( 2001 )
Molecular analysis of the grd operon coding for genes of the glycine reductase and of the thioredoxin system from Clostridium sticklandii.
PMID : 11271425 :
A probe based on the sequence of the gene encoding selenoprotein A of glycine reductase of Clostridium sticklandii was used to obtain clones of adjacent DNA that encoded the other components of glycine reductase, proteins B and C, in addition to thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase. The genes of the thioredoxin system and the glycine reductase were shown to be transcribed together, confirming an operon structure. In addition, a gene (grdX) encoding a 13.7-kDa protein of unknown function seemed to be associated with the reductase genes. Four potential promoters were identified by mapping the 5'-end of the mRNAs. The sequence of promoter P1 was shown to be similar to the sigma70 promoter consensus sequence. The other three promoters were similar to each other, but not to known promoter consensus sequences. The transcripts starting at each of the four promoters were terminated to about 80% at a predicted loop structure downstream of grdB; the remaining transcripts continued through this structure and covered the genes encoding both subunits of protein C and bmpA, a gene that was also expressed monocistronically.
( 1999 )
Identification of D-proline reductase from Clostridium sticklandii as a selenoenzyme and indications for a catalytically active pyruvoyl group derived from a cysteine residue by cleavage of a proprotein.
PMID : 10085076 : DOI : 10.1074/jbc.274.13.8445
Highly active D-proline reductase was obtained from Clostridium sticklandii by a modified purification scheme. The cytoplasmic enzyme had a molecular mass of about 870 kDa and was composed of three subunits with molecular masses of 23, 26, and 45 kDa. The 23-kDa subunit contained a carbonyl group at its N terminus, which could either be labeled with fluorescein thiosemicarbazide or removed by o-phenylenediamine; thus, N-terminal sequencing became feasible for this subunit. L-[14C]proline was covalently bound to the 23-kDa subunit if proline racemase and NaBH4 were added. Selenocysteine was detected in the 26-kDa subunit, which correlated with an observed selenium content of 10.6 g-atoms in D-proline reductase. No other non-proteinaceous cofactor was identified in the enzyme. A 4.8-kilobase pair (kb) EcoRI fragment was isolated and sequenced containing the two genes prdA and prdB. prdA coding for a 68-kDa protein was most likely translated as a proprotein that was posttranslationally cleaved at a threonine-cysteine site to give the 45-kDa subunit and most probably a pyruvoyl-containing 23-kDa subunit. The gene prdB encoded the 26-kDa subunit and contained an in frame UGA codon for selenocysteine insertion. prdA and prdB were transcribed together on a transcript of 4.5 kb; prdB was additionally transcribed as indicated by a 0.8-kb mRNA species.
Gueneau de Novoa P,
( 2004 )
The tmRNA website: reductive evolution of tmRNA in plastids and other endosymbionts.
PMID : 14681369 : DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkh102 PMC : PMC308836
tmRNA combines tRNA- and mRNA-like properties and ameliorates problems arising from stalled ribosomes. Research on the mechanism, structure and biology of tmRNA is served by the tmRNA website (http://www.indiana.edu/~ tmrna), a collection of sequences, alignments, secondary structures and other information. Because many of these sequences are not in GenBank, a BLAST server has been added; another new feature is an abbreviated alignment for the tRNA-like domain only. Many tmRNA sequences from plastids have been added, five found in public sequence data and another 10 generated by direct sequencing; detection in early-branching members of the green plastid lineage brings coverage to all three primary plastid lineages. The new sequences include the shortest known tmRNA sequence. While bacterial tmRNAs usually have a lone pseudoknot upstream of the mRNA segment and a string of three or four pseudoknots downstream, plastid tmRNAs collectively show loss of pseudoknots at both postions. The pseudoknot-string region is also too short to contain the usual pseudoknot number in another new entry, the tmRNA sequence from a bacterial endosymbiont of insect cells, Tremblaya princeps. Pseudoknots may optimize tmRNA function in free-living bacteria, yet become dispensible when the endosymbiotic lifestyle relaxes selective pressure for fast growth.
( 1995 )
Purification and characterization of threonine dehydrogenase from Clostridium sticklandii.
PMID : 7763136 :
Threonine dehydrogenase from Clostridium sticklandii has been purified 76-fold from cells grown in a defined medium to a homogeneous preparation of 234 units.mg-1 protein. Purification was obtained by chromatography on Q-Sepharose fast flow and Reactive green 19-Agarose. The native enzyme had a molecular mass of 67 kDa and consisted of two identical subunits (33 kDa each). The optimum pH for catalytic activity was 9.0. Only L-threo-threonine, DL-beta-hydroxynorvaline and acetoin were substrates; only NAD was used as the natural electron acceptor. The apparent Km values for L-threonine and NAD were 18 mM and 0.1 mM, respectively. Zn2+, Co2+ and Cu2+ ions (0.9 mM) inhibited enzyme activity. The N-terminal amino acid sequence revealed similarities to the class of non-metal short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases, whereas the threonine dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli belongs to the class of medium chain, zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenases.