( 2003 )
Nucleic acid-based, cultivation-independent detection of Listeria spp and genotypes of L monocytogenes.
PMID : 12648840 : DOI : 10.1016/S0928-8244(02)00456-X
Based on comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, two oligonucleotide probes for in situ detection of all members of the genus Listeria were designed. These probes allowed fast and reliable in situ detection of Listeria spp. even in complex samples like raw milk. Almost full-length iap (invasion-associated protein) gene sequences were determined for 69 Listeria monocytogenes strains of all 13 known serotypes. A comparison of these sequences revealed that the L. monocytogenes strains can be grouped into three distinct genotypes. These clusters correlate well with distinct serotypes. Thus, strains of serotypes b and d belong to genotype I, a and c to genotype II, and 4a and 4c, which are rarely isolated from humans, group together within genotype III. These results could be corroborated by further comparative sequence analysis of genes encoding two phospholipases - plcA and plcB. Based on the iap gene sequences, a highly specific and reproducible competitive PCR detection method was developed. Primer pairs targeting genotype-specific regions of the iap gene were designed. The amplification of non-specific PCR products from DNA of non-target strains was prevented by adding competitive primers. By applying this method, the rapid and reliable distinction of the three L. monocytogenes genotypes was possible.
( 2001 )
Pathogenicity islands and virulence evolution in Listeria.
PMID : 11418331 :
As in other bacterial pathogens, the virulence determinants of Listeria species are clustered in genomic islands scattered along the chromosome. This review summarizes current knowledge about the structure, distribution and role in pathogenesis of Listeria virulence loci. Hypotheses about the mode of acquisition and evolution of these loci in this group of Gram-positive bacteria are presented and discussed.
( 1999 )
The smcL gene of Listeria ivanovii encodes a sphingomyelinase C that mediates bacterial escape from the phagocytic vacuole.
PMID : 10417642 : DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2958.1999.01486.x
The ruminant pathogen Listeria ivanovii differs from Listeria monocytogenes in that it causes strong, bizonal haemolysis and a characteristic shovel-shaped co-operative haemolytic ('CAMP-like') reaction with Rhodococcus equi. We cloned the gene responsible for the differential haemolytic properties of L. ivanovii, smcL. It encodes a sphingomyelinase C (SMase) highly similar (> 50% identity) to the SMases from Staphylococcus aureus (beta-toxin), Bacillus cereus and Leptospira interrogans. smcL was transcribed monocistronically and was expressed independently of PrfA. Low-stringency Southern blots demonstrated that, within the genus Listeria, smcL was present only in L. ivanovii. We constructed an smcL knock-out mutant. Its phenotype on blood agar was identical to that of L. monocytogenes (i.e. weak haemolysis and no shovel-shaped CAMP-like reaction with R. equi). This mutant was less virulent for mice, and its intracellular proliferation was impaired in the bovine epithelial-like cell line MDBK. The role of SmcL in intracellular survival was investigated using an L. monocytogenes mutant lacking the membrane-damaging determinants hly, plcA and plcB, being thus unable to grow intracellularly. Complementation of this mutant with smcL on a plasmid was sufficient to promote bacterial intracellular proliferation in MDBK cells. Transmission electron microscopy showed that SmcL mediates the disruption of the phagocytic vacuole and the release of bacteria into the cytosol. Therefore, L. ivanovii possesses a third phospholipase with membrane-damaging activity that, together with PlcA and PlcB, may act in concert with the pore-forming toxin Hly to mediate efficient escape from the vacuolar compartment. The 5' end of smcL is contiguous with the internalin locus i-inlFE, which is also specific to L. ivanovii and is required for full virulence in mice. Thus, smcL forms part of a novel virulence gene cluster in Listeria that is species specific.
( 1992 )
Cloning of a superoxide dismutase gene from Listeria ivanovii by functional complementation in Escherichia coli and characterization of the gene product.
PMID : 1736100 : DOI : 10.1007/bf00279805
A gene encoding superoxide dismutase (EC 22.214.171.124., SOD) was isolated from a plasmid library of chromosomal DNA from Listeria ivanovii by functional complementation of an SOD-negative Escherichia coli host. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned gene was determined and contained an open reading frame which codes for a protein of 202 amino acid residues (calculated molecular weight 22755 Da including the amino-terminal methionine residue). Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of L. ivanovii SOD with previously reported SOD amino acid sequences revealed considerable homologies with Fe- and Mn-dependent SODs. Enzymatic analyses using cell lysates and the purified recombinant enzyme indicated that this SOD is manganese-dependent. The recombinant SOD accounted for up to 30% of the total soluble protein in recombinant E. coli and protected sodA sodB mutants against the toxic effects of paraquat. Subunits of the recombinant Listeria SOD and of both E. coli SODs formed enzymatically active hybrids in vivo.
( 2006 )
A spontaneous genomic deletion in Listeria ivanovii identifies LIPI-2, a species-specific pathogenicity island encoding sphingomyelinase and numerous internalins.
PMID : 16390439 : DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2005.04955.x
Listeria ivanovii differs from the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in that it specifically affects ruminants, causing septicaemia and abortion but not meningo-encephalitis. The genetic characterization of spontaneous L. ivanovii mutants lacking the virulence factor SmcL (sphingomyelinase) led us to identify LIPI-2, the first species-specific pathogenicity island from Listeria. Besides SmcL, this 22 kb chromosomal locus encodes 10 internalin (Inl) proteins: i-InlB1 and -B2 are large/surface-associated Inls similar to L. monocytogenes InlB; i-InlE to -L are small/excreted (SE)-Inls, i-InlG being a tandem fusion of two SE-Inls. Except i-inlB1, all LIPI-2 inl genes are controlled by the virulence regulator, PrfA. LIPI-2 is inserted into a tRNA locus and is unstable - half of it deleting at approximately 10(-4) frequency with a portion of contiguous DNA. The spontaneous mutants were attenuated in vivo in mice and lambs and showed impaired intracellular growth and apoptosis induction in bovine MDBK cells. Targeted knock-out mutations associated the virulence defect with LIPI-2 genes. The region between the core genome loci ysnB-tRNA(arg) and ydeI flanking LIPI-2 contained different gene complements in the different Listeria spp. and even serovars of L. monocytogenes, including remnants of the PSA bacteriophage int gene in serovar 4b, indicating it is a hot spot for horizontal genome diversification. LIPI-2 is conserved in L. ivanovii ssp. ivanovii and londoniensis, suggesting an early acquisition during the species' evolution. LIPI-2 is likely to play an important role in the pathogenic and host tropism of L. ivanovii.
( 2005 )
Evolutionary history of the genus Listeria and its virulence genes.
PMID : 15709360 : DOI : 10.1016/j.syapm.2004.09.005
The genus Listeria contains the two pathogenic species Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii and the four apparently apathogenic species Listeria innocua, Listeria seeligeri, Listeria welshimeri, and Listeria grayi. Pathogenicity of the former two species is enabled by an approximately 9 kb virulence gene cluster which is also present in a modified form in L. seeligeri. For all Listeria species, the sequence of the virulence gene cluster locus and its flanking regions was either determined in this study or assembled from public databases. Furthermore, some virulence-associated internalin loci were compared among the six species. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on a data set containing the sequences of prs, ldh, vclA, and vclB (all directly flanking the virulence gene cluster), as well as the iap gene and the 16S and 23S-rRNA coding genes which are located at different sites in the listerial chromosomes. L. grayi represents the deepest branch within the genus. The remaining five species form two groupings which have a high bootstrap support and which are consistently found by using different treeing methods. One lineage represents L. monocytogenes and L. innocua, while the other contains L. welshimeri, L. ivanovii and L. seeligeri, with L. welshimeri forming the deepest branch. Based on this perception, we tried to reconstruct the evolution of the virulence gene cluster. Since no traces of lateral gene transfer events could be detected the most parsimonious scenario is that the virulence gene cluster was present in the common ancestor of L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. ivanovii, L. seeligeri and L. welshimeri and that the pathogenic capability has been lost in two separate events represented by L. innocua and L. welshimeri. This hypothesis is also supported by the location of the putative deletion breakpoints of the virulence gene cluster within L. innocua and L. welshimeri.
( 1992 )
Listeriolysin genes: complete sequence of ilo from Listeria ivanovii and of lso from Listeria seeligeri.
PMID : 1543752 : DOI : 10.1016/0167-4781(92)90466-d
The complete DNA sequences coding for the thiol-activated cytolysins from Listeria ivanovii, ivanolysin O (ILO) and for seeligerolysin O (LSO) from Listeria seeligeri have been determined. The deduced amino acid sequences revealed that: (i) the primary translation products comprise 528 (ILO) and 530 (LSO) amino acids, respectively, (ii) ILO contains two cysteines, LSO has a substitution in the conserved cysteine motif.
( 2004 )
PCR detection of a putative N-acetylmuramidase gene from Listeria ivanovii facilitates its rapid identification.
PMID : 15172690 : DOI : 10.1016/j.vetmic.2004.03.015
Listeria ivanovii is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that is capable of causing abortions and stillbirths in farm animals, particularly sheep and cattle. In terms of morphological, biochemical and molecular characteristics, L. ivanovii resembles other Listeria species such as L. monocytogenes, a pathogen of both man and animals. In this study, through comparative analysis of genomic DNA from the six Listeria species, a L. ivanovii specific clone (liv22-228) containing a 946 bp insert was isolated. This clone contained the 5' ends of two divergently transcribed L. ivanovii genes and an intergenic spacer region, similar in organization to homologous regions from the L. innocua and L. monocytogenes genomes. Regions of low homology in the clone were identified by comparing to the L. innocua and L. monocytogenes genomes, and oligonucleotide primers (liv22-228F and liv22-228R) were designed. These primers amplified a 463 bp band from genomic DNA of L. ivanovii strains only, but not from other Listeria species or common bacteria. Thus, PCR employing L. ivanovii specific primers (liv22-228F and liv22-228R) provides a useful and straightforward method for rapid and precise determination of L. ivanovii.
( 1992 )
The homologous and heterologous regions within the iap gene allow genus- and species-specific identification of Listeria spp. by polymerase chain reaction.
PMID : 1514809 : PMC : PMC195830
The iap gene of Listeria species encodes protein p60. The comparison of iap-related genes from different Listeria species indicated common and variable regions within these genes which appeared to be specific for each Listeria species. On the basis of the iap gene sequences, pairs of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers which allowed the unambiguous identification of all members of the genus Listeria, of groups of related Listeria species, and of L. monocytogenes, exclusively, were selected. The PCR primers specific for L. monocytogenes yielded PCR products which represented essentially the repeat region of the iap gene. The size of these PCR products allowed an estimate of the number of the TN repeat units within the repeat region of the p60 protein of an L. monocytogenes strain. The data indicated that the number of repeat units differed among L. monocytogenes isolates.
Gueneau de Novoa P,
( 2004 )
The tmRNA website: reductive evolution of tmRNA in plastids and other endosymbionts.
PMID : 14681369 : DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkh102 PMC : PMC308836
tmRNA combines tRNA- and mRNA-like properties and ameliorates problems arising from stalled ribosomes. Research on the mechanism, structure and biology of tmRNA is served by the tmRNA website (http://www.indiana.edu/~ tmrna), a collection of sequences, alignments, secondary structures and other information. Because many of these sequences are not in GenBank, a BLAST server has been added; another new feature is an abbreviated alignment for the tRNA-like domain only. Many tmRNA sequences from plastids have been added, five found in public sequence data and another 10 generated by direct sequencing; detection in early-branching members of the green plastid lineage brings coverage to all three primary plastid lineages. The new sequences include the shortest known tmRNA sequence. While bacterial tmRNAs usually have a lone pseudoknot upstream of the mRNA segment and a string of three or four pseudoknots downstream, plastid tmRNAs collectively show loss of pseudoknots at both postions. The pseudoknot-string region is also too short to contain the usual pseudoknot number in another new entry, the tmRNA sequence from a bacterial endosymbiont of insect cells, Tremblaya princeps. Pseudoknots may optimize tmRNA function in free-living bacteria, yet become dispensible when the endosymbiotic lifestyle relaxes selective pressure for fast growth.
( 1992 )
Structural and functional properties of the p60 proteins from different Listeria species.
PMID : 1459966 : DOI : 10.1128/jb.174.24.8166-8171.1992 PMC : PMC207560
The major extracellular protein p60 of Listeria monocytogenes seems to be required for this microorganism's adherence to and invasion of 3T6 mouse fibroblasts but not for adherence to human epithelial Caco-2 cells. Western blot analysis with polyclonal antibodies against p60 of L. monocytogenes indicated the presence of cross-reacting proteins in the culture supernatants of all Listeria species. Protein p60 of L. monocytogenes could restore adhesion of the L. monocytogenes mutant RIII (impaired in the synthesis of p60) to mouse fibroblasts more efficiently than that of Listeria grayi. The amino acid sequences of the p60-related proteins of L. innocua, L. ivanovii, L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri, and L. grayi indicated highly conserved regions of about 120 amino acids at both the N-terminal and the C-terminal ends. The middle portions of these proteins, consisting of about 240 amino acids, varied considerably. These parts include the repeat domain consisting of repetitions of Thr (T) and Asn (N) which was present only, albeit in different arrangements, in the p60 proteins of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua. The p60-related proteins of L. grayi, L. ivanovii, L. seeligeri, and L. welshimeri each contained an insertion of 54 amino acids which was absent in the p60 proteins of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua.
( 2010 )
LAP, an alcohol acetaldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme in Listeria, promotes bacterial adhesion to enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells only in pathogenic species.
PMID : 20507888 : DOI : 10.1099/mic.0.036509-0
Listeria adhesion protein (LAP), an alcohol acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (lmo1634), interacts with host-cell receptor Hsp60 to promote bacterial adhesion during the intestinal phase of Listeria monocytogenes infection. The LAP homologue is present in pathogens (L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovii) and non-pathogens (L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri); however, its role in non-pathogens is unknown. Sequence analysis revealed 98 % amino acid similarity in LAP from all Listeria species. The N-terminus contains acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and the C-terminus an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Recombinant LAP from L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovii, L. innocua and L. welshimeri exhibited ALDH and ADH activities, and displayed strong binding affinity (K(D) 2-31 nM) towards Hsp60. Flow cytometry, ELISA and immunoelectron microscopy revealed more surface-associated LAP in pathogens than non-pathogens. Pathogens exhibited significantly higher adhesion (P<0.05) to Caco-2 cells than non-pathogens; however, pretreatment of bacteria with Hsp60 caused 47-92 % reduction in adhesion only in pathogens. These data suggest that biochemical properties of LAP from pathogenic Listeria are similar to those of the protein from non-pathogens in many respects, such as substrate specificity, immunogenicity, and binding affinity to Hsp60. However, protein fractionation analysis of extracts from pathogenic and non-pathogenic Listeria species revealed that LAP was greatly reduced in intracellular and cell-surface protein fractions, and undetectable in the extracellular milieu of non-pathogens even though the lap transcript levels were similar for both. Furthermore, a LAP preparation from L. monocytogenes restored adhesion in a lap mutant (KB208) of L. monocytogenes but not in L. innocua, indicating possible lack of surface reassociation of LAP molecules in this bacterium. Taken together, these data suggest that LAP expression level, cell-surface localization, secretion and reassociation are responsible for LAP-mediated pathogenicity and possibly evolved to adapt to a parasitic life cycle in the host.
den Bakker HC,
( 2010 )
Listeria marthii sp. nov., isolated from the natural environment, Finger Lakes National Forest.
PMID : 19667380 : DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.014118-0
Four isolates (FSL S4-120(T), FSL S4-696, FSL S4-710, and FSL S4-965) of Gram-positive, motile, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming bacilli that were phenotypically similar to species of the genus Listeria were isolated from soil, standing water and flowing water samples obtained from the natural environment in the Finger Lakes National Forest, New York, USA. The four isolates were closely related to one another and were determined to be the same species by whole genome DNA-DNA hybridization studies (>82 % relatedness at 55 degrees C and >76 % relatedness at 70 degrees C with 0.0-0.5 % divergence). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis confirmed their close phylogenetic relatedness to Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua and more distant relatedness to Listeria welshimeri, L. seeligeri, L. ivanovii and L. grayi. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences for sigB, gap, and prs showed that these isolates form a well-supported sistergroup to L. monocytogenes. The four isolates were sufficiently different from L. monocytogenes and L. innocua by DNA-DNA hybridization to warrant their designation as a new species of the genus Listeria. The four isolates yielded positive reactions in the AccuProbe test that is purported to be specific for L. monocytogenes, did not ferment L-rhamnose, were non-haemolytic on blood agar media, and did not contain a homologue of the L. monocytogenes virulence gene island. On the basis of their phenotypic characteristics and their genotypic distinctiveness from L. monocytogenes and L. innocua, the four isolates should be classified as a new species within the genus Listeria, for which the name Listeria marthii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of L. marthii is FSL S4-120(T) (=ATCC BAA-1595(T) =BEIR NR 9579(T) =CCUG 56148(T)). L. marthii has not been associated with human or animal disease at this time.
( 2009 )
Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4a is a possible evolutionary intermediate between L. monocytogenes serovars 1/2a and 4b and L. innocua.
PMID : 19349748 :
The genus Listeria consists of six closely related species and forms three phylogenetic groups: L. monocytogenes- L. innocua, L. ivanovii-L. seeligeri-L. welshimeri, and L. grayi. In this report, we attempted to examine the evolutionary relationship in the L. monocytogenes-L. innocua group by probing the nucleotide sequences of 23S rRNA and 16S rRNA, and the gene clusters lmo0029-lmo0042, ascBdapE, rplS-infC, and prs-ldh in L. monocytogenes serovars 1/2a, 4a, and 4b, and L. innocua. Additionally, we assessed the status of L. monocytogenes-specific inlA and inlB genes and 10 L. innocua-specific genes in these species/serovars, together with phenotypic characterization by using in vivo and in vitro procedures. The results indicate that L. monocytogenes serovar 4a strains are genetically similar to L. innocua in the lmo0035-lmo0042, ascB-dapE, and rplS-infC regions and also possess L. innocua-specific genes lin0372 and lin1073. Furthermore, both L. monocytogenes serovar 4a and L. innocua exhibit impaired intercellular spread ability and negligible pathogenicity in mouse model. On the other hand, despite resembling L. monocytogenes serovars 1/2a and 4b in having a nearly identical virulence gene cluster, and inlA and inlB genes, these serovar 4a strains differ from serovars 1/2a and 4b by harboring notably altered actA and plcB genes, displaying strong phospholipase activity and subdued in vivo and in vitro virulence. Thus, by possessing many genes common to L. monocytogenes serovars 1/2a and 4b, and sharing many similar gene deletions with L. innocua, L. monocytogenes serovar 4a represents a possible evolutionary intermediate between L. monocytogenes serovars 1/2a and 4b and L. innocua.
( 2009 )
lmo0038 is involved in acid and heat stress responses and specific for Listeria monocytogenes lineages I and II, and Listeria ivanovii.
PMID : 19278345 : DOI : 10.1089/fpd.2008.0207
The genus Listeria comprises two pathogenic species, L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii, as well as four nonpathogenic species, L. innocua, L. weishimeri, L. seeligeri, and L. grayi. Within L. monocytogenes, lineages I and II are responsible for most listeriosis cases, while lineage III strains are rarely associated with human morbidity but providing important clues for Listeria evolution. The gene lmo0038, belonging to the peptidylarginine deiminase family, was involved in the optimal growth under stress conditions, including low pH and heat shock (52 degrees C), and virulence potential. Further, this gene was specific to L. monocytogenes lineages I and II and L. ivanovii with significant similarities at nucleotide and amino acid levels. A novel multiplex PCR, based on lmo0038 in combination with optimized iap migration profiles, was developed for simultaneous identification of Listeria species and discrimination of L. monocytogenes lineage III, with a detection limit down to 1.0-9.0 x 10(2) CFU/mL. This assay was evaluated by 119 suspected Listeria food-related isolates and corrected 4 and 5 misidentifications by Listeria selective agar plate screening and API system, respectively. Therefore, this one-step molecular assay provides a rapid, reliable, and inexpensive screening test to detect Listeria species-particularly, the pathogenic species in surveillance programs concerning food safety and foodborne disease cases.
de Gobbi DD,
Porfida Ferreira TS,
Micke Moreno A,
dos Reis CM,
( 2014 )
Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of atypical Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua isolated from swine slaughterhouses and meat markets.
PMID : 24987702 : DOI : 10.1155/2014/742032 PMC : PMC4058478
In the last decade, atypical Listeria monocytogenes and L. innocua strains have been detected in food and the environment. Because of mutations in the major virulence genes, these strains have different virulence intensities in eukaryotic cells. In this study, we performed phenotypic and genotypic characterization of atypical L. monocytogenes and L. innocua isolates obtained from swine slaughterhouses and meat markets. Forty strains were studied, including isolates of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua with low-hemolytic activity. The isolates were characterized using conventional phenotypic Listeria identification tests and by the detection and analysis of L. monocytogenes-specific genes. Analysis of 16S rRNA was used for the molecular identification of the Listeria species. The L. monocytogenes isolates were positive for all of the virulence genes studied. The atypical L. innocua strains were positive for hly, plcA, and inlC. Mutations in the InlC, InlB, InlA, PI-PLC, PC-PLC, and PrfA proteins were detected in the atypical isolates. Further in vitro and transcriptomic studies are being developed to confirm the role of these mutations in Listeria virulence.
( 1994 )
The virulence regulator protein of Listeria ivanovii is highly homologous to PrfA from Listeria monocytogenes and both belong to the Crp-Fnr family of transcription regulators.
PMID : 7984088 : DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2958.1994.tb00409.x
The two pathogenic Listeria species, L. ivanovii and L. monocytogenes, can be differentiated biochemically and show different host ranges. Virulence of L. monocytogenes is dependent on the integrity of prfA which positively and co-ordinately regulates transcription of several virulence genes. Until now, a prfA homologue had not been identified in L. ivanovii. We have now cloned a chromosomal region from L. ivanovii comprising two genes with high homology to the plcA and prfA genes from L. monocytogenes. Distal from prfA, an open reading frame highly homologous to a phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase gene (prs) was newly identified, defining the border of the virulence gene cluster. Transcription of the gene for ivanolysin O and expression of other genes of the virulence gene cluster in L. ivanovii were dependent on PrfA. The pattern of PrfA-dependent proteins (PdPs) expressed in L. ivanovii was similar, but not identical to that of L. monocytogenes. The PrfA proteins, as predicted from nucleotide sequences of both pathogenic Listeria species, are very similar and show significant homology to the Crp-Fnr family of global transcription regulators.
( 1995 )
The actin-polymerization protein from Listeria ivanovii is a large repeat protein which shows only limited amino acid sequence homology to ActA from Listeria monocytogenes.
PMID : 7705602 : DOI : 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1995.tb07403.x
Within infected eukaryotic cells the two pathogenic Listeria species, L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii, induce polymerization of cellular actin and the formation of a propulsive actin tail at one bacterial pole. For L. monocytogenes it has been shown that the product of the listerial actA gene is required for this process which is regarded as a model for actin-based motility. We have now cloned and sequenced a functionally analogous gene from L. ivanovii; its product, as deduced from the DNA sequence, is considerably larger (108 kDa) than L. monocytogenes ActA (67 kDa) and shares only a limited amino acid sequence homology (46% similarity on average) with the latter protein. This is the first example of a virulence gene product from L. ivanovii which is significantly different from its L. monocytogenes counterpart. Comparison of the two ActA proteins gives new insight into the structure of this class of actin-polymerization proteins, in particular with respect to their proline-rich repeat region.
( 1995 )
iactA of Listeria ivanovii, although distantly related to Listeria monocytogenes actA, restores actin tail formation in an L. monocytogenes actA mutant.
PMID : 7790091 : PMC : PMC173365
A gene homologous to the actA gene of Listeria monocytogenes was cloned from Listeria ivanovii (strain CLIP257) by chromosome walking starting from the ilo gene that encodes the pore-forming toxin ivanolysin. The nucleotide sequence revealed that this gene, named iactA, encodes a protein of 1,044 amino acids (IactA) comprising a central region with seven highly conserved tandem proline-rich repeats of 47 amino acids. Although IactA and ActA share an overall similar structure, these two proteins are only distantly related. Like ActA, IactA migrates aberrantly on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels. When expressed in an L. monocytogenes actA deletion mutant strain, iactA restored actin polymerization.
( 1998 )
A novel PrfA-regulated chromosomal locus, which is specific for Listeria ivanovii, encodes two small, secreted internalins and contributes to virulence in mice.
PMID : 9791184 : DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2958.1998.01076.x
Several large, cell wall-associated internalins and one small, secreted internalin (InlC) have been described previously in Listeria monocytogenes. Using degenerate primers derived from sequenced peptides of an L. ivanovii major secreted protein, we identified a new 4.25 kb internalin locus of L. ivanovii, termed i-inlFE. The two proteins encoded by this locus, i-InlE and i-InlF, belong to the group of small, secreted internalins. Southern blot analyses show that the i-inlFE locus does not occur in L. monocytogenes. These data also indicate that six genes encoding small, secreted internalins are present in L. ivanovii, in contrast to L. monocytogenes, in which inlC encodes the only small internalin. The mature i-InlE protein (198 amino acids) is secreted in large amounts into the brain-heart infusion (BHI) culture medium in the stationary growth phase. In minimum essential medium (MEM), which has been used previously to induce PrfA-dependent gene transcription, i-inlE mRNA and i-InlE protein are expressed at high levels. As shown by Northern blot analysis and primer extension, transcription of the tandemly arranged i-inlF and i-inlE genes is dependent on the virulence regulator PrfA, and characteristic palindromic sequences ('PrfA-boxes') were identified in the promoter regions of i-inlF and i-inlE. Non-polar i-inlE and i-inlF deletion mutants and an i-inlFE double deletion mutant were constructed and tested in the mouse infection model. After intravenous infection, all three mutants entirely failed to kill C57BL/6 mice even at high infectious doses of 109 bacteria per mouse, whereas the LD50 for the parental strain was determined as 4 x 107 bacteria per mouse. These data suggest an important role for i-InlE and i-InlF in L. ivanovii virulence.
( 1998 )
Sequence comparison of the chromosomal regions encompassing the internalin C genes (inlC) of Listeria monocytogenes and L. ivanovii.
PMID : 9491077 : DOI : 10.1007/s004380050638
We have recently cloned and characterized the inlC gene of Listeria monocytogenes which belongs to the listerial internalin multigene family and codes for a 30-kDa secreted protein containing five consecutive leucine-rich repeats. Here, we show that in L. monocytogenes inlC is located between the rplS gene (encoding the 50S ribosomal protein L19), and the infC gene (encoding the translation initiation factor 3). By direct and inverse polymerase chain reactions (PCR), we cloned a 5.4-kb region containing a homologous gene (termed i-inlC) from L. ivanovii, the other pathogenic member of the genus Listeria. In this microorganism, the i-inlC gene is preceded by another internalin gene, i-inlD, which seems to be specific for L. ivanovii, as this gene could not be detected in L. monocytogenes by Southern hybridization with an i-inlD gene probe. The i-inlD gene also encodes a small secretory internalin (i-InlD), which shares extended homology with (i-)InlC. Upstream of i-inlD are genes for 23S rRNA and 5S rRNA, and two tRNA genes [Asn-tDNA (GTT) and Thr-tDNA(GTT)]. The 3' terminus of the Thr-tRNA gene appears to be the site of an insertion of a genetic element including i-inlC and i-inlD. A putative transcriptional regulator gene, the product of which contains the TetR family signature, is located downstream of i-inlC. This chromosomal position of the two inlC genes on their respective chromosomes may be due to horizontal transfer of this gene. Transcription of i-inlC and i-inlD is strictly dependent on the transcriptional activator PrfA, which regulates transcription of most of the known virulence genes (including inlC) of L. monocytogenes and of L. ivanovii.