( 2003 )
Crystal structure of the avilamycin resistance-conferring methyltransferase AviRa from Streptomyces viridochromogenes.
PMID : 12742024 : DOI : 10.1016/s0022-2836(03)00407-8
The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains is a widespread problem in contemporary medical practice and drug design. It is therefore important to elucidate the underlying mechanism in each case. The methyltransferase AviRa from Streptomyces viridochromogenes mediates resistance to the antibiotic avilamycin, which is closely related to evernimicin, an oligosaccharide antibiotic that has been used in medical studies. The structure of AviRa was determined by X-ray diffraction at 1.5A resolution. Phases were obtained from one selenomethionine residue introduced by site-directed mutagenesis. The chain-fold is similar to that of most methyltransferases, although AviRa contains two additional helices as a specific feature. A putative-binding site for the cofactor S-adenosyl-L-methionine was derived from homologous structures. It agrees with the conserved pattern of interacting amino acid residues. AviRa methylates a specific guanine base within the peptidyltransferase loop of the 23S ribosomal RNA. Guided by the target, the enzyme was docked to the cognate ribosomal surface, where it fit well into a deep cleft without contacting any ribosomal protein. The two additional alpha-helices of AviRa filled a depression in the surface. Since the transferred methyl group of the cofactor is in a pocket beneath the enzyme surface, the targeted guanine base has to flip out for methylation.
( 2003 )
The avilamycin resistance determinants AviRa and AviRb methylate 23S rRNA at the guanosine 2535 base and the uridine 2479 ribose.
PMID : 12828631 : DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2003.03558.x
Avilamycin is an orthosomycin antibiotic that has shown considerable potential for clinical use, although it is presently used as a growth promoter in animal feed. Avilamycin inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit. The ribosomes of the producer strain, Streptomyces viridochromogenes T?57, are protected from the drug by the action of three resistance factors located in the avilamycin biosynthetic gene cluster. Two of the resistance factors, aviRa and aviRb, encode rRNA methyltransferases that specifically target 23S rRNA. Recombinant AviRa and AviRb proteins retain their activity after purification, and both specifically methylate in vitro transcripts of 23S rRNA domain V. Reverse transcriptase primer extension indicated that AviRa is an N-methyltransferase that targets G2535 within helix 91 of the rRNA, whereas AviRb modified the 2'-O-ribose position of nucleotide U2479 within helix 89. MALDI mass spectrometry confirmed the exact positions of each of these modifications, and additionally established that a single methyl group is added at each nucleotide. Neither of these two nucleotides have previously been described as a target for enzymatic methylation. Molecular models of the 50S subunit crystal structure show that the N-1 of the G2535 base and the 2'-hydroxyl of U2479 are separated by approximately 10 A, a distance that can be spanned by avilamycin. In addition to defining new resistance mechanisms, these data refine our understanding of the probable ribosome contacts made by orthosomycins and of how these antibiotics inhibit protein synthesis.
( 2001 )
The phosphinomethylmalate isomerase gene pmi, encoding an aconitase-like enzyme, is involved in the synthesis of phosphinothricin tripeptide in Streptomyces viridochromogenes.
PMID : 11472937 : DOI : 10.1128/AEM.67.8.3603-3609.2001 PMC : PMC93061
Streptomyces viridochromogenes T?494 produces the antibiotic phosphinothricin tripeptide (PTT). In the postulated biosynthetic pathway, one reaction, the isomerization of phosphinomethylmalate, resembles the aconitase reaction of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. It was speculated that this reaction is carried out by the corresponding enzyme of the primary metabolism (C. J. Thompson and H. Seto, p. 197-222, in L. C. Vining and C. Stuttard, ed., Genetics and Biochemistry of Antibiotic Production, 1995). However, in addition to the TCA cycle aconitase gene, a gene encoding an aconitase-like protein (the phosphinomethylmalate isomerase gene, pmi) was identified in the PTT biosynthetic gene cluster by Southern hybridization experiments, using oligonucleotides which were derived from conserved amino acid sequences of aconitases. The deduced protein revealed high similarity to aconitases from plants, bacteria, and fungi and to iron regulatory proteins from eucaryotes. Pmi and the S. viridochromogenes TCA cycle aconitase, AcnA, have 52% identity. By gene insertion mutagenesis, a pmi mutant (Mapra1) was generated. The mutant failed to produce PTT, indicating the inability of AcnA to carry out the secondary-metabolism reaction. A His-tagged protein (Hispmi*) was heterologously produced in Streptomyces lividans. The purified protein showed no standard aconitase activity with citrate as a substrate, and the corresponding gene was not able to complement an acnA mutant. This indicates that Pmi and AcnA are highly specific for their respective enzymatic reactions.
( 2001 )
An ATP-binding cassette transporter and two rRNA methyltransferases are involved in resistance to avilamycin in the producer organism Streptomyces viridochromogenes T?57.
PMID : 11181344 : DOI : 10.1128/AAC.45.3.690-695.2001 PMC : PMC90357
Three different resistance factors from the avilamycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces viridochromogenes T?57, which confer avilamycin resistance when expressed in Streptomyces lividans TK66, were isolated. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that AviABC1 is similar to a large family of ATP-binding transporter proteins and that AviABC2 resembles hydrophobic transmembrane proteins known to act jointly with the ATP-binding proteins. The deduced amino acid sequence of aviRb showed similarity to those of other rRNA methyltransferases, and AviRa did not resemble any protein in the databases. Independent expression in S. lividans TK66 of aviABC1 plus aviABC2, aviRa, or aviRb conferred different levels of resistance to avilamycin: 5, 10, or 250 microg/ml, respectively. When either aviRa plus aviRb or aviRa plus aviRb plus aviABC1 plus aviABC2 was coexpressed in S. lividans TK66, avilamycin resistance levels reached more than 250 microg/ml. Avilamycin A inhibited poly(U)-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis in an in vitro system using ribosomes of S. lividans TK66(pUWL201) (GWO), S. lividans TK66(pUWL201-Ra) (GWRa), or S. lividans TK66(pUWL201-Rb) (GWRb), whereas ribosomes of S. lividans TK66 containing pUWL201-Ra+Rb (GWRaRb) were highly resistant. aviRa and aviRb were expressed in Escherichia coli, and both enzymes were purified as fusion proteins to near homogeneity. Both enzymes showed rRNA methyltransferase activity using a mixture of 16S and 23S rRNAs from E. coli as the substrate. Coincubation experiments revealed that the enzymes methylate different positions of rRNA.
( 1999 )
Inactivation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle aconitase gene from Streptomyces viridochromogenes T?494 impairs morphological and physiological differentiation.
PMID : 10559181 : PMC : PMC94190
The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle aconitase gene acnA from Streptomyces viridochromogenes T?494 was cloned and analyzed. AcnA catalyzes the isomerization of citrate to isocitrate in the TCA cycle, as indicated by the ability of acnA to complement the aconitase-deficient Escherichia coli mutant JRG3259. An acnA mutant was unable to develop aerial mycelium and to sporulate, resulting in a bald phenotype. Furthermore, the mutant did not produce the antibiotic phosphinothricin tripeptide, demonstrating that AcnA also affects physiological differentiation.
( 1992 )
Identification and characterization of phosphinothricin-tripeptide biosynthetic genes in Streptomyces viridochromogenes.
PMID : 1612426 : DOI : 10.1016/0378-1119(92)90550-9
A 4-kb BamHI fragment of Streptomyces viridochromogenes T?494 carrying phosphinothricin-tripeptide (PTT) biosynthetic genes has been identified by complementation of a nonproducing mutant which is defective in the tripeptide formation step. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed one incomplete and three complete genes on the cloned fragment. The incomplete gene ('pms) codes for the C terminus of the phosphinomethylmalic acid synthase as determined by comparison with a region from the bialaphos biosynthetic cluster [Shimotohno et al., Agric. Biol. Chem. 54 (1990) 463-470] and with databases. Subcloning experiments showed that the juxtaposing phsA gene is sufficient to restore productivity of the blocked mutant. Analysis of gene disruption and gene replacement mutants confirmed that phsA specifies an enzyme involved in tripeptide formation. Similarities to peptide synthetases indicate that the condensation step follows a thio-template mechanism. A conserved region located in the C terminus of the PhsA protein showed identity to 4'-phosphopantetheine-binding sites of fatty acid and polyketide synthases. In the N terminus, a typical acyl transfer motif has been identified and this may be involved in transthiolation. A similar motif also appears in the deduced product of the third gene (dea), which probably catalyses the deacetylation of N-acetyl-PTT to PTT. The previously described PTT resistance-encoding gene (pat) was located between the phsA and the dea genes.
( 2005 )
Molecular cloning, sequence analysis, and heterologous expression of the phosphinothricin tripeptide biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces viridochromogenes DSM 40736.
PMID : 15616300 : DOI : 10.1128/AAC.49.1.230-240.2005 PMC : PMC538901
A fosmid library from genomic DNA of Streptomyces viridochromogenes DSM 40736 was constructed and screened for the presence of genes known to be involved in the biosynthesis of phosphinothricin tripeptide (PTT). Eight positives were identified, one of which was able to confer PTT biosynthetic capability upon Streptomyces lividans after integration of the fosmid into the chromosome of this heterologous host. Sequence analysis of the 40,241-bp fosmid insert revealed 29 complete open reading frames (ORFs). Deletion analysis demonstrated that a minimum set of 24 ORFs were required for PTT production in the heterologous host. Sequence analysis revealed that most of these PTT genes have been previously identified in either S. viridochromogenes or S. hygroscopicus (or both), although only 11 out of 24 of these ORFs have experimentally defined functions. Three previously unknown genes within the cluster were identified and are likely to have roles in the stepwise production of phosphonoformate from phosphonoacetaldehyde. This is the first report detailing the entire PTT gene cluster from any producing streptomycete.
( 2004 )
Biosynthetic gene cluster of the herbicide phosphinothricin tripeptide from Streptomyces viridochromogenes T?494.
PMID : 15574905 : DOI : 10.1128/AEM.70.12.7093-7102.2004 PMC : PMC535184
The antibiotic phosphinothricin tripeptide (PTT) consists of two molecules of L-alanine and one molecule of the unusual amino acid phosphinothricin (PT) which are nonribosomally combined. The bioactive compound PT has bactericidal, fungicidal, and herbicidal properties and possesses a C-P-C bond, which is very rare in natural compounds. Previously uncharacterized flanking and middle regions of the PTT biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces viridochromogenes T?494 were isolated and sequenced. The boundaries of the gene cluster were identified by gene inactivation studies. Sequence analysis and homology searches led to the completion of the gene cluster, which consists of 24 genes. Four of these were identified as undescribed genes coding for proteins that are probably involved in uncharacterized early steps of antibiotic biosynthesis or in providing precursors of PTT biosynthesis (phosphoenolpyruvate, acetyl-coenzyme A, or L-alanine). The involvement of the genes orfM and trs and of the regulatory gene prpA in PTT biosynthesis was analyzed by gene inactivation and overexpression, respectively. Insight into the regulation of PTT was gained by determining the transcriptional start sites of the pmi and prpA genes. A previously undescribed regulatory gene involved in morphological differentiation in streptomycetes was identified outside of the left boundary of the PTT biosynthetic gene cluster.
( 2005 )
Structure and function of the antibiotic resistance-mediating methyltransferase AviRb from Streptomyces viridochromogenes.
PMID : 15581897 : DOI : 10.1016/j.jmb.2004.10.051
The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains is a widespread problem in medical practice and drug design, and each case requires the elucidation of the underlying mechanism. AviRb from Streptomyces viridochromogenes methylates the 2'-O atom of U2479 of the 23S ribosomal RNA in Gram-positive bacteria and thus mediates resistance to the oligosaccharide (orthosomycin) antibiotic avilamycin. The structure of AviRb with and without bound cofactor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) was determined, showing that it is a homodimer belonging to the SpoU family within the SPOUT class of methyltransferases. The relationships within this class were analyzed in detail and, in addition, a novel fourth SpoU sequence fingerprint is proposed. Each subunit of AviRb consists of two domains. The N-terminal domain, being related to the ribosomal proteins L30 and L7Ae, is likely to bind RNA. The C-terminal domain is related to all SPOUT methyltransferases, and is responsible for AdoMet-binding, catalysis and dimerization. The cofactor binds at the characteristic knot of the polypeptide in an unusually bent conformation. The transferred methyl group points to a broad cleft formed with the L30-type domain of the other subunit. Measurements of mutant activity revealed four important residues responsible for catalysis and allowed the modeling of a complex between AviRb and the RNA target. The model includes a specificity pocket for uracil but does not contain a base for deprotonating the 2'-O atom of U2479 on methylation.
( 1990 )
Overexpression of a Streptomyces viridochromogenes gene (glnII) encoding a glutamine synthetase similar to those of eucaryotes confers resistance against the antibiotic phosphinothricyl-alanyl-alanine.
PMID : 1975583 : DOI : 10.1128/jb.172.9.5326-5334.1990 PMC : PMC213196
Phosphinothricyl-alanyl-alanine (PTT), also known as bialaphos, contains phosphinothricin, a potent inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS). A 2.75-kilobase NcoI fragment of the Streptomyces viridochromogenes PTT-resistant mutant ES2 cloned on a multicopy vector mediated PTT resistance to S. lividans and to S. viridochromogenes. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 2.75-kb NcoI fragment revealed the presence of three open reading frames. Open reading frame 3 was termed glnII since significant similarity was found between its deduced amino acid sequence and those from GS of eucaryotes and GSII of members of the family Rhizobiaceae. Subcloning experiments showed that PTT resistance is mediated by overexpression of glnII encoding a 37.3-kilodalton protein of 343 amino acids. A three- to fourfold increase in gamma-glutamyltransferase activity could be observed in S. lividans transformants carrying the glnII gene on a multicopy plasmid. For S. viridochromogenes it was shown that PTT resistance conferred by the 2.75-kb NcoI fragment was dependent on its multicopy state. GS activity encoded by glnII was found to be heat labile. Southern hybridization with seven different Streptomyces strains suggested that they all carry two types of GS genes, glnA and glnII.
van der Donk WA,
( 2007 )
Unusual transformations in the biosynthesis of the antibiotic phosphinothricin tripeptide.
PMID : 17632514 : DOI : 10.1038/nchembio.2007.9 PMC : PMC4313788
Phosphinothricin tripeptide (PTT, phosphinothricylalanylalanine) is a natural-product antibiotic and potent herbicide that is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus ATCC 21705 (ref. 1) and Streptomyces viridochromogenes DSM 40736 (ref. 2). PTT has attracted widespread interest because of its commercial applications and unique phosphinic acid functional group. Despite intensive study since its discovery in 1972 (see ref. 3 for a comprehensive review), a number of steps early in the PTT biosynthetic pathway remain uncharacterized. Here we report a series of interdisciplinary experiments involving the construction of defined S. viridochromogenes mutants, chemical characterization of accumulated intermediates, and in vitro assay of selected enzymes to examine these critical steps in PTT biosynthesis. Our results indicate that early PTT biosynthesis involves a series of catalytic steps that to our knowledge has not been described so far, including a highly unusual reaction for carbon bond cleavage. In sum, we define a pathway for early PTT biosynthesis that is more complex than previously appreciated.
( 2011 )
Evaluation of the use of recN sequence analysis in the phylogeny of the genus Amycolatopsis.
PMID : 21671192 : DOI : 10.1007/s10482-011-9604-z
Partial recN gene sequences (>1 kb) were obtained from 35 type strains of the genus Amycolatopsis. Phylogenetic trees were constructed to determine the effectiveness of using this gene to predict taxonomic relationships within the genus. The use of recN sequence analysis as an alternative to DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) for distinguishing closely related species was also assessed. The recN based phylogeny mostly confirmed the conventional 16S rRNA and gyrB gene-based phylogenies and thus provides further support for these phylogenetic groupings. As is the case for the gyrB gene, pairwise recN sequence similarities cannot be used to predict the DNA relatedness between type strains but the recN genetic distance can be used as a means to assess quickly whether an isolate is likely to represent a new species in the genus Amycolatopsis. A recN genetic distance of >0.04 between two Amycolatopsis strains is proposed to provide a good indication that they belong to different species (and that polyphasic taxonomic characterization of the unknown strain is worth undertaking).
( 2011 )
Molecular cloning and identification of the laspartomycin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces viridochromogenes.
PMID : 21640802 : DOI : 10.1016/j.gene.2011.05.005 PMC : PMC3391544
The biosynthetic gene cluster for laspartomycins, a family of 11 amino acid peptide antibiotics, has been cloned and sequenced from Streptomyces viridochromogenes ATCC 29814. Annotation of a segment of 88912bp of S. viridochromogenes genomic sequence revealed the putative lpm cluster and its flanking regions which harbor 43 open reading frames. The lpm cluster, which spans approximately 60 kb, consists of 21 open reading frames. Those include four NRPS genes (lpmA/orf18, lpmB/orf25, lpmC/orf26 and lpmD/orf27), four genes (orfs 21, 22, 24 and 29) involved in the lipid tail biosynthesis and attachment, four regulatory genes (orfs 13, 19, 32 and 33) and three putative exporters or self-resistance genes (orfs 14, 20 and 30). In addition, the gene involved in the biosynthesis of the nonproteinogenic amino acid Pip was also identified in the lpm cluster while the genes necessary for the biosynthesis of the rare residue diaminopropionic acid (Dap) were found to reside elsewhere on the chromosome. Interestingly, the dabA, dabB and dabC genes predicted to code for the biosynthesis of the unusual amino acid diaminobutyric acid (Dab) are organized into the lpm cluster even though the Dab residue was not found in the laspartomycins. Disruption of the NRPS lpmC gene completely abolished laspartomycin production in the corresponding mutant strain. These findings will allow molecular engineering and combinatorial biosynthesis approaches to expand the structural diversity of the amphomycin-group peptide antibiotics including the laspartomycins and friulimicins.
( 1996 )
The peptide synthetase gene phsA from Streptomyces viridochromogenes is not juxtaposed with other genes involved in nonribosomal biosynthesis of peptides.
PMID : 8593056 : PMC : PMC167821
By complementation of a previously described non-phosphinothricin tripeptide (PTT)-producing mutant, NTG1, which is blocked in nonribosomal synthesis of the peptide, a DNA fragment including the putative peptide synthetase gene phsA was isolated (W. Wohlleben, R. Alijah, J. Dorendorf, D. Hillemann, B. Nussbaumer, and S. Pelzer, Gene 115:127-132, 1992). Sequence analysis of phsA revealed that it encodes a protein of 622 amino acids with regions which are highly similar to core motifs characteristic for peptide synthetases. PhsA represents one functional domain of a peptide synthetase which is necessary for activation and condensation of one amino acid, probably N-acetyl-demethyl-phosphinothricin. With regard to the arrangement of the flanking genes, phsA is the first peptide synthetase gene which is not in the direct neighborhood of additional peptide synthetase genes involved in the formation of peptide antibiotics. Gene disruption mutants with internal fragments of phsA subcloned in temperature-sensitive pGM vectors were generated. Integration occurred either into the chromosomal copy of phsA or into a gene outside the known phsA locus, resulting in two classes of non-PTT-producing mutants. In cofeeding experiments the former phsA mutants showed the same phenotype as did NTG1, which confirmed participation of phsA in nonribosomal synthesis of PTT. A truncated phsA gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the resulting protein of 593 amino acids was purified for raising antibodies. By performing immunoblotting experiments, the expression of phsA could be detected in Streptomyces viridochromogenes T?494 in the stationary-growth phase after 4 days of incubation.
( 1993 )
Evolution of the glutamine synthetase gene, one of the oldest existing and functioning genes.
PMID : 8096645 : DOI : 10.1073/pnas.90.7.3009 PMC : PMC46226
We performed molecular phylogenetic analyses of glutamine synthetase (GS) genes in order to investigate their evolutionary history. The analyses were done on 30 DNA sequences of the GS gene which included both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Two types of GS genes are known at present: the GSI gene found so far only in prokaryotes and the GSII gene found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Our study has shown that the two types of GS gene were produced by a gene duplication which preceded, perhaps by > 1000 million years, the divergence of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The results are consistent with the facts that (i) GS is a key enzyme of nitrogen metabolism found in all extant life forms and (ii) the oldest biological fossils date back 3800 million years. Thus, we suggest that GS genes are one of the oldest existing and functioning genes in the history of gene evolution and that GSI genes should also exist in eukaryotes. Furthermore, our study may stimulate investigation on the evolution of "preprokaryotes," by which we mean the organisms that existed during the era between the origin of life and the divergence of prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
( 1981 )
A family of r-determinants in Streptomyces spp. that specifies inducible resistance to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin type B antibiotics.
PMID : 6163765 : PMC : PMC217005
Inducible resistance to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin type B antibiotics in Streptomyces spp. comprises a family of diverse phenotypes in which characteristic subsets of the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin antibiotics induce resistance mediated by mono- or dimethylation of adenine, or both, in 23S ribosomal ribonucleic acid. In these studies, diverse patterns of induction specificity in Streptomyces and associated ribosomal ribonucleic acid changes are described. In Streptomyces fradiae NRRL 2702 erythromycin induced resistance to vernamycin B, whereas in Streptomyces hygroscopicus IFO 12995, the reverse was found: vernamycin B induced resistance to erythromycin. In a Streptomyces viridochromogenes (NRRL 2860) model system studied in detail, tylosin induced resistance to erythromycin associated with N6-monomethylation of 23S ribosomal ribonucleic acid, whereas in Staphylococcus aureus, erythromycin induced resistance to tylosin mediated by N6-dimethylation of adenine. Inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin resistance was found in S. fradiae NRRL 2702 and S. hygroscopicus IFO 12995, which synthesize the macrolides tylosin and maridomycin, respectively, as well as in the lincosamide producer Streptomyces lincolnensis NRRL 2936 and the streptogramin type B producer Streptomyces diastaticus NRRL 2560. A wide range of different macrolides including chalcomycin, tylosin, and cirramycin induced resistance when tested in an appropriate system. Lincomycin was active as inducer in S. lincolnensis, the organism by which it is produced, and streptogramin type B antibiotics induced resistance in S. fradiae, S. hygroscopicus, and the streptogramin type B producer S. diastaticus. Patterns of adenine methylation found included (i) lincomycin-induced monomethylation in S. lincolnensis (and constitutive monomethylation in a mutant selected with maridomycin), (ii) concurrent equimolar levels of adenine mono- plus dimethylation in S. hygroscopicus, (iii) monomethylation in S. fradiae (and dimethylation in a mutant selected with erythromycin), and (iv) adenine dimethylation in S. diastaticus induced by ostreogrycin B.
( 1988 )
Nucleotide sequence of the phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase gene from Streptomyces viridochromogenes T?494 and its expression in Nicotiana tabacum.
PMID : 3240868 : DOI : 10.1016/0378-1119(88)90101-1
The phosphinothricin (Pt) N-acetyltransferase gene (pat) of Streptomyces viridochromogenes T?494 is located on a 0.8-kb BglII fragment [Strauch et al., Gene 63 (1988) 65-74]. By sequencing a 1.3-kb BglII-SstII fragment, an open reading frame representing the pat gene was found. It encodes a polypeptide of 183 amino acids with an Mr of 20,621. The base composition of the pat gene is typical for Streptomyces [70.1 mol% (G + C) in total and 93.5 mol% (G + C) in the third position]. Translation of pat is initiated by a GTG codon which was identified by frameshift mutations in Escherichia coli as well as in Streptomyces lividans. Significant homology of the pat gene was found to the bialaphos-resistance gene (bar) of Streptomyces hygroscopicus [Thompson et al., EMBO J. 9 (1987) 2519-2523]. However, variations were detected in the 5'-noncoding region of the two resistance genes which may reflect differences in regulation. Since Pt is a potent herbicide, the pat gene was modified and introduced into Nicotiana tabacum by Agrobacterium-mediated leaf-disc transformation. The GTG start codon of pat was replaced by ATG. Subsequently the modified pat-coding region was fused to the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus. Transgenic plants could directly be selected on Pt-containing medium.
( 1998 )
Isolation and characterization of the PEP-phosphomutase and the phosphonopyruvate decarboxylase genes from the phosphinothricin tripeptide producer Streptomyces viridochromogenes T?494.
PMID : 9673017 : DOI : 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1998.tb13039.x
The previously isolated non-phosphinothricin tripeptide producing Streptomyces viridochromogenes gene disruption mutant SP62/2 was used to identify and analyze genes encoding early steps of the phosphinothricin tripeptide biosynthesis. Cross-feeding and bioconversion experiments between SP62/2 and known non-phosphinothricin tripeptide producing mutants or presumptive phosphinothricin tripeptide precursors revealed that SP62/2 was blocked in step one or two of the phosphinothricin tripeptide biosynthesis. It was shown that the block in the biosynthesis is due to the integration of a temperature-sensitive plasmid by illegitimate recombination into the phosphinothricin tripeptide biosynthetic gene cluster. The corresponding region was isolated from the wild-type. A 2.7-kb DNA fragment was analyzed comprising three ORFs (ppm, ppd, orfX) which are probably translationally coupled. The ppm gene encodes a protein which is similar to PEP-phosphomutases and the deduced Ppd product shows similarity to the phosphonopyruvate decarboxylase from Streptomyces wedmorensis.