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1. Hill  JE, Penny  SL, Crowell  KG, Goh  SH, Hemmingsen  SM,     ( 2004 )

cpnDB: a chaperonin sequence database.

Genome research 14 (8)
PMID : 15289485  :   DOI  :   10.1101/gr.2649204     PMC  :   PMC509277    
Abstract >>
Type I chaperonins are molecular chaperones present in virtually all bacteria, some archaea and the plastids and mitochondria of eukaryotes. Sequences of cpn60 genes, encoding 60-kDa chaperonin protein subunits (CPN60, also known as GroEL or HSP60), are useful for phylogenetic studies and as targets for detection and identification of organisms. Conveniently, a 549-567-bp segment of the cpn60 coding region can be amplified with universal PCR primers. Here, we introduce cpnDB, a curated collection of cpn60 sequence data collected from public databases or generated by a network of collaborators exploiting the cpn60 target in clinical, phylogenetic, and microbial ecology studies. The growing database currently contains approximately 2000 records covering over 240 genera of bacteria, eukaryotes, and archaea. The database also contains over 60 sequences for the archaeal Type II chaperonin (thermosome, a homolog of eukaryotic cytoplasmic chaperonin) from 19 archaeal genera. As the largest curated collection of sequences available for a protein-encoding gene, cpnDB provides a resource for researchers interested in exploiting the power of cpn60 as a diagnostic or as a target for phylogenetic or microbial ecology studies, as well as those interested in broader subjects such as lateral gene transfer and codon usage. We built cpnDB from open source tools and it is available at http://cpndb.cbr.nrc.ca.
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2. Louis  P, Duncan  SH, McCrae  SI, Millar  J, Jackson  MS, Flint  HJ,     ( 2004 )

Restricted distribution of the butyrate kinase pathway among butyrate-producing bacteria from the human colon.

Journal of bacteriology 186 (7)
PMID : 15028695  :   DOI  :   10.1128/jb.186.7.2099-2106.2004     PMC  :   PMC374397    
Abstract >>
The final steps in butyrate synthesis by anaerobic bacteria can occur via butyrate kinase and phosphotransbutyrylase or via butyryl-coenzyme A (CoA):acetate CoA-transferase. Degenerate PCR and enzymatic assays were used to assess the presence of butyrate kinase among 38 anaerobic butyrate-producing bacterial isolates from human feces that represent three different clostridial clusters (IV, XIVa, and XVI). Only four strains were found to possess detectable butyrate kinase activity. These were also the only strains to give PCR products (verifiable by sequencing) with degenerate primer pairs designed within the butyrate kinase gene or between the linked butyrate kinase/phosphotransbutyrylase genes. Further analysis of the butyrate kinase/phosphotransbutyrylase genes of one isolate, L2-50, revealed similar organization to that described previously from different groups of clostridia, along with differences in flanking sequences and phylogenetic relationships. Butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase activity was detected in all 38 strains examined, suggesting that it, rather than butyrate kinase, provides the dominant route for butyrate formation in the human colonic ecosystem that contains a constantly high concentration of acetate.
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