( 2005 )
Spectinomycin resistance in rpsE mutants is recessive in Streptomyces roseosporus.
PMID : 15981417 : DOI : 10.1038/ja.2005.35
Eight spontaneous mutants of Streptomyces roseosporus resistant to spectinomycin (SpcR) were mapped to distinct transversions or deletions in the rpsE gene. Most of the mutations were strongly recessive to the wild type SpcS allele. This suggests that some SpcR alleles of rpsE may be useful in a spectinomycin based counter-selection system.
( 2005 )
Daptomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces roseosporus: cloning and analysis of the gene cluster and revision of peptide stereochemistry.
PMID : 15870461 : DOI : 10.1099/mic.0.27757-0
Daptomycin is a 13 amino acid, cyclic lipopeptide produced by a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) mechanism in Streptomyces roseosporus. A 128 kb region of S. roseosporus DNA was cloned and verified by heterologous expression in Streptomyces lividans to contain the daptomycin biosynthetic gene cluster (dpt). The cloned region was completely sequenced and three genes (dptA, dptBC, dptD) encoding the three subunits of an NRPS were identified. The catalytic domains in the subunits, predicted to couple five, six or two amino acids, respectively, included a novel activation domain and amino-acid-binding pocket for incorporating the unusual amino acid l-kynurenine (Kyn), three types of condensation domains and an extra epimerase domain (E-domain) in the second module. Novel genes (dptE, dptF) whose products likely work in conjunction with a unique condensation domain to acylate the first amino acid, as well as other genes (dptI, dptJ) probably involved in supply of the non-proteinogenic amino acids l-3-methylglutamic acid and Kyn, were located next to the NRPS genes. The unexpected E-domain suggested that daptomycin would have d-Asn, rather than l-Asn, as originally assigned, and this was confirmed by comparing stereospecific synthetic peptides and the natural product both chemically and microbiologically.
( 2016 )
DepR1, a TetR Family Transcriptional Regulator, Positively Regulates Daptomycin Production in an Industrial Producer, Streptomyces roseosporus SW0702.
PMID : 26773081 : DOI : 10.1128/AEM.03002-15 PMC : PMC4784024
Daptomycin is a potent cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic. It is widely used against various Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. Historically, a poor understanding of the transcriptional regulation of daptomycin biosynthesis has limited the options for targeted genetic engineering toward titer improvement. Here, we isolated a TetR family transcriptional regulator, DepR1, from the industrial producer Streptomyces roseosporus SW0702 using a biotinylated dptE promoter (dptEp) as a probe. The direct interaction between DepR1 and dptEp then was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting assays. The deletion of depR1 led to a reduction in dptEp activity and the cessation of daptomycin production. The �GdepR1 mutant produced less red pigment and failed to sporulate on R5 medium. This suggests that DepR1 plays a positive role in the control of morphological differentiation. Moreover, DepR1 was positively autoregulated by directly binding to its own promoter. This might account for the positive feedback regulation of daptomycin production. Based on these positive effects, genetic engineering by overexpression of depR1 raised daptomycin production and shortened the fermentation period both in flask and in fermentor.
( 2015 )
Transcriptional regulation of the daptomycin gene cluster in Streptomyces roseosporus by an autoregulator, AtrA.
PMID : 25648897 : DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M114.608273 PMC : PMC4367297
Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces roseosporus. To reveal the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of daptomycin biosynthesis, we used the biotinylated dptE promoter (dptEp) as a probe to affinity isolate the dptEp-interactive protein AtrA, a TetR family transcriptional regulator, from the proteome of mycelia. AtrA bound directly to dptEp to positively regulate gene cluster expression and daptomycin production. Meanwhile, both �GatrA and �GadpA mutants showed bald phenotype and null production of daptomycin. AdpA positively regulated atrA expression by direct interaction with atrA promoter (atrAp), and removal of ArpA in S. roseosporus, a homolog of the A-factor receptor, resulted in accelerated morphological development and increased daptomycin production, suggesting that atrA was the target of AdpA to mediate the A-factor signaling pathway. Furthermore, AtrA was positively autoregulated by binding to its own promoter atrAp. Thus, for the first time at the transcriptional level, we have identified an autoregulator, AtrA, that directly mediates the A-factor signaling pathway to regulate the proper production of daptomycin.
( 2014 )
DptR2, a DeoR-type auto-regulator, is required for daptomycin production in Streptomyces roseosporus.
PMID : 24768321 : DOI : 10.1016/j.gene.2014.04.044
Daptomycin, a novel cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic against Gram-positive bacteria, is produced by Streptomyces roseosporus. Though its biosynthetic mechanism, structural shuffling and fermentation optimization have been extensively studied, little is understood about its production regulation at the transcriptional levels. Here we reported that dptR2, encoding a DeoR-type regulator located close to the daptomycin biosynthesis gene cluster in S. roseosporus SW0702, is required for daptomycin production, but not for the expression of daptomycin gene cluster, suggesting that DptR2 was not a pathway-specific regulator. Furthermore, EMSA and qRT-PCR analysis suggested that DptR2 was positively auto-regulated by binding to its own promoter. Meanwhile, the binding sites on the dptR2 promoter were determined by a DNase I footprinting assay, and the essentiality of the inverted complementary sequences in the protected region for DptR2 binding was assessed. Our results for the first time reported the regulation of daptomycin production at the transcriptional level in S. roseosporus.
( 1996 )
Mutants of Streptomyces roseosporus that express enhanced recombination within partially homologous genes.
PMID : 8885396 : DOI : 10.1099/13500872-142-10-2803
Streptomyces roseosporus mutants that express enhanced recombination between partially homologous (homeologous) sequences were isolated by selection for recombination between the bacteriophage phi C31 derivative KC570 containing the Streptomyces coelicolor glucose kinase (glk) gene and the S. roseosporus chromosome. The frequencies of homeologous recombination in the ehr mutants were determined by measuring the chromosomal insertion frequencies of plasmids containing S. coelicolor glnA or whiG genes. S. roseosporus ehr mutants showed 10(2)- to 10(4)-fold increases in homeologous recombination relative to Ehr+ strains, but no increase in homologous recombination. Southern hybridization analysis revealed single unique sites for the insertion of each of the plasmids, and the crossovers occurred in frame and in proper translational register, yielding functional chimeric glnA and whiG genes.
( 1997 )
Use of rpsL for dominance selection and gene replacement in Streptomyces roseosporus.
PMID : 8981996 : DOI : 10.1128/jb.179.1.180-186.1997 PMC : PMC178677
We developed a gene replacement system using the rpsL gene of Streptomyces roseosporus and demonstrated its utility by constructing a deletion in the S. roseosporus glnA gene. A 1.3-kb BamHI fragment that hybridized to the Mycobacterium smegmatis rpsL gene was subcloned from an S. roseosporus cosmid library and sequenced. Plasmid pRHB514 containing the rpsL gene conferred streptomycin sensitivity (Sm(S)) to the Sm(r) S. roseosporus TH149. The temperature-sensitive plasmid pRHB543 containing rpsL and the S. roseosporus glnA gene disrupted with a hygromycin resistance (Hm(r)) gene was introduced into S. roseosporus TH149, and recombinants containing single and double crossovers were obtained after a temperature increase. Southern hybridization analysis revealed that single crossovers occurred in the glnA or rpsL genes and that double crossovers resulted in replacement of the chromosomal glnA gene with the disrupted glnA. Glutamine synthetase activity was undetectable in the recombinant containing the disrupted glnA gene.
( 2018 )
Auroramycin: A Potent Antibiotic from Streptomyces roseosporus by CRISPR-Cas9 Activation.
PMID : 29799651 : DOI : 10.1002/cbic.201800266
Silent biosynthetic gene clusters represent a potentially rich source of new bioactive compounds. We report the discovery, characterization, and biosynthesis of a novel doubly glycosylated 24-membered polyene macrolactam from a silent biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces roseosporus by using the CRISPR-Cas9 gene cluster activation strategy. Structural characterization of this polyketide, named auroramycin, revealed a rare isobutyrylmalonyl extender unit and a unique pair of amino sugars. Relative and absolute stereochemistry were determined by using a combination of spectroscopic analyses, chemical derivatization, and computational analysis. The activated gene cluster for auroramycin production was also verified by transcriptional analyses and gene deletions. Finally, auroramycin exhibited potent anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (anti-MRSA) activity towards clinical drug-resistant isolates.
( 2017 )
Negative regulation of daptomycin production by DepR2, an ArsR-family transcriptional factor.
PMID : 29038911 : DOI : 10.1007/s10295-017-1983-3
Daptomycin, a lipopeptide antibiotic potently active against Gram-positive bacterial pathogens, is produced by Streptomyces roseosporus, but the transcriptional regulation on its biosynthesis is not fully understood. Here, we report that DepR2, an ArsR-family transcriptional regulator isolated previously by DNA-affinity purification, interacts directly with dptEp, the major promoter of the daptomycin gene cluster. DepR2 binds to an imperfect palindromic sequence at the very upstream of dptEp. Meanwhile, higher dptEp activities were consistently observed in the �GdepR2 mutant, correlating with a nearly 2.5-fold increased production of daptomycin and three structurally related secondary metabolites A21978C1-3. Thus, our data suggest that the ArsR-family transcriptional regulator DepR2 negatively regulates production of daptomycin by directly repressing the expression of its gene cluster in S. roseosporus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to show the involvement of an ArsR-family regulator in the direct regulation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomyces.
( 1998 )
Molecular cloning and physical mapping of the daptomycin gene cluster from Streptomyces roseosporus.
PMID : 9422604 : PMC : PMC106860
The daptomycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces roseosporus was analyzed by Tn5099 mutagenesis, molecular cloning, partial DNA sequencing, and insertional mutagenesis with cloned segments of DNA. The daptomycin biosynthetic gene cluster spans at least 50 kb and is located about 400 to 500 kb from one end of the approximately 7,100-kb linear chromosome. We identified two peptide synthetase coding regions interrupted by a 10- to 20-kb region that may encode other functions in lipopeptide biosynthesis.