMID : 20067498 : DOI : 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2009.02125.x
We present evidence for the coexistence and coevolution of antibiotic resistance and biosynthesis genes in soil bacteria. The distribution of the streptomycin (strA) and viomycin (vph) resistance genes was examined in Streptomyces isolates. strA and vph were found either within a biosynthetic gene cluster or independently. Streptomyces griseus strains possessing the streptomycin cluster formed part of a clonal complex. All S. griseus strains possessing solely strA belonged to two clades; both were closely related to the streptomycin producers. Other more distantly related S. griseus strains did not contain strA. S. griseus strains with only vph also formed two clades, but they were more distantly related to the producers and to one another. The expression of the strA gene was constitutive in a resistance-only strain whereas streptomycin producers showed peak strA expression in late log phase that correlates with the switch on of streptomycin biosynthesis. While there is evidence that antibiotics have diverse roles in nature, our data clearly support the coevolution of resistance in the presence of antibiotic biosynthetic capability within closely related soil dwelling bacteria. This reinforces the view that, for some antibiotics at least, the primary role is one of antibiosis during competition in soil for resources.
( 2010 )
Taxonomic evaluation of the Streptomyces griseus clade using multilocus sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization, with proposal to combine 29 species and three subspecies as 11 genomic species.
PMID : 19656940 : DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.012419-0 DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.012419-0
Streptomyces griseus and related species form the biggest but least well-defined clade in the whole Streptomyces 16S rRNA gene tree. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) has shown promising potential for refining Streptomyces systematics. In this investigation, strains of 18 additional S. griseus clade species were analysed and data from a previous pilot study were integrated in a larger MLSA phylogeny. The results demonstrated that MLSA of five housekeeping genes (atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB and trpB) is better than the previous six-gene scheme, as it provides equally good resolution and stability and is more cost-effective; MLSA using three or four of the genes also shows good resolution and robustness for differentiating most of the strains and is therefore of value for everyday use. MLSA is more suitable for discriminating strains that show >99 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) between strains with representative MLSA distances revealed a strong correlation between the data of MLSA and DDH. The 70 % DDH value for current species definition corresponds to a five-gene MLSA distance of 0.007, which could be considered as the species cut-off for the S. griseus clade. It is concluded that the MLSA procedure can be a practical, reliable and robust alternative to DDH for the identification and classification of streptomycetes at the species and intraspecies levels. Based on the data from MLSA and DDH, as well as cultural and morphological characteristics, 18 species and three subspecies of the S. griseus clade are considered to be later heterotypic synonyms of 11 genomic species: Streptomyces griseinus and Streptomyces mediolani as synonyms of Streptomyces albovinaceus; Streptomyces praecox as a synonym of Streptomyces anulatus; Streptomyces olivoviridis as a synonym of Streptomyces atroolivaceus; Streptomyces griseobrunneus as a synonym of Streptomyces bacillaris; Streptomyces cavourensis subsp. washingtonensis as a synonym of Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus; Streptomyces acrimycini, Streptomyces baarnensis, Streptomyces caviscabies and Streptomyces flavofuscus as synonyms of Streptomyces fimicarius; Streptomyces flavogriseus as a synonym of Streptomyces flavovirens; Streptomyces erumpens, 'Streptomyces ornatus' and Streptomyces setonii as synonyms of Streptomyces griseus; Streptomyces graminofaciens as a synonym of Streptomyces halstedii; Streptomyces alboviridis, Streptomyces griseus subsp. alpha, Streptomyces griseus subsp. cretosus and Streptomyces luridiscabiei as synonyms of Streptomyces microflavus; and Streptomyces californicus and Streptomyces floridae as synonyms of Streptomyces puniceus.
( 2008 )
A multilocus phylogeny of the Streptomyces griseus 16S rRNA gene clade: use of multilocus sequence analysis for streptomycete systematics.
PMID : 18175701 : DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.65224-0
Streptomycetes are a complex group of actinomycetes that produce diverse bioactive metabolites of commercial significance. Systematics can provide a useful framework for identifying species that may produce novel metabolites. However, previously proposed approaches to the systematics of Streptomyces have suffered from either poor interlaboratory comparability or insufficient resolution. In particular, the Streptomyces griseus 16S rRNA gene clade is the most challenging and least defined group within the genus Streptomyces in terms of phylogeny. Here we report the results of a multilocus sequence analysis scheme developed to address the phylogeny of this clade. Sequence fragments of six housekeeping genes, atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB, trpB and 16S rRNA, were obtained for 53 reference strains that represent 45 valid species and subspecies. Analysis of each individual locus confirmed the suitability of loci and the congruence of single-gene trees for concatenation. Concatenated trees of three, four, five and all six genes were constructed, and the stability of the topology and discriminatory power of each tree were analysed. It can be concluded from the results that phylogenetic analysis based on multilocus sequences is more accurate and robust for species delineation within Streptomyces. A multilocus phylogeny of six genes proved to be optimal for elucidating the interspecies relationships within the S. griseus 16S rRNA gene clade. Our multilocus sequence analysis scheme provides a valuable tool that can be applied to other Streptomyces clades for refining the systematic framework of this genus.
( 2012 )
Ribosomal and protein coding gene based multigene phylogeny on the family Streptomycetaceae.
PMID : 22154623 : DOI : 10.1016/j.syapm.2011.08.007
The phylogenetic relationship among the three genera of the family Streptomycetaceae was examined using the small and large subunit ribosomal RNA genes, and the gyrB, rpoB, trpB, atpD and recA genes. The total stretches of the analyzed ribosomal genes were 4.2kb, and those of five protein coding genes were 4.5 kb. The resultant phylogenetic trees confirmed that each genus formed an independent clade in the majority of cases. The G+C contents of rRNA genes were 56.9-58.9 mol%, and those of protein coding genes were 65.4-72.4 mol%, the latter being closer to those of the genomic DNAs. The average nucleotide sequence identity between the organisms were 94.1-96.4% for rRNA genes and 85.7-90.6% for protein coding genes, thus indicating that protein coding genes can give higher resolution than rRNA genes. In addition, the protein coding gene trees were more stable than the rRNA gene trees, supported by higher bootstrap values and other treeing algorithms. Moreover, the genome data of six Streptomyces species indicated that many protein coding genes exhibited higher correlations with genome relatedness. The combined gene sequences were also shown to give a better resolution with higher stability than any single genes, though not necessarily more correlated with genome relatedness. It is evident from this study that the rRNA gene based phylogeny can be misleading, and also that protein coding genes have a number of advantages over the rRNA genes as the phylogenetic markers including a high correlation with the genome relatedness.