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1. Jian  W, Zhu  L, Dong  X,     ( 2001 )

New approach to phylogenetic analysis of the genus Bifidobacterium based on partial HSP60 gene sequences.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 51 (Pt 5)
PMID : 11594590  :   DOI  :   10.1099/00207713-51-5-1633    
Abstract >>
The partial 60 kDa heat-shock protein (HSP60) genes of 36 Bifidobacterium strains representing 30 different Bifidobacterium species and subspecies and of the type strain of Gardnerella vaginalis were cloned and sequenced using a pair of universal degenerate HSP60 PCR primers. The HSP60 DNA sequence similarities were determined for the taxa at various ranks as follows: 99.4-100% within the same species, 96% at the subspecies level, and 73-96% (mean 85%) at the interspecies level (and 98% in the case of two groups of closely related species, Bifidobacterium animalis and Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium infantis, Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium suis, whose 165 rRNA sequence similarities are all above 99%). The HSP60 DNA sequence similarities between different Bifidobacterium species and G. vaginalis, a closely related bacterium according to 16S rRNA analysis, ranged from 71 to 79% (mean 75%). Although the topology of the phylogenetic tree constructed using the HSP60 sequences determined was basically similar to that for 16S rRNA, it seemed to be more clear-cut for species delineation, and the clustering was better correlated with the DNA base composition (mol% G+C) than that of the 16S rRNA tree. In the HSP60 phylogenetic tree, all of the high-G+C (55-67 mol%) bifidobacteria were grouped into one cluster, whereas the low-G+C species Bifidobacterium inopinatum (45 mol %) formed a separate cluster with G. vaginalis (42 mol%) and Bifidobacterium denticolens (55 mol%); a Bifidobacterium species of intermediate G+C content formed another cluster between the two. This study demonstrates that the highly conserved and ubiquitous HSP60 gene is an accurate and convenient tool for phylogenetic analysis of the genus Bifidobacterium.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Phylogeny
Sequence Analysis, DNA
2. Ventura  M, Canchaya  C, Bernini  V, Del Casale  A, Dellaglio  F, Neviani  E, Fitzgerald  GF, van Sinderen  D,     ( 2005 )

Genetic characterization of the Bifidobacterium breve UCC 2003 hrcA locus.

Applied and environmental microbiology 71 (12)
PMID : 16332909  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.71.12.8998-9007.2005     PMC  :   PMC1317471    
Abstract >>
The bacterial heat shock response is characterized by the elevated expression of a number of chaperone complexes and transcriptional regulators, including the DnaJ and the HrcA proteins. Genome analysis of Bifidobacterium breve UCC 2003 revealed a second copy of a dnaJ gene, named dnaJ2, which is flanked by the hrcA gene in a genetic constellation that appears to be unique to the actinobacteria. Phylogenetic analysis using 53 bacterial dnaJ sequences, including both dnaJ1 and dnaJ2 sequences, suggests that these genes have followed a different evolutionary development. Furthermore, the B. breve UCC 2003 dnaJ2 gene seems to be regulated in a manner that is different from that of the previously characterized dnaJ1 gene. The dnaJ2 gene, which was shown to be part of a 2.3-kb bicistronic operon with hrcA, was induced by osmotic shock but not significantly by heat stress. This induction pattern is unlike those of other characterized dnaJ genes and may be indicative of a unique stress adaptation strategy by this commensal microorganism.
KeywordMeSH Terms
3. Ventura  M, Zhang  Z, Cronin  M, Canchaya  C, Kenny  JG, Fitzgerald  GF, van Sinderen  D,     ( 2005 )

The ClgR protein regulates transcription of the clpP operon in Bifidobacterium breve UCC 2003.

Journal of bacteriology 187 (24)
PMID : 16321946  :   DOI  :   10.1128/JB.187.24.8411-8426.2005     PMC  :   PMC1317013    
Abstract >>
Five clp genes (clpC, clpB, clpP1, clpP2, and clpX), representing chaperone- and protease-encoding genes, were previously identified in Bifidobacterium breve UCC 2003. In the present study, we characterize the B. breve UCC 2003 clpP locus, which consists of two paralogous genes, designated clpP1 and clpP2, whose deduced protein products display significant similarity to characterized ClpP peptidases. Transcriptional analyses showed that the clpP1 and clpP2 genes are transcribed in response to moderate heat shock as a bicistronic unit with a single promoter. The role of a clgR homologue, known to control the regulation of clpP gene expression in Streptomyces lividans and Corynebacterium glutamicum, was investigated by gel mobility shift assays and DNase I footprint experiments. We show that ClgR, which in its purified form appears to exist as a dimer, requires a proteinaceous cofactor to assist in specific binding to a 30-bp region of the clpP promoter region. In pull-down experiments, a 56-kDa protein copurified with ClgR, providing evidence that the two proteins also interact in vivo and that the copurified protein represents the cofactor required for ClgR activity. The prediction of the ClgR three-dimensional structure provides further insights into the binding mode of this protein to the clpP1 promoter region and highlights the key amino acid residues believed to be involved in the protein-DNA interaction.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Operon
4. Ventura  M, Zink  R, Fitzgerald  GF, van Sinderen  D,     ( 2005 )

Gene structure and transcriptional organization of the dnaK operon of Bifidobacterium breve UCC 2003 and application of the operon in bifidobacterial tracing.

Applied and environmental microbiology 71 (1)
PMID : 15640225  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.71.1.487-500.2005     PMC  :   PMC544267    
Abstract >>
The incorporation and delivery of bifidobacterial strains as probiotic components in many food preparations expose these microorganisms to a multitude of environmental insults, including heat and osmotic stresses. We characterized the dnaK gene region of Bifidobacterium breve UCC 2003. Sequence analysis of the dnaK locus revealed four genes with the organization dnaK-grpE-dnaJ-ORF1, whose deduced protein products display significant similarity to corresponding chaperones found in other bacteria. Northern hybridization and real-time LightCycler PCR analysis revealed that the transcription of the dnaK operon was strongly induced by osmotic shock but was not induced significantly by heat stress. A 4.4-kb polycistronic mRNA, which represented the transcript of the complete dnaK gene region, was detected. Many other small transcripts, which were assumed to have resulted from intensive processing or degradation of this polycistronic mRNA, were identified. The transcription start site of the dnaK operon was determined by primer extension. Phylogenetic analysis of the available bifidobacterial grpE and dnaK genes suggested that the evolutionary development of these genes has been similar. The phylogeny derived from the various bifidobacterial grpE and dnaK sequences is consistent with that derived from 16S rRNA. The use of these genes in bifidobacterial species as an alternative or complement to the 16S rRNA gene marker provides sequence signatures that allow a high level of discrimination between closely related species of this genus.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Adenosine Triphosphatases
Bacterial Proteins
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Molecular Chaperones
Operon
5. Ventura  M, Canchaya  C, Zink  R, Fitzgerald  GF, van Sinderen  D,     ( 2004 )

Characterization of the groEL and groES loci in Bifidobacterium breve UCC 2003: genetic, transcriptional, and phylogenetic analyses.

Applied and environmental microbiology 70 (10)
PMID : 15466567  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.70.10.6197-6209.2004     PMC  :   PMC522111    
Abstract >>
The bacterial heat shock response is characterized by the elevated expression of a number of chaperone complexes, including the GroEL and GroES proteins. The groES and groEL genes are highly conserved among eubacteria and are typically arranged as an operon. Genome analysis of Bifidobacterium breve UCC 2003 revealed that the groES and groEL genes are located in different chromosomal regions. The heat inducibility of the groEL and groES genes of B. breve UCC 2003 was verified by slot blot analysis. Northern blot analyses showed that the cspA gene is cotranscribed with the groEL gene, while the groES gene is transcribed as a monocistronic unit. The transcription initiation sites of these two mRNAs were determined by primer extension. Sequence and transcriptional analyses of the region flanking the groEL and groES genes of various bifidobacteria revealed similar groEL-cspA and groES gene units, suggesting a novel genetic organization of these chaperones. Phylogenetic analysis of the available bifidobacterial groES and groEL genes suggested that these genes evolved differently. Discrepancies in the phylogenetic positioning of groES-based trees make this gene an unreliable molecular marker. On the other hand, the bifidobacterial groEL gene sequences can be used as an alternative to current methods for tracing Bifidobacterium species, particularly because they allow a high level of discrimination between closely related species of this genus.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
6. Ventura  M, Canchaya  C, van Sinderen  D, Fitzgerald  GF, Zink  R,     ( 2004 )

Bifidobacterium lactis DSM 10140: identification of the atp (atpBEFHAGDC) operon and analysis of its genetic structure, characteristics, and phylogeny.

Applied and environmental microbiology 70 (5)
PMID : 15128574  :   DOI  :   10.1128/aem.70.5.3110-3121.2004     PMC  :   PMC404453    
Abstract >>
The atp operon is highly conserved among eubacteria, and it has been considered a molecular marker as an alternative to the 16S rRNA gene. PCR primers were designed from the consensus sequences of the atpD gene to amplify partial atpD sequences from 12 Bifidobacterium species and nine Lactobacillus species. All PCR products were sequenced and aligned with other atpD sequences retrieved from public databases. Genes encoding the subunits of the F(1)F(0)-ATPase of Bifidobacterium lactis DSM 10140 (atpBEFHAGDC) were cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequences of these subunits showed significant homology with the sequences of other organisms. We identified specific sequence signatures for the genus Bifidobacterium and for the closely related taxa Bifidobacterium lactis and Bifidobacterium animalis and Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus johnsonii, which could provide an alternative to current methods for identification of lactic acid bacterial species. Northern blot analysis showed that there was a transcript at approximately 7.3 kb, which corresponded to the size of the atp operon, and a transcript at 4.5 kb, which corresponded to the atpC, atpD, atpG, and atpA genes. The transcription initiation sites of these two mRNAs were mapped by primer extension, and the results revealed no consensus promoter sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the atpD genes demonstrated that the Lactobacillus atpD gene clustered with the genera Listeria, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus and that the higher G+C content and highly biased codon usage with respect to the genome average support the hypothesis that there was probably horizontal gene transfer. The acid inducibility of the atp operon of B. lactis DSM 10140 was verified by slot blot hybridization by using RNA isolated from acid-treated cultures of B. lactis DSM 10140. The rapid increase in the level of atp operon transcripts upon exposure to low pH suggested that the ATPase complex of B. lactis DSM 10140 was regulated at the level of transcription and not at the enzyme assembly step.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Operon
7. Kim  BJ, Kim  HY, Yun  YJ, Kim  BJ, Kook  YH,     ( 2010 )

Differentiation of Bifidobacterium species using partial RNA polymerase {beta}-subunit (rpoB) gene sequences.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 60 (Pt 12)
PMID : 20061504  :   DOI  :   10.1099/ijs.0.020339-0    
Abstract >>
Partial RNA polymerase �]-subunit gene (rpoB) sequences (315 bp) were determined and used to differentiate the type strains of 23 species of the genus Bifidobacterium. The sequences were compared with those of the partial hsp60 (604 bp) and 16S rRNA genes (1475 or 1495 bp). The rpoB gene sequences showed nucleotide sequence similarities ranging from 84.1 % to 99.0 %, while the similarities of the hsp60 sequences ranged from 78.5 % to 99.7 % and the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities ranged from 89.4 % to 99.2 %. The phylogenetic trees constructed from the sequences of these three genes showed similar clustering patterns, with the exception of several species. The Bifidobacterium catenulatum-Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. pseudolongum-Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. globosum and Bifidobacterium gallinarum-Bifidobacterium pullorum-Bifidobacterium saeculare groups were more clearly differentiated in the partial rpoB and hsp60 gene sequence trees than they were in the 16S rRNA gene tree. Based on sequence similarities and tree topologies, the newly determined rpoB gene sequences are suitable molecular markers for the differentiation of species of the genus Bifidobacterium and support various other molecular tools used to determine the relationships among species of this genus.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Phylogeny
8.     ( 2013 )

Bifidobacterial succession and correlation networks in a large unselected cohort of mothers and their children.

Applied and environmental microbiology 79 (2)
PMID : 23124244  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.02359-12     PMC  :   PMC3553782    
Abstract >>
Bifidobacteria are a major microbial component of infant gut microbiota, which is believed to promote health benefits for the host and stimulate maturation of the immune system. Despite their perceived importance, very little is known about the natural development of and possible correlations between bifidobacteria in human populations. To address this knowledge gap, we analyzed stool samples from a randomly selected healthy cohort of 87 infants and their mothers with >90% of vaginal delivery and nearly 100% breast-feeding at 4 months. Fecal material was sampled during pregnancy, at 3 and 10 days, at 4 months, and at 1 and 2 years after birth. Stool samples were predicted to be rich in the species Bifidobacterium adolescentis, B. bifidum, B. dentium, B. breve, and B. longum. Due to high variation, we did not identify a clear age-related structure at the individual level. Within the population as a whole, however, there were clear age-related successions. Negative correlations between the B. longum group and B. adolescentis were detected in adults and in 1- and 2-year-old children, whereas negative correlations between B. longum and B. breve were characteristic for newborns and 4-month-old infants. The highly structured age-related development of and correlation networks between bifidobacterial species during the first 2 years of life mirrors their different or competing nutritional requirements, which in turn may be associated with specific biological functions in the development of healthy gut.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Biodiversity
Genetic Variation

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