( 2010 )
Taxonomic evaluation of the Streptomyces griseus clade using multilocus sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization, with proposal to combine 29 species and three subspecies as 11 genomic species.
PMID : 19656940 : DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.012419-0 DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.012419-0
Streptomyces griseus and related species form the biggest but least well-defined clade in the whole Streptomyces 16S rRNA gene tree. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) has shown promising potential for refining Streptomyces systematics. In this investigation, strains of 18 additional S. griseus clade species were analysed and data from a previous pilot study were integrated in a larger MLSA phylogeny. The results demonstrated that MLSA of five housekeeping genes (atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB and trpB) is better than the previous six-gene scheme, as it provides equally good resolution and stability and is more cost-effective; MLSA using three or four of the genes also shows good resolution and robustness for differentiating most of the strains and is therefore of value for everyday use. MLSA is more suitable for discriminating strains that show >99 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) between strains with representative MLSA distances revealed a strong correlation between the data of MLSA and DDH. The 70 % DDH value for current species definition corresponds to a five-gene MLSA distance of 0.007, which could be considered as the species cut-off for the S. griseus clade. It is concluded that the MLSA procedure can be a practical, reliable and robust alternative to DDH for the identification and classification of streptomycetes at the species and intraspecies levels. Based on the data from MLSA and DDH, as well as cultural and morphological characteristics, 18 species and three subspecies of the S. griseus clade are considered to be later heterotypic synonyms of 11 genomic species: Streptomyces griseinus and Streptomyces mediolani as synonyms of Streptomyces albovinaceus; Streptomyces praecox as a synonym of Streptomyces anulatus; Streptomyces olivoviridis as a synonym of Streptomyces atroolivaceus; Streptomyces griseobrunneus as a synonym of Streptomyces bacillaris; Streptomyces cavourensis subsp. washingtonensis as a synonym of Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus; Streptomyces acrimycini, Streptomyces baarnensis, Streptomyces caviscabies and Streptomyces flavofuscus as synonyms of Streptomyces fimicarius; Streptomyces flavogriseus as a synonym of Streptomyces flavovirens; Streptomyces erumpens, 'Streptomyces ornatus' and Streptomyces setonii as synonyms of Streptomyces griseus; Streptomyces graminofaciens as a synonym of Streptomyces halstedii; Streptomyces alboviridis, Streptomyces griseus subsp. alpha, Streptomyces griseus subsp. cretosus and Streptomyces luridiscabiei as synonyms of Streptomyces microflavus; and Streptomyces californicus and Streptomyces floridae as synonyms of Streptomyces puniceus.
( 2015 )
Evolution of cyclizing 5-aminolevulinate synthases in the biosynthesis of actinomycete secondary metabolites: outcomes for genetic screening techniques.
PMID : 26300877 : DOI : 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00814 PMC : PMC4525017
A combined approach, comprising PCR screening and genome mining, was used to unravel the diversity and phylogeny of genes encoding 5-aminolevulinic acid synthases (ALASs, hemA gene products) in streptomycetes-related strains. In actinomycetes, these genes were believed to be directly connected with the production of secondary metabolites carrying the C5N unit, 2-amino-3-hydroxycyclopent-2-enone, with biological activities making them attractive for future use in medicine and agriculture. Unlike "classical" primary metabolism ALAS, the C5N unit-forming cyclizing ALAS (cALAS) catalyses intramolecular cyclization of nascent 5-aminolevulinate. Specific amino acid sequence changes can be traced by comparison of "classical" ALASs against cALASs. PCR screening revealed 226 hemA gene-carrying strains from 1,500 tested, with 87% putatively encoding cALAS. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemA homologs revealed strain clustering according to putative type of metabolic product, which could be used to select producers of specific C5N compound classes. Supporting information was acquired through analysis of actinomycete genomic sequence data available in GenBank and further genetic or metabolic characterization of selected strains. Comparison of 16S rRNA taxonomic identification and BOX-PCR profiles provided evidence for numerous horizontal gene transfers of biosynthetic genes or gene clusters within actinomycete populations and even from non-actinomycete organisms. Our results underline the importance of environmental and evolutionary data in the design of efficient techniques for identification of novel producers.
( 1997 )
Molecular detection of streptomycin-producing streptomycetes in Brazilian soils.
PMID : 9097426 : PMC : PMC168423
Actinomycetes were isolated from soybean rhizosphere soil collected as two field sites in Brazil. All the isolates were identified as Streptomyces species and were screened for streptomycin production and the presence of two genes, strA and strB1, known to be involved in streptomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseus. Antibiotic resistance profiles were determined for 53 isolates from cultivated and uncultivated sites, and approximately half the strains were streptomycin resistance. Clustering by the unweighted pair group method with averages indicated the presence of two major clusters, with the majority of resistant strains from cultivated sites being placed in cluster 1. Only representatives from this cluster contained strA. Streptomycetes containing strA and strB1 were phenotypically diverse, and only half could be assigned to known species. Sequence comparison of 16S rRNA and trpBA (tryptophan synthetase) genes revealed that streptomycin- producing streptomycetes were phylogenetically diverse. It appeared that a population of streptomycetes had colonized the rhizosphere and that a proportion of these were capable of streptomycin production.
( 1994 )
Complete nucleotide sequence of the Streptomyces nigrifaciens plasmid, pSN22: genetic organization and correlation with genetic properties.
PMID : 7991673 : DOI : 10.1006/plas.1994.1044
The complete nucleotide sequence of the multicopy, self-transmissible, broad-host-range Streptomyces plasmid pSN22, originating from Streptomyces nigrifaciens, was determined. pSN22 is a circular DNA molecule, 10,922 bp with 71.76% G + C. Computer-assisted analysis identified 10 open reading frames (ORFs); 8 of them--traA (155 amino acids [aa], traB (651 aa), traR (246 aa), spdB1 (107 aa), spdB2 (251 aa), spdB3 (70 aa), spdB4 (128 aa) and spdA (154 aa)--are involved in plasmid transfer and pock-formation. One ORF, rep (451 aa), probably encodes a replication protein similar to known replication proteins of rolling circle replicons. The four spdB genes have hydrophobic amino termini that might attach to the cytoplasmic membrane. The deduced rep proteins of pSN22 and pIJ101 are very similar, suggesting that both are derived from a recent common ancestor. The transfer regions of the two plasmids are, however, very different. The only detectable similarities between presumably analogous proteins are DNA- and NTP-binding motifs and hydrophobic regions. This suggests that two transfer regions are of separate origins.